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机械设计制造及自动化专业毕业设计(论文)1文献翻译1.英文Shapers,DrillingandMillingMachinesAshapersutilizesasinglepointtoolonatoolholdermountedontheendoftheram.Cuttingisgenerallydoneontheforwardstroke.Thetoolisliftedslightlybytheclapperboxtopreventexcessivedragacrossthework,whichisfedunderthetoolduringthereturnstrokeinpreparationforthenextcut.Thecolumnhousestheoperatingmechanismsoftheshaperandalsoservesasamountingunitfortheworksupportingtable.Thetablecanbemovedintwodirectionsmutuallyperpendiculartotheram.Thetoolslideisusedtocontrolthedepthofcutandismanuallyfed.Itcanberotatedthrough90deg,oneithersideofitsnormalverticalposition,whichallowsfeedingthetoolatanangletothesurfaceofthetable.TwotypesofdrivingmechanismsforshapersareamodifiedWhitworthquickreturnmechanismandahydraulicdrive.FortheWhitworthmechanism,themotordrivesthebullgear,whichdrivesacrankarmwithanadjustablecrankpintocontrolthelengthofstroke.Asthebullgearrotates,therockerarmisforcedtoreciprocate,impartingthismotiontotheshaperram.Themotoronahydraulicshaperisusedonlytodrivethehydraulicpump.Theremainderoftheshapermotionsarecontrolledbythedirectionoftheflowofthehydraulicoil.Thecuttingstrokeofthemechanicallydrivenshaperuses220deg.Ofrotationofthebullgear,whilethereturnstrokeuses140deg.Thisgivesacuttingstroketoreturnstrokeratioof1.6to1.Thevelocitydiagramforahydraulicshapershowsthatformostofthetoolduringcuttingstrokeisneverconstant,whilethevelocitydiagramforahydraulicshapershowsthatformostofthecuttingstrokethecuttingspeedisconstant.Thehydraulicshaperhasanaddedadvantageofinfinitelyvariablecuttingspeeds.Theprincipaldisadvantageofthistypeofmachineisthelackofadefinitelimitattheendoftheramstroke,whichmayallowafewthousandthsofaninchvariationinstrokelength.机械设计制造及自动化专业毕业设计(论文)2Aduplicatingdevicethatmakespossiblethereproductionofcontoursfromasheetmetaltemplateisavailable.Thesheetmetaltemplateisusedinconjunctionwithhydrauliccontrol.Uprightdrillingmachinesordrillpressesareavailableinavarietyofsizesandtypes,andareequippedwithasufficientrangeofapindlespeedsandautomaticfeedstofitthenedsofmostindustries.Speedrangesonatypicalmachinearefrom76to2025rpm.,withdrillfeedfrom0.002to0.020in.perrevolutionofthespindle.Radialdrillingmachinesareusedtodrillworkpiecesthataretoolargeorcumbersometoconvenientlymove.Thespindlewiththespeedandfeedchangingmechanismismountedontheradialarmbycombiningthemovementoftheradialarmaroundcolumnandthemovementofthespindleassemblyalongthearm,itispossibletoalignthespindleandthedrilltoanypositionwithinreachofthemachine.Forworkthatistoolargetoconvenientlysupportonthebase,thespindleassemblycanbeswungoutoverthefloorandtheworkpiecesetonthebesidethemachine.Plainradialdrillingmachinesprovideonlyforverticalmovementofthespindleuniversalmachinesallowthespindletoswivelaboutanaxisnormaltotheradialarmandtheradialarmtorotateaboutahorizontalaxis,thuspermittingdrillingatanyangle.Amultispindledrillingmachinehasoneormoreheadsthatdrivethespindlesthroughuniversaljointsandtelescopingsplinedshafts.Allspindlesareusuallydrivenbythesamemotorandfedsimultaneouslytodrillthedesirednumberofholes.Inmostmachineseachspindleisheldinanadjustableplatesothatitcanbemovedrelativetotheothers.Theareacoveredbyadjacentspindlesoverlapsothatthemachinecanbesettodrillholesatanylocationwithinitsrange.Themillingoperationinvolvesmetalremovalwitharotatingcutter.Itincludesremovalofmetalfromthesurfaceofaworkspiece,enlargingholes,andformcutting,suchasthreadsandgearteeth.Withinankneeandcolumntypeofmillingmachinethecolumnisthemainsupportingmemberfortheothercomponents,andincludesthebasecontainingthedrivemotor,thespindle,andthecutters.Thecutterismountedonanarborheldinthespindle,andsupportedonitsouterextremitybyabearingintheoverarm.Thekneeisheldonthecolumnin机械设计制造及自动