六西格玛的基本术语

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1、6 綠綠 帶帶 介介 紹紹Introduction to 6 Green Belt Content1. 6 Quality System -Why need2. 6 - Overview3. 6 - Methodology3.1. 6 - Define3.2. 6 - Measure3.3. 6 - Analysis3.4. 6 - Improve3.5. 6 - Control4. Conclusion 1. 6 Quality System -Why need 1.1. 從產品飽受競爭威脅的觀點從產品飽受競爭威脅的觀點以美國為例, 1975-1985年,日本挾其反向技術反向技術(Rever

2、sed Technology)優勢,將其高品質的產品推向美洲大陸,使得美國一向以經濟與技術領先的盟主地位發生動搖。在1970-1989年間美國的市場佔有率: 電視機從50%降至2% 收音機從50%降至2% 汽車從78%降至28% 影印機從90%降至20% 照相機從90%降至5% 鋼鐵從40%降至30% 其結果造成美國貿易赤字每月高達80-100億美元美國與日本製程能力之比較 年代 美國 日本 製程能力 品質水準 製程能力 品質水準 1970 0.67 2 1.00 3 1980初 4 1980中 4 5 1980末 1990初 Motorola 6方法: 不合格率3.4PPM 相當於 6 美國

3、企業競爭力衰退的原因美國企業競爭力衰退的原因 美國管理文化中含有不信任的氣氛不信任的氣氛,這種表現在嚴格的審核、管制、檢查的管理制度上,無形造成過度的管理成本上漲。這種管理監督的作風,大體受到泰勒式科學管理泰勒式科學管理影響的結果。 日本經營之神松下幸之助在一次對美國企業界人士發表演說,提到:你們的公司經營是以泰勒法則為基礎,更糟的是頭腦皆已泰勒化,因此堅信正確的管理,應是管理者在一邊,工人在另一邊,一邊的人只管思考,另一邊的只管工作。給你們一句忠告:管理是執行者將觀管理是執行者將觀念轉移到員工身上的一種藝術念轉移到員工身上的一種藝術。 因此美國開始檢討其品質,各種品質系統亦相繼提出,其中包含

4、6 品質系統品質系統。 1.2. 由需求的觀點由需求的觀點 在70年代,產品達到2 便達到標準。 在80年代,品質要求已提升至3 ,但此標準美國會發生以下事件: 每年有每年有20,000次配錯藥事件次配錯藥事件 每年有超過每年有超過15,000個嬰兒出生時會個嬰兒出生時會 被拋落地上被拋落地上 每年平均有每年平均有9小時沒有水、電、暖小時沒有水、電、暖氣供應氣供應 每星期有每星期有500宗做錯手術事件宗做錯手術事件 雖然3 合格率已達到99.73%的水平,但相信各位對以上品質要求並不滿意。所以有很多公司已要求6 的品質管理,其合格品率為99.99966%。 在3 水準,由由1000個零件組成的

5、產品中個零件組成的產品中,每每15個產品中只有個產品中只有1個產品是好的。在個產品是好的。在6 水準則水準則1000個產品卻有個產品卻有996.6好的。好的。 傳統以百分率百分率水準作為設計品質水準,如今變更為以百萬分率百萬分率(ppm)作為衡量品質的水準。 1.3. 從成本的觀點從成本的觀點 1.4. 從時代趨勢的觀點從時代趨勢的觀點(1)時間經濟附加價值開端成長成熟衰退典型的產品生命週期 1.4. 從時代趨勢的觀點從時代趨勢的觀點(2)經濟附加價值大型電腦主機迷你電腦與微電腦個人電腦掌上型電腦、電子書網路電視、GPS、行動電話電腦晶片的生命週期1947 1985 1990 2000 1.4

6、. 從時代趨勢的觀點從時代趨勢的觀點(3)全球化與經濟附加價值農業時代工業時代資訊時代?時代時間與主要的技術時代6000BC 1760 1950 2000 1.5. 從品管大師的觀點從品管大師的觀點 J. M. Juran, 1994年在美國品質管理學會年會會上說,“20世紀以生產力的世紀載世紀以生產力的世紀載入史冊入史冊, 未來未來21世紀是品質的世紀世紀是品質的世紀” 1.6. 從策點管理的觀點從策點管理的觀點 欲建立及維持組織競爭優勢,欲建立及維持組織競爭優勢,效率效率、創創新新、品質品質及顧客回應及顧客回應扮演著主要角色。扮演著主要角色。較佳的效率較佳的效率競爭優勢競爭優勢低成本低成本

