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外文翻译-仓库管理系统 WMS.doc外文翻译-仓库管理系统 WMS.doc -- 5 元

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英文原文WarehouseManagementSystemsWMS.TheevolutionofwarehousemanagementsystemsWMSisverysimilartothatofmanyothersoftwaresolutions.Initiallyasystemtocontrolmovementandstorageofmaterialswithinawarehouse,theroleofWMSisexpandingtoincludinglightmanufacturing,transportationmanagement,ordermanagement,andcompleteaccountingsystems.Tousethegrandfatherofoperationsrelatedsoftware,MRP,asacomparison,materialrequirementsplanningMRPstartedasasystemforplanningrawmaterialrequirementsinamanufacturingenvironment.SoonMRPevolvedintomanufacturingresourceplanningMRPII,whichtookthebasicMRPsystemandaddedschedulingandcapacityplanninglogic.EventuallyMRPIIevolvedintoenterpriseresourceplanningERP,incorporatingalltheMRPIIfunctionalitywithfullfinancialsandcustomerandvendormanagementfunctionality.Now,whetherWMSevolvingintoawarehousefocusedERPsystemisagoodthingornotisuptodebate.WhatisclearisthattheexpansionoftheoverlapinfunctionalitybetweenWarehouseManagementSystems,EnterpriseResourcePlanning,DistributionRequirementsPlanning,TransportationManagementSystems,SupplyChainPlanning,AdvancedPlanningandScheduling,andManufacturingExecutionSystemswillonlyincreasethelevelofconfusionamongcompanieslookingforsoftwaresolutionsfortheiroperations.EventhoughWMScontinuestogainaddedfunctionality,theinitialcorefunctionalityofaWMShasnotreallychanged.TheprimarypurposeofaWMSistocontrolthemovementandstorageofmaterialswithinanoperationandprocesstheassociatedtransactions.Directedpicking,directedreplenishment,anddirectedputawayarethekeytoWMS.ThedetailedsetupandprocessingwithinaWMScanvarysignificantlyfromonesoftwarevendortoanother,howeverthebasiclogicwilluseacombinationofitem,location,quantity,unitofmeasure,andorderinformationtodeterminewheretostock,wheretopick,andinwhatsequencetoperformtheseoperations.Atabareminimum,aWMSshouldHaveaflexiblelocationsystem.Utilizeuserdefinedparameterstodirectwarehousetasksanduselivedocumentstoexecutethesetasks.Havesomebuiltinlevelofintegrationwithdatacollectiondevices.DoYouReallyNeedWMSNoteverywarehouseneedsaWMS.CertainlyanywarehousecouldbenefitfromsomeofthefunctionalitybutisthebenefitgreatenoughtojustifytheinitialandongoingcostsassociatedwithWMSWarehouseManagementSystemsarebig,complex,dataintensive,applications.Theytendtorequirealotofinitialsetup,alotofsystemresourcestorun,andalotofongoingdatamanagementtocontinuetorun.Thatsright,youneedtomanageyourwarehousemanagementsystem.Oftentimes,largeoperationswillendupcreatinganewISdepartmentwiththesoleresponsibilityofmanagingtheWMS.TheClaimsWMSwillreduceinventoryWMSwillreducelaborcostsWMSwillincreasestoragecapacityWMSwillincreasecustomerserviceWMSwillincreaseinventoryaccuracyTheRealityTheimplementationofaWMSalongwithautomateddatacollectionwilllikelygiveyouincreasesinaccuracy,reductioninlaborcostsprovidedthelaborrequiredtomaintainthesystemislessthanthelaborsavedonthewarehousefloor,andagreaterabilitytoservicethecustomerbyreducingcycletimes.Expectationsofinventoryreductionandincreasedstoragecapacityarelesslikely.Whileincreasedaccuracyandefficienciesinthereceivingprocessmayreducethelevelofsafetystockrequired,theimpactofthisreductionwilllikelybenegligibleincomparisontooverallinventorylevels.Thepredominantfactorsthatcontrolinventorylevelsarelotsizing,leadtimes,anddemandvariability.ItisunlikelythataWMSwillhaveasignificantimpactonanyofthesefactors.AndwhileaWMScertainlyprovidesthetoolsformoreorganizedstoragewhichmayresultinincreasedstoragecapacity,thisimprovementwillberelativetojusthowsloppyyourpreWMSprocesseswere.Beyondlaborefficiencies,thedeterminingfactorsindecidingtoimplementaWMStendtobemoreoftenassociatedwiththeneedtodosomethingtoserviceyourcustomersthatyourcurrentsystemdoesnotsupportordoesnotsupportwellsuchasfirstinfirstout,crossdocking,automatedpickreplenishment,wavepicking,lottracking,yardmanagement,automateddatacollection,automatedmaterialhandlingequipment,etc.SetupThesetuprequirementsofWMScanbeextensive.Thecharacteristicsofeachitemandlocationmustbemaintainedeitheratthedetaillevelorbygroupingsimilaritemsandlocationsintocategories.Anexampleofitemcharacteristicsatthedetaillevelwouldincludeexactdimensionsandweightofeachitemineachunitofmeasuretheitemisstockedeach,cases,pallets,etcaswellasinformationsuchaswhetheritcanbemixedwithotheritemsinalocation,whetheritisrackable,maxstackheight,maxquantityperlocation,hazardclassifications,finishedgoodsorrawmaterial