化专业毕业设计(论文)3dovetailslots,thesaddleisfastenedtothekneeindovetailslots,andthetableisattachedtothesaddle.Thus,thebuildupthekneeandcolumnmachineprovidesthreemotionsrelativetothecutter.Afourmotionmaybeprovidedbyswivelingthetablearoundaverticalaxisprovidedonthesaddle.Fixedbedmillingmachinesaredesignedtoprovidemorerigiditythanthekneeandcolumntype.Thetableismounteddirectlyonthemachinebase,whichprovidestherigiditynecessaryforabsorbingheavycuttingload,andallowsonlylongitudinalmotiontothetable.Verticalmotionisobtainedbymovingtheentirecuttinghead.Tracermillingischaracterizedbycoordinatedorsynchronizedmovementsofeitherthepathsofthecutterandtracingelements,orthepathsoftheworkpieceandmodel.Inatypicaltracermillthetracingfingerfollowtheshapeofthemasterpattern,andthecutterheadsduplicatethetracermotion.Thefollowingaregeneraldesignconsiderationsformilling1.Whereverpossible,thepartshouldbedesignedsothatamaximumnumberofsurfacescanbemilledfromonesetting.2.Designfortheuseofmultiplecutterstomillseveralsurfacessimultaneously.3.Thelargestflatsurfacewillbemilledfirst,sothatalldimensionsarebestreferredtosuchsurface.4.Squareinsidecornersarenotpossible,sincethecutterrotates.GrindingMachinesandSpecialMetalremovalProcessRandompointcuttingtoolsincludeabrasivesintheshapeofawheel,bondedtoabelt,astick,orsimplysuspendedinliquid.Thegrindingprocessisofextremeimportanceinproductionworkforseveralreasons.1.Itismostcommonmethodforcuttinghardenedtoolsteelorotherheattreatedsteel.Partsarefirstmachinedintheunheattreatedcondition,andthengroundtothedesireddimensionsandsurfacefinish.2.Itcanprovidesurfacefinishto0.5µmwithoutextremecost.3.Thegrindingoperationcanassureaccuratedimensionsinarelativelyshorttime,sincemachinesarebuilttoprovidemotionsinincrementsoftenthousandthsofaninch,insteadofthousandthsasis机械设计制造及自动化专业毕业设计(论文)4commoninothermachines.4.Extremelysmallandthinpartscanbefinishedbythismethod,sincelightpressureisusedandthetendencyfortheparttodeflectawayfromthecutterisminimized.Onacylindricalgrindingmachinethegrindingwheelrotatesbetween5500and6500rpm.,whiletheworkrotatesbetween60and125rpm...Thedepthofcutiscontrolledbymovingthewheelhead,whichincludesboththewheelanditsdrivemotor.Coolantsareprovidedtoreduceheatdistortionandtoremovechipsandabrasivedust.Materialremovalfromductilematerialscanbeaccomplishedbyusingatoolwhichisharderthantheworkpiece.HoweverduringWordWarⅡthewidespreaduseofmaterialswhichwereashardorharderthancuttingtoolscreatedademandfornewmaterialremovalmethods.Sincethenanumberofprocesseshavebeendevelopedwhich,althoughrelativelyslowandcostly,caneffectivelyremoveexcessmaterialinapreciseandrepeatablefashion.Therearetwotypesofprocesses.Thefirsttypeisbasedonelectricalphenomenaandisusedprimarilyforhardmaterialstheseconddependsuponchemicaldissolution.Chemicalmillingiscontrolledetchingprocessusingstrongalkalineoracidetchants.Aluminum,titanium,magnesium,andsteelaretheprincipalmetalsprocessedbythismethod.Theareatoremainuntouchedbytheetchantaremaskedwithaprotectivecoating.Forexample,theentirepartmaybedippedinthemaskingmaterialandthemaskremovedfromthoseareastobeetched,orachemicallyresistantprescribedtime,afterwhichthepartisrinsedincoldwater,themaskingremoved,thepartinspected,andthoroughlycleaned.Therearecertaindisadvantagestoconsider.Metalwillerodeequallyinalldirections,sothatwallsoftheetchedsectionwillhavearadiusequaltothedepthofetch.Aseconddisadvantageisthatabetterfinishisobtainedonsurfacesparalleltothedirectionofrollingofasheetthanonsurfaceperpendiculartothedirectionofrolling.Thiscanbecomparedtothesurfaceobtainedwhenworkingwoodparallelto,oracrossthegrain.Athirddisadvantage,notuniquewiththisprocess,isthewarpagethatwilloccurinthin,previouslystressedsectionsetchedonjustoneside.
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