7、差異化差異化較佳的創新較佳的創新較佳的品質較佳的品質較佳的顧客回應較佳的顧客回應 1.7. 從近代品質系統的觀點從近代品質系統的觀點 ISO-9000 Effectiveness: 5 QS-9000 Effectiveness: 10 Malcolm Baldrige Guideline Effectiveness: 25 European Quality Award Effectiveness: 30 TQM Effectiveness:35 6 -The Little Q Effectiveness: 50 The Ultimate 6 -The Big Q Effectiveness:

8、 90 (上述品質系統均於上述品質系統均於80年代末期開展出年代末期開展出) 6 & The Ultimate 6 將是一趨勢將是一趨勢 2. 6 Overview 6 , the way to create profit.SigmaImproveCustomer Satisfaction&Profits increaseDefectsDecreasecostsDecrease 6 History (1)Something must be wrong1975Motorola TV business failed due to poor profit and sold to a

9、Japanese CompanyAssign corporate quality offices1980Corporate movement “Great Quality Awakening” program1981Focus on Quality and Total Customer Satisfaction (TCS) 6 History (2)Establish Motorola Training & Education Center1981Launch Quality System Review (QSR) program19825 years, 10 Quality impr

10、ovement goal set6 theory and concept initialized1986Bill Smith & Mikel Harry presented the idea to CEO Galvin 6 History (3)Quantitative Operation Quality Initiative1987Motorola Texas InstrumentBusiness-wide Strategic Management1995Nokia, GE, Allied Signal, Hitachi, Panasonic, Sony, Whirlpool, Ho

11、neywell, Boeing, Dupont 6 Innovation Modeling(3c-customer, competitor, company)(3e-excitation, employment, entertainment)(3p-product, process, person)Innovation BoxChange of Business Situation (3C)Object (3P)Method (3E)Purpose. Profit. Skill-Up The Many Aspects of 6 ToolSymbolMetricMethodValueGoalVi

12、sionBenchmarkPhilosophy 6 as a Metric-The high level of sigma, the lower the probability of producing a defect.Spec. LimitTarget LimitSome Chanceof Defect 3 Spec. LimitTarget LimitMuch Less Chanceof Defect 6 6 as a Metric1691,5002308,537366,80746,210523363.4 (Shifted 1.5 )From 3 process to 6 process

13、: about 20,000 times improvement6 DPMO 如何如何 6 導入導入 一般來說,從從3 到到4 階段階段,是企業可以自行改善的範圍以自行改善的範圍,但這樣的品質標準並沒有辦法讓企業變得很有競爭力; 從從4 到到5 階段階段,就必須找尋可以學習學習的標竿企業的標竿企業(Benchmarking),當成比較與學習的對象;而而5 到到6 階段時,品階段時,品質就已經不是製造出來的,而是設計出質就已經不是製造出來的,而是設計出來的來的(DFSS-Design for Six Sigma)。 6 Activity 6 activity is to find out cri

14、tical factors to quality (CTQ) at customers point of view and to reduce the defects less than 3.4 DPMO(PPM).LSLUSL ? DefectM6 in R&D6 in MFG.CompanyCustomerCustomerCTQVOCVOB6 3.4 DPMONew Std.3 66800 DPMOPast Std. How Do We Improve Process Capability? Increase the tolerance Decrease the spread or

15、 variation of the process Shift the average by: Centering the average if the spec. has two limits Decrease or increase the average for spec. with one limit The Cost Opportunity1.5 2 3 4 5 6 051015202530About 15% of Sales, Cost Opportunity on 3 CompanyCost of Failure(% of Sales) The Cost of Poor Qual

16、ity (COPQ)Long Cycle Times, More Setups, Expediting Costs, Lost Sales, Engineering Change order, Overtime, Late delivery, Lost Opportunity,Lost Customer Loyalty, Excess InventoryRejects, Warranty, Inspection, Scrap, Rework Who is Implementing 6 Motorola1987 Texas Instrument1988 ABB (Asea Brown Bover

17、i)1993 Allied Signal1995 General Electric1995 Kodak1995 Siemens, Nokia, Sony1997 6 Benefits(Case 1) -Motorola over 12 yrs Increase productivity an average of 12.3% per year Reduced the cost of poor quality by more than 84% Eliminated 99.7% of in process defects Save more than $11billion in manufactu