,fastversusslowmover,etc.Althoughsomeoperationswillneedtosetupeachitemthisway,mostoperationswillbenefitbycreatinggroupsofsimilarproducts.Forexample,ifyouareadistributorofmusicCDsyouwouldcreategroupsforsingleCDs,anddoubleCDs,maintainingthedetaileddimensionandweightinformationatthegrouplevelandonlyneedingtoattachthegroupcodetoeachitem.YouwouldlikelyneedtomaintaindetailedinformationonspecialitemssuchasboxedsetsorCDsinspecialpackaging.Youwouldalsocreategroupsforthedifferenttypesoflocationswithinyourwarehouse.AnexamplewouldbetocreatethreedifferentgroupsP1,P2,P3forthethreedifferentsizedforwardpickinglocationsyouuseforyourCDpicking.YouthensetupthequantityofsingleCDsthatwillfitinaP1,P2,andP3location,quantityofdoubleCDsthatfitinaP1,P2,P3locationetc.Youwouldlikelyalsobesettingupcasequantities,andpalletquantitiesofeachCDgroupandquantitiesofcasesandpalletspereachreservestoragelocationgroup.Ifthissoundssimple,itiswellsortof.Inrealitymostoperationshaveamuchmorediverseproductmixandwillrequiremuchmoresystemsetup.Andsettingupthephysicalcharacteristicsoftheproductandlocationsisonlypartofthepicture.Youhavesetupenoughsothatthesystemknowswhereaproductcanfitandhowmanywillfitinthatlocation.Younowneedtosetuptheinformationneededtoletthesystemdecideexactlywhichlocationtopickfrom,replenishfrom/to,andputawayto,andinwhatsequencetheseeventsshouldoccurrememberWMSisallaboutdirectedmovement.Youdothisbyassigningspecificlogictothevariouscombinationsofitem/order/quantity/locationinformationthatwilloccur.BelowIhavelistedsomeofthelogicusedindeterminingactuallocationsandsequences.LocationSequence.Thisisthesimplestlogicyousimplydefineaflowthroughyourwarehouseandassignasequencenumbertoeachlocation.Inorderpickingthisisusedtosequenceyourpickstoflowthroughthewarehouse,inputawaythelogicwouldlookforthefirstlocationinthesequenceinwhichtheproductwouldfit.ZoneLogic.Bybreakingdownyourstoragelocationsintozonesyoucandirectpicking,putaway,orreplenishmenttoorfromspecificareasofyourwarehouse.Sincezonelogiconlydesignatesanarea,youwillneedtocombinethiswithsomeothertypeoflogictodetermineexactlocationwithinthezone.FixedLocation.Logicusespredeterminedfixedlocationsperiteminpicking,putaway,andreplenishment.Fixedlocationsaremostoftenusedastheprimarypickinglocationinpiecepickandcasepickoperations,however,theycanalsobeusedforsecondarystorage.RandomLocation.Sincecomputerscannotbetrulyrandomnorwouldyouwantthemtobethetermrandomlocationisalittlemisleading.Randomlocationsgenerallyrefertoareaswhereproductsarenotstoredindesignatedfixedlocations.Likezonelogic,youwillneedsomeadditionallogictodetermineexactlocations.FirstinfirstoutFIFO.Directspickingfromtheoldestinventoryfirst.LastinfirstoutLIFO.OppositeofFIFO.Ididntthinktherewereanyrealapplicationsforthislogicuntilavisitortomysitesentanemaildescribingtheiroperationthatdistributesperishablegoodsdomesticallyandoverseas.TheyuseLIFOfortheiroverseascustomersbecauseoflongerintransittimesandFIFOfortheirdomesticcustomers.Picktoclear.Logicdirectspickingtothelocationswiththesmallestquantitiesonhand.Thislogicisgreatforspaceutilization.ReservedLocations.Thisisusedwhenyouwanttopredeterminespecificlocationstoputawaytoorpickfrom.Anapplicationforreservedlocationswouldbecrossdocking,whereyoumayspecifycertainquantitiesofaninboundshipmentbemovedtospecificoutboundstaginglocationsordirectlytoanawaitingoutboundtrailer.MaximizeCube.CubelogicisfoundinmostWMSsystemshoweveritisseldomused.Cubelogicbasicallyusesunitdimensionstocalculatecubecubicinchesperunitandthencomparesthistothecubecapacityofthelocationtodeterminehowmuchwillfit.Nowiftheunitsarecapableofbeingstackedintothelocationinamannerthatfillseverycubicinchofspaceinthelocation,cubelogicwillwork.Sincethisrarelyhappensintherealworld,cubelogictendstobeimpractical.Consolidate.Lookstoseeifthereisalreadyalocationwiththesameproductstoredinitwithavailablecapacity.Mayalsocreateadditionalmovestoconsolidatelikeproductstoredinmultiplelocations.LotSequence.Usedforpickingorreplenishment,thiswillusethelotnumberorlotdatetodeterminelocationstopickfromorreplenishfrom.Itsverycommontocombinemultiplelogicmethodstodeterminethebestlocation.Forexampleyoumaychosetousepicktoclearlogicwithinfirstinfirstoutlogicwhentherearemultiplelocationswiththesamereceiptdate.Youalsomaychangethelogicbaseduponcurrentworkload.Duringbusyperiodsyoumaychoselogicthatoptimizesproductivitywhileduringslowerperiodsyouswitchtologicthatoptimizesspaceutilization.OtherFunctionality/Considerations
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