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法学外文翻译--中华人民共和国的刑事责任劳动安全行为.doc法学外文翻译--中华人民共和国的刑事责任劳动安全行为.doc -- 5 元

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法学外文翻译温州姜原文一CopyrightI2004WashingtonUniversityWashingtonUniversityGlobalStudiesLawReviewCRIMINALLIABILITYFORLABORSAFETYVIOLATIONSINTHEPEOPLESREPUBLICOFCHINANAMEJohnBalzanoSUMMARY...Chinasworkershavefallenonhardtimes....OnescholarcommentsthatChinas1994LaborLawseemstoreflectwarmerfeelingsonthepartoftheChinesegovernmentwithregardtocivilliabilityinthecontextoflaborandemploymentlaw....Thetoolsthatoneneedstoanalyzehowthecriminallawcanbeusedtopunishlaborsafetyviolationsaresimplytounderstandthegeneralprovisionsofthecriminallawondolusspecialismensrea,theconceptofcriminalliabilityforacorporationorotherlegalentity,andtheactusreusforthespecificcrimes....Whatemergesfromtheseprovisionsascitedaboveisthatwhenasafetyaccident1occurs,2resultsindeath,injury,orsevereconsequences,3isduetoviolationsthathadalreadybeenpointedoutbytheauthoritiesortheemployeesofthecorporation,and4issevere,thencriminalliabilityshallattachforthosepersonnelwhoaredirectlyzhijieresponsibleforitsoccurrence....Intheend,successmaydependonthetheorychosen,andthewillingnessoftheprocuratorandjudgetoallowanegligencetheoryinalaborsafetyviolationcase....KEYWORDScriminalLiabilitylaborsafetyviolationsTEXTB.IntroductionChinasworkershavefallenonhardtimes.InthePeoplesRepublicofChinasPRCsnewsocialistmarketeconomyStateownedenterprises,whichcurrentlyemployaboutsixtypercentoftheurbanpopulation,havebeenforcedtolayoffworkerstocompetewiththeemergingprivatesectorandinternationalconglomerates.ChinascholarshaverecentlydevotedmuchattentiontothesadstateofChineseworkers,tellingtalesofinefficientsocialinsuranceandrampantunemployment.Somescholarshavefounditalmostimpossibletocountthenumbersofurbanunemployedintheworldsmostpopulousnation.Moreover,toaddinjurytoinsult,thereareproblemsinsidethefactoryaswell.TheChinesegovernmenthascomeunderconsiderablepressuretodealwiththegrowingnumberofindustrialaccidents,resultingdeaths,anduncountablelaborlawviolationsthatplagueanationvigorouslytryingtoconformitslawstoWTOstandardswithinthenextseveralyears.Indeed,thereisagrowingrealizationthatChinafacesamassivechallengeinbringingitslaborstandardsuptocodefortheWTO,especiallywhiletryingtomakeanalreadyfailingStatesectorinternationallycompetitive.Overthepasttwentyyears,Chinahasenactedanumberoflaborlawsandregulationsaimedatdealingwithlaborsafetyproblems.7Mostimportantly,thePRCenactedalaborlawin1994,andsincethen,theprovincesandotherassortedjurisdictionshavedoneaconsiderableamountoflegislatingatthelocallevelonlaborstandardsandsafety.Atthattime,scholarswereoptimisticthatthisprofuselaborlegislationwouldworktofixsomeofthelaborissuesthathavebeenpilingupsincethebeginningofthereformerain1978.Unfortunately,Chinasworkersarenotmuchsaferandhappierthantheywerebefore.ThiscontinuingproblemleadsonetoquestionhoweffectivetheMinistryofLaborandSocialSecurityMOLSSandtheChinesecourtshavebeenatenforcingthisgrowingbodyoflaborandemploymentlaw.Alsorelevanttothisdiscussion,isthequestionofhowmanyofthelaborsafetyviolationsinhighlyindustrializedareasareactuallyuncoveredintimetopreventaccidentsandsavelives.Theanswer,unfortunately,isveryfew.ItseemsthenthatChinaslaborlawprovidesforanineffectivesystemforsupervisinganddeterringproductionoperationsfromengaginginillegalandunsafelaborpractices.Inlightoftheseriousdeficienciesinthecurrentcivilandadministrativelegalmechanismsavailablefortheenforcementoflaborsafetyviolations,thisNotewillarguethatthePRCshouldstrengthenexistingcriminalpenaltiesanddeterrentsforviolatinglaborsafetylaws.Morespecifically,theChineseGovernmentmustconsiderrefiningandmorefrequentlyutilizingsomeoftheprovisionsintheLaborLawandtheCriminalCodetobringaboutamoreeffectivesystemofcriminalenforcementofthelaborlaw,establishmoreformidabledeterrentsformanagersandworkersinenterprisesinboththepublicandprivatesector,andpromoteasafeworkplace.ThisNotewillarguethatthiskindofreformshouldincludemoredefinedmensrearequirements,criminalliabilityformanagersintheenterpriseorlegalentity,andcriminalliabilityforsafetyviolationswhichcreateaseriousrisk,buthavenotyetcausedaseriousaccident.B.TheHistoryofLaborLawinthePRCUntiltheenactmentofthe1994LaborLaw,thePRChadnocomprehensivelaborlawotherthanasetofregulations,whichweredraftedbythethenMinistryofLaborwithintheStateCouncil.Infact,thegrowthoftheconceptoflaborrightsascodifiedinthe1994lawhasbeenalongtimeinthemaking,althoughthecelebrationoftheworkerinChinesesocietywasimportantthroughouttheearlierpartofthecommunistera.Indeed,theestablishmentoftheChineseCommunistPartyintheearly1920scenturybroughtaworkersmovementtolifethatprevailedthroughouttheMaoEra.ThismovementgatheredmomentumduringtheCulturalRevolution19651969whentheworkerswereoneofthegroups,whichwereactiveinmanyofthenewmovementsyundongthattorethroughChinesesociety.Then,withthedeathofMaoZeDonginthelate1970sandthebeginningofthereformeraunderDengXiaoPing,theplaceofworkersinthePRCbegantofall.Dengsmarketreformsbroughtaboutanewprivatesector,whichcreatedcompetitionfortheenormous,inefficientStateenterprises,andtheworkerswerehitfromtwoangles.First,intheprivatesectorlaborwasnolongerprotectedbytheState,oratleastnottothesameextentthatitwasunderMaoscommandeconomy.Second,duetochangingeconomicconditionsandthegrowthofamarketeconomyinChina,theStatesectorbegantosufferandtolayoffworkers.Also,workersintheStatesectorwerenolongerprotectedandprovidedfortothesameextentthattheywereunderMaosIronRiceBowldatiewan.Thegapbetweentherichandthepoorgrewfast,andthegapbetweeneasternandwesternpartsofthePRCbegantoappearmorepronouncedaswell.Thus,asChinaseconomicsituationchanged,theworkersbegantofindthemselvesjoblessandsubjecttonewchallengesinamorecompetitivemarketenvironment.B.DomesticLaborReformDengsmarketreformsalsobroughtaboutagreatdealoflegalreform.The1980ssawaconsiderableamountoflawmaking,whichhasonlyincreasedinthe1990s.Withthisproliferationoflegislation,governmentalorganshavefoundthemselveswithmoreofaroletoplayinthepolicyprocess.Intermsoflaborlegislation,therehasbeenparticipationfromalllevels.TheNationalPeoplesCongressNPCenactedtheLaborLawin1994,andsincethen,theMinistryoftheLaborandSocialSecurityandthelocalPeoplesCongresseshaveallbecomeinvolvedinsupplementingtheLaborLawbydraftingadministrativeandproceduralregulations.Theresultofallofthislegislationisaseeminglycompletesystemoflaborlawandenforcement.However,therehasbeenlesssuccessintermsofhoweffectivethenationalandlocalgovernments,andadministrativeagencieshavebeenatimplementingthisgrowingbodyoflawandregulations.C.ChinaJoinstheWorldInternationalInfluenceonChinasLaborLawReformsCoupledwithdomesticsupportforlegalreformistheinfluenceofmanyoftheinternationalorganizationsthatChinahasjoinedorwilljoin.Indeed,ChinahasbecomeamuchmoreproactivememberoftheinternationalcommunitysincethebeginningoftheDengerainthelate1980s.Certainly,ChinasimpendingentryintotheWTOhashadanextraordinaryinfluenceoverthelegislationpromulgatedinthelasttenyears.Withregardtolabor,theinfluenceoftheinternationalcommunity,particularlytheInternationalLaborOrganizationILO,isquiteapparentinthe1994LaborLaw.However,aspreviouslymentioned,theproblemisnottheamountoflegislation,or,forthemostpart,itssubstantivecontent,butrathertheeffectiveenforcementofthesenewlawsandregulations.II.LegalMechanismsforResolvingDisputesandEnforcingLaborLawA.TheCivilLawandDisputeResolutionThePRCLaborLawprovidesforthesettlementofdisputesthroughoneofthreewaysmediation,arbitrationzhongcai,andlitigationsusong.Thelastoptionoflitigation,however,isonlyavailableafterthepartiestothelabordisputehavegonethroughthearbitrationprocess.Thesemethodsofdisputeresolutionconstituteamechanismfortheworkertoseekredressforhergrievances,suchascontractdisputes,throughthecivillaw.OnescholarcommentsthatChinas1994LaborLawseemstoreflectwarmerfeelingsonthepartoftheChinesegovernmentwithregardtocivilliabilityinthecontextoflaborandemploymentlaw.TheLaborLawdoesincludequiteafewcivilremediesforworkersseekingreliefforvariousproblemsrelatingtowagesandbreachofcontract.Inactuality,however,littlereliefhasbeenaffordedtoworkers,whodecidetousethecivillawtosolvetheirproblems.Instead,aworkerwhosuesmaynotonlylosethesuit,butmayalsoloseherjoborfaceretributionfromheremployer.B.CriminalPenaltiesTherearealsoremediesavailableunderthecriminallawforcertainmoreseriousviolationsoftheLaborLawandrelevantregulations.RegardlessoftheprovisionsoftheLaborLawthatmentioncriminalliability,anycriminalliabilityrelatingtotheworkplaceortheworkerisliabilitycompletelyunderthePRCCriminalLawanditsprovisions.Inotherwords,theLaborLawdoesnotitselfcriminalizebehavior,thecriminallawdoes.ThereareseveralprovisionsintheCriminalLaw,whichcorrespondormatchdirectlywithsimilarprovisionsinthechapterentitledLegalLiabilityintheLaborLaw.Indeed,criminalliabilitymaybeimposedinthefollowingareassafetyprotection,prohibitionofchildlabor,protectionofthepersonalanddemocraticrightsofthelaborersforcedlabor,andmaintaininganadequateinspectionsystem.ThereisonefinalrequirementforintersectionsbetweentheLaborLawandtheCriminalLawtoarisethecircumstancesmustbeespeciallysevereqingjieyanzhong.Thetoolsthatoneneedstoanalyzehowthecriminallawcanbeusedtopunishlaborsafetyviolationsaresimplytounderstandthegeneralprovisionsofthecriminallawondolusspecialismensrea,theconceptofcriminalliabilityforacorporationorotherlegalentity,andtheactusreusforthespecificcrimes.Beginningwiththeactusreusoflaborrelatedcrimes,Articles134137coverlaborrelatedaccidentsundertheheadingofCrimesthatInfringeonthePublicSafety.Themensreaformostofthesecrimesisassumedlynegligence,andtheaccidentcausedmustbeseverezhongda.Whilethepersonneldirectlyresponsiblefortheactusreusmaybepunishedwitheitherimprisonmentorafine.Whatemergesfromtheseprovisionsascitedaboveisthatwhenasafetyaccident1occurs,2resultsindeath,injury,orsevereconsequences,3isduetoviolationsthathadalreadybeenpointedoutbytheauthoritiesortheemployeesofthecorporation,and4issevere,thencriminalliabilityshallattachforthosepersonnelwhoaredirectlyzhijieresponsibleforitsoccurrence.Theprovisionsdonotspecificallymentionpunishingtheenterpriseitselfthroughafineorbyhaltingitsoperations.ThepunishmentforpersonnelunderthecircumstancesinArticles13437isuptothreeyearsinprison,andunderparticularlyseverecircumstances,threetosevenyearsinprison.InordertofullyanalyzethissituationundertheCriminalLawandmakeaproposalastohowitshouldbeamendedorreinterpreted,itwillbenecessarytoconsidereachoneoftheseelementsseparatelyandthenincombinationwithoneanother.Thismethodologywillparseoutthestrengthsandweaknessesinthelaw.III.TheSpecificsofCriminalSanctionsforLaborSafetyViolationsA.TheAccidentMustHaveAlreadyOccurredTheffecttofrequiringthattheaccidentmustoccurandmustinvolvesomesortofdeath,injury,orothersevereresultisthatitprecludesliabilityforrecklessendangermentofworkersorpreaccidentcirmcumstancesthatcreateaveryhighdegreeofrisk.Also,iftheaccidentonlyinvolvesasmallorunseriousconsequence,then,absentsomesortofminorcriminalsanctionsuchasafine,thelawmayproffernoincentiveforacorporationtofixtheproblemandtherebyavoidalargerormoreseriousaccidentinthefuture.B.TheAccidentMustbeDuetoViolationsAlreadyPointedOutThiselementclearlyshowsthattheremustbeactualknowledgeofthesafetyviolationonthepartofthoseinchargeandthereforerulesoutimputedknowledge.Withoutthepossibilityofprosecutionforimputedknowledge,managersandpersonnelwillhavelittleincentivetoinspect
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