18、ring cost Realized an average annual compounded growth rate of 17% in earnings 6 Benefits(Case 2)General Electric(Million Dollars) Cost Profit1996240, 2001997400, 7001998450, 12001999520, 25202000600, 3000 6 Benefits( Case 3)Texas InstrumentsBefore (1988)After (1993)COPQ30%7%DPMO1040009000Scrap$3M$0

19、.3MYield84.5%98.9%Cycle Time (Week)114Inventory Cost$3.9M$1.1M The Focus of 6 If we are perfectly control X, should we constantly test and inspect Y?Y = f (X)YX1X2X3X4X1、X2、XnIndependentInput-ProcessCauseProblemControlYDependentOutputEffectSymptomMonitor 6 is Applying Overall Business SystemR&D6

20、 Trans-actionMfgDesign SSManufacturing SSTransactional SS 6 MethodologyMeasureAnalyzeDesignVerifyMeasureAnalyzeImproveControlDefineTranslateYNNew Process/ Product ?Achievable Goal ?NY What is different with 6 Traditional Quality6 Central OrganizedNot Formal Structure for Tool ApplicationLack of Supp

21、ort in using ToolsLack of Structured TrainingInspect Quality in (Focus on “Y”)Black Belt Report Directly Into FunctionStructured Use of Statistical Tools to Aid Problem SolvingData-Based DecisionsStructured Training in Applied StatisticsControl Process Input (Xs) 6 Organization6 OrganizationExecutiv

22、e Project Selection and Support6 Technical Lead6 Coach Project &BB6 Project Team Lead6 Project Team MemberAll staffs (6 overview) ChampionMaster Black Belt(MBB)Black Belt (BB)Green Belt(GB)White Belt(WB) 3. 6 Methodology 5 Stage of DMADV and New Tools- Design For Six Sigma (DFSS)- Black Belt 5 S

23、tage of DMAIC methodology - Green Belt3.1. DMAIC Methodology5 Stages DMAIC Methodology and Statistical Tools Phase: Define Steps; Work Breakdown & Tool D1 Validate Business Opportunity; 3C Analysis, Identify Customer, Cost/Effect Analysis D2 Define Customer Requirement; VOC, VOB, QFD D3 Project

24、Planning; Project Team, Project Charter, COPQ Define Steps (1)VisionBusiness StrategyBig Y (CTQ)Small y -Project(Goal, Scope, Performance Index) Define Steps (2-1)Vision:最具競爭力的企業最具競爭力的企業(GE)Strategy-The Three Circle (GE)核心事業核心事業照明照明大型家電大型家電馬達馬達高科技事業高科技事業醫療系統醫療系統工業電子工業電子航太航太服務事業服務事業信用公司信用公司資訊服務資訊服務核能

25、服務核能服務 Define Steps (2-2) -The Three Circle (GE) Jack Welch (GES CEO)畫三個圓圈:畫三個圓圈:核心、高科技與服務。核心、高科技與服務。GE公司未來都要公司未來都要在其中一個圓圈內。公司任何人不再任在其中一個圓圈內。公司任何人不再任一個圓圈內者,未來將會被解雇。圓圈一個圓圈內者,未來將會被解雇。圓圈外的的事業將被整頓、關閉或出售。三外的的事業將被整頓、關閉或出售。三個圓圈的策略讓個圓圈的策略讓GE公司找到焦點,不再公司找到焦點,不再是集團是集團(似乎什麼都做似乎什麼都做)。 Define Steps (3)Select Targ

26、etProduct/ServiceAnalysis BusinessProcessAnalysis Core ProcessIdentifyCustomerListen to VOCSpecify CustomerRequirementSelect CTQ(Big Y)Specify CTQ(Small Y)Evaluate PotentialProjectsSelect Project & Build Effective Team Define Steps (4) CTQ - Critical to Quality只要是顧客要求的,就是關鍵品質只要是顧客要求的,就是關鍵品質(CTQ)

27、。亦稱為重要成果、特殊限制或流程的Y變數。CTQ係任係任何會直接影響顧客對產品何會直接影響顧客對產品/服務品質觀感服務品質觀感之因素之因素。顧客顧客在乎在乎的事,就是企業的事,就是企業或組織在乎的事或組織在乎的事。新點子新點子要採納要採納外部觀點外部觀點(Outside-in Perspective),即從顧客的眼光來看企業或組織的一切。即從顧客的眼光來看企業或組織的一切。3.2. DMAIC Methodology5 Stages DMAIC Methodology and Statistical Tools Phase: Measure Steps; Work Breakdown &

28、; Tool M1 Specify Project; CTQ Tree, Process Map, Performance Index M2 Assess Measurement System; Measurement System Analysis, Gage R&R M3 Identify Sigma Level; Graph Analysis, Capability Analysis, Confidence Interval M1 Specify Project M1 step covers the followings:CTQ BreakdownDefine ScopeProc

29、ess Mapping Pareto AnalysisDefine performance index and specificationsThe success of any 6 activities relies mostly on the CTQ definition and selection Define Performance IndexCustomer RequirementsInternal ProcessImprovedProcessCustomer SatisfactionIndex of current levelIndex of improved levelPerfor

30、m project for improvement ClearQuantifiableSimple Example of Performance IndexYieldCycle time Defect rateMachine failure rateCustomer stand-by hoursNumber of invoice errorsElapse Time from loan application to money transfer to the customer accountHours taken from receiving order to delivery to the c

31、ustomerM2 Measurement System Analysis M2 step covers the followings:Statistic fundamentalsSampling planData collection planVariation of measurement systemGage R&R studyImprovement of measurement systemWithout accurate measure, cant identify any symptom of problem 6 MetricsData TypeStatistic meas

32、urement dataComparison to specificationZ-valueDiscrete DataContinuousDataDefect unit opportunity (DPMO)Average, Standard variation, ShapeSPECZ-valueSigma calculation Definition of DPMO terminology DPU: Defect per Unit (Defect: Anything that results in customer dissatisfaction; Anything that results

33、in nonconformance) DPO: Defect per Opportunity DPMO: Defect per Million Opportunities Example of Sigma calculation: Discrete Data Case (1): Over the last several years, you have collected data on trips to the airport. Of the 100 trips sampled, you have missed only 5 flights. If you indicate this sit

34、uation as Sigma level, what will it be? Sol. DPU = DPO =5/100 = 0.05 1-0.05 = 0.95, Z = 1.65 level = Z + 1.5 =1.65 + 1.5 = 3.15Case (2). An accounting term conducted an internal audit for the financial report of year 2001 and they observed 25 nonconforming record. There were 2 steps of probable inco

35、rrect entry identified in the process and the total observation was 25,000 records. What is DPO? What is DPMO? What is Sigma level of financial reporting process? Sol. DPU = 25/25000, DPO = 25/(2*25000) =0.002, DPMO = 0.002*106 =20001- 0.002 = 0.998,Z = 2.878 level = Z + 1.5 = 2.878 + 1.5 = 4.378 Ex

36、ample of Sigma calculation: Continuous Data(1)1 MeanMedianMode 70 80 90 100 110 120 130+ - Normal Distribution with mean = 100 and std. = 10 Continuous Data(2)(1) Mathematical Model;(2) Continuous;(3) Smooth;(4) Symmetrical; (5)Tail asymptotic to X-axis;(6) Bell shaped;(7) Mean = Median = Mode (8) T

37、otal area under curve = 1(1) The normal distribution has the following properties.68.27% of the data fall within 1 95.45% of the data fall within 2 99.73% of the data fall within 3 (2) In order to assess the quality of the process, we must compare the process characteristics (via the location, sprea

38、d and shape) to the specification limits and targeted value. Continuous Data(3)Standardization of Normal Distribution The Sigma of a Process is the number of standard deviation between the mean and the Specification Limits.1 Z = (X- )/ No. of standard deviationUSLSigma of the process Z = 4.5 Measure

39、ment System and Measurement Error(1) Measurement system is viewing as a process. Sources of variation: 5M1E Validate possible sources of variation in the measurement processP ersonnelM ac hinesM aterialsM ethodsM easurem entsE nvironm entC a u s e -a n d -E ffe c t D ia g ra mVariation in measuremen

40、tSystem Measurement System and Measurement Error(2)Averagem (Total) = m (Product) + m(Measurement)Variabilitys2 (Total) = s2 (Product) + s2(Measurement)Deflection of measurement system(To be decided by calibration)Variation of measurement system(To be decided by R&R assessment) Process VarianceO

41、bserved Process VariationActual Process VariationMeasurement VariationLong term process variationShort term process variationVariation within a sampleVariation due to operatorsVariation due to gageReproducibilityLinearityStabilityRepeatabilityAccuracy Gage R&R Analysis Types of Gage R&R Anal

42、ysis MethodologyX bar- R MethodANOVATypes of Variation estimation by the Gage R&REquipment Variation: EVAppraiser (Operator): AV GR&R Decision and Improvement Direction Gage R&R Decision Criteria %GR&R 10% (Good measurement system) 10% %GR&R 30% (May be used) %GR&R 30% (Can n

43、ot used) Gage improvement directionFor repeatability error reproducibility error (Need to taken an action to operator)For reproducibility error repeatability error (Need to taken an action to gage) M3 Identify Sigma Level M3 step covers the followings:Data stratificationGraphical cause eliminationUn

44、derstand product capability and product performanceCalculate current sigma level Graphical AnalysisRun Chart Scatter Diagram Box PlotHistogram Changes to the process may be more easily recognized graphically than tabularly. Understanding Variation What is Variation? Different outcome of a process or

45、 result of a product or service Measurement index scattered from center value Variation will be appeared in every process and the target of improvement is to reduce its variations Why a variation might be occurred? By a common cause By a special cause 5M1EWhat impacts will be happened if a variation

46、 become big? Can not predict/ forecast outcomes Occur re-inspection and/ or rework Delay schedule Increase customer dissatisfaction Short-Term/Long-Term RelationshipsInherent Capability of the Process-Short Term CapabilitySustained Performance of the Process-Long Term PerformanceOver time, a “typica

47、l” process will shift and drift by approximately 1.5 Product Capability(Cp) Cp = |USL-LSL| / 6st ; Zst = 3 Cp Capability Index(Cpk) Cpu = min (Cpu, Cpl),Where Cpu = (USL-)/3st;Cpl = (-LSL)/3st;Zst = 3 Cpk Performance Index(Cpk) Cpk = min (Cpu, Cpl),Where Cpu = (USL-)/3lt;Cpl = (-LSL)/3lt;Zst = 3 Cpk

48、3.3. DMAIC Methodology5 Stages DMAIC Methodology and Statistical Tools Phase: Analysis Steps; Work Breakdown & Tool A1 Set up Improvement Goal; Benchmarking, Entitlement, KANO A2 Identify Potential Causes; Pareto, Brainstorming, Cause & Effect Diagram, Logic Tree A3 Verify Potential Causes;

49、Regression, Hypothesis Test, ANVOA, Multi-Vari Analysis A1 Set Up Improvement GoalIn M3 the current product capabilities were defined.Step A1 provides the tools to define performance objectives. The purpose is to set objective to establish a balance between improving customer satisfaction and availa

50、ble resources. A1 step covers following topics:Establish performance goalsAssess short-term and long-term sigma in terms of measurement benefits (decrease in COPQ, increase in revenue)Determine improvement direction by the gap analysis between goal and current level Paths to Performance GoalsPerform

51、anceGoalsProcess Improvement(Entitlement)Process Change(Breakthrough)BaselineProcess Measurement Benchmarking - Why Benchmark (1)?InnovationContinuous ImprovementBreakthrough ImprovementContinuous ImprovementTimePerformance Benchmarking - Why Benchmark (2)?Develop and Improvement Strategic GoalsEsta

52、blish actionable objectivesProvide sense of urgencyEncourage breakthrough thinkingCreate a better understanding of your industry A2 Identify Potential Causes Finding main independent variables, and making the listY = f (X) ObjectMake list of potential independent variables for changing & improvi

53、ng Y value methods Brainstorming Cause & Effect Diagram Multi-voting Logic Tree Cause & Effect DiagramPersonnelMachinesMaterialsMethodsMeasurementsEnvironmentCause-and-Effect DiagramVariation in measurementSystem A3 Verify Potential Causes OverviewIn step A3, setting a possible priority as t

54、o their importance to the potential variables (Xs) identified in step A2 PurposeGeneral a list of important factors (vital few) from the potential variables.Y = f (x1,x2,x3) (x4,x5,.,xn)Vital FewTrivial Many Pareto AnalysisRottenBruisedUndersizedOthers235100 87 1953.322.719.7 4.3 53.3 76.0 95.7100.0

55、050100150200250300350400450020406080100DefectCountPercentCum %PercentCountPareto Chart for CATEGORIES Correlation AnalysisA statistical analysis to investigate / measurement of association between two variables (X, Y) is called analysis.Correlation tells you the trend of Y when X value increase/decr

56、ease.Correlation Analysis using Scatter Diagram Analysis.Correlation coefficient indicates closeness of a relationship between X and Y. Regression Analysis (1)Y = f (x1, x2, x3,)Status and characteristics of a processModelingMathematical equationXY Regression Analysis (2) Types of Regression ModelSi

57、mple linear regressionMultiple linear regressionNon-linear regressionY = f(X)Y: dependent variableX: independent variable Types of Hypothesis TestTypes of DataDiscrete DataContinuous DataMean Testt TestANOVAVariance TestF TestChi- Square3.4. DMAIC Methodology5 Stages DMAIC Methodology and Statistica

58、l Tools Phase: Improve Steps; Work Breakdown & Tool I1 Identify Vital Few; Screening DOE, Streamlining, Force Field Analysis I2 Formulate Optimum Model; Optimizing DOE(RSM), Solution Selection Matrix I3 Set Up Operating Window; Operating Window, Responsibility Matrix I1 Identify Vital FewIn anal

59、ysis step, potential Xs were identified with a possible prioritization as to their importance in controlling Y. Improve step provides tools to explore and uncover the vital Xs and how much impact each X has on the response Y.One of the major tools used for both exploration and confirmation of the ef

60、fect of Xs on the Ys is experimental design (DOE). By experimentally manipulating the independent variables, DOE provides an efficient and economical means for reaching valid and relevant conclusions about a process. Types of Experimental DesignScreening Full factorial 2K factorial Fractional factor

61、ialOptimization Multi-level experiments Composite design Response surface method I2 Formulate Optimum ModelThe vital few important Xs were identified and characterized in I1. The tools in I2 follow a methodology for establishing levels of these Xs that will provide improved performance for the Y.3.5

62、. DMAIC Methodology5 Stages DMAIC Methodology and Statistical Tools Phase: Control Steps; Work Breakdown & Tool C1 Identify Control Capability; Gage R&R, Capability Study, Gap Analysis C2 Establish Control Plan; Control Plan, Control Chart C3 Link to Management System; Control System, Six Si

63、gma Audit 4. 結語結語 (1) 6 是一以統計為基礎之品質是一以統計為基礎之品質系統系統, 目的在使目的在使企業或組織的產品企業或組織的產品/服務品質達到近於完美服務品質達到近於完美的境界的境界.盡量減少決策過程中的盡量減少決策過程中的“人為因人為因素素”(Human Element).成功取決於成功取決於一致性一致性(Consistency)-Vision, Business Strategy, Specify Project, and any 6 Activities. 6 品質品質系統猶系統猶“舊酒裝新瓶舊酒裝新瓶”,但有較強的但有較強的結構性結構性.其中其中,更強化更強化I

64、E&M的角色與重要性的角色與重要性,非 其 他非 其 他 品 質品 質 系 統 所 能 比 擬系 統 所 能 比 擬 . 4. 結語結語 (2) 學習學習(Learning) 、價值觀價值觀(Value)與與創新創新(Innovation)為企業思想的核心為企業思想的核心, 其凌駕其凌駕階級與傳統之上階級與傳統之上. 以以學習建立自信學習建立自信, 有勇有勇氣嘗試氣嘗試,有勇氣追求與動手做以前認為不有勇氣追求與動手做以前認為不可能的事可能的事. 一旦達成自我實現後一旦達成自我實現後, 學習這學習這個重要觀念就站上價值觀的中央舞台上個重要觀念就站上價值觀的中央舞台上.持續學習持續學習,並將其轉化為行動的欲望與並將其轉化為行動的欲望與能力能力. 4. 結語結語 (3) 外部觀點外部觀點(Outside-in Perspective) ,由外由外向內看是一個很重要的想法向內看是一個很重要的想法,強迫自己每強迫自己每件事都由外向內看件事都由外向內看.以過程為導向以過程為導向,持續持續不斷改進不斷改進,滿足顧客的需求與期望滿足顧客的需求與期望,顧客顧客把一切看在眼底把一切看在眼底.我們無法將任何事隱藏我們無法將任何事隱藏著不讓顧客看到著不讓顧客看到,必須讓每一員工都必須讓每一員工都關心顧客關心顧客.報報 告告 完完 畢畢敬敬 請請 指指 教教萬萬 分分 謝謝 謝謝

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