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毕业设计(论文)-数控铣床的设计.doc

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毕业设计(论文)-数控铣床的设计.doc

毕业设计说明书I摘要由于我们所学的专业是机械设计制造及其自动化,为了能够体现该专业的优越性,本次设计的主导思想是用电器控制机械加工,使机械和设计紧密地结合起来。此次毕业设计课题是简易数控铣床的设计。在这次毕业设计中,我一面着手搞好这次毕业设计,一面又有计划地复习前面所学过的基础知识。从而使我对以前的基础知识掌握得更牢固,而且培养了我解决问题的能力。在这次毕业设计中,我紧扣设计题目,查阅有关技术资料,并在老师的指导和帮助下,完成了数控铣床的设计及相关的电器控制。但由于本人能力、水平有限,仍存在着一些错误,希望老师给予批评指正。最后,我在此向在本次设计中付出了辛勤劳动的指导老师表示由衷的谢意。关键词机械加工电器数控铣床毕业设计说明书IIAbstractDuetoourmajoriselectromechanicalintegration,inordertobeabletoreflecttheprofessionalsuperiority,thedesignguidingideologyistousetheelectriccontrolmechanicalprocessing,makethemechanicalandelectricalcloselytogether.Inthegraduationdesign,whileIbegindoeswellthisgraduationdesign,thefrontsideandsystematicallyreviewlearnedthebasicknowledge.ThusthebasicknowledgeofbeforeIacquirefirmer,anddevelopedmyabilitytosolveproblems.Inthegraduationdesign,Igrippingdesigntopic,consultrelevanttechnicaldata,andtheteachersguidanceandhelp,completedtheCNCmillingmachinedesignandrelevantelectriccontrol.ButbecauseIability,limitedability,stillhassomemistakes,hopetheteachertogiveanimadversioncorrect.Finally,Iamheretointhisdesignworkedhardlaborguideteachersayawordofheartythanks.KeywordsmechanicalprocessingelectricCNCmillingmachine毕业设计说明书III目录摘要...................................................................................................................................IAbstract.................................................................................................................................II绪论1X52K型数控铣床主传动系统的运动设计...................................错误未定义书签。1.1主传动系统技术参数的确定................................................错误未定义书签。1.2主传动系统的方案论证........................................................................................11.2.1主轴变速范围.....................................................................................................11.2.2初步确定传动方案.............................................................................................21.2.3绘制结构图.........................................................................................................21.2.4拟定转速图.........................................................................................................31.2.5齿轮齿数的确定.................................................................................................41.2.6校验齿轮碰齿问题.............................................................................................51.2.7校主轴转速误差.................................................................................................61.3主传动系统的结构设计........................................................................................71.3.1主传动的布局......................................................................................................81.3.2齿轮的轴向布置..................................................................................................82机床主要零件的设计..................................................................................................102.1确定主电动机的功率和传动件的计算转速......................................................102.2传动轴的计算......................................................................................................102.2.1传动轴直径的估算...........................................................................................102.2.2各轴传递的功率及轴径估算..........................................................................112.3主轴轴径的计算..................................................................................................122.4直齿圆柱齿轮强度计算.......................................................................................122.4.1齿轮模数的估算...............................................................................................122.4.2齿轮结构尺寸计算...........................................................................................132.4.3确定齿轮齿宽B................................................................................................142.4.4确定各传动轴之间的中心距............................................................................143主传动系的结构设计..................................................................................................153.1结构分析................................................................................错误未定义书签。毕业设计说明书IV3.2主轴组件轴承类型..............................................................................................153.2.1主轴轴承类型...................................................................................................153.2.2主轴材料及热处理...........................................................................................153.2.3主轴的工作性能..............................................................................................153.2.4主轴组件的密封、润滑...................................................................................153.3主传动系的变速操纵机构..................................................................................163.4主传动系的润滑系统..........................................................................................163.4.1润滑方式的选择...............................................................................................163.4.2润滑油的选择...................................................................................................164进给机构的计算设计...................................................................................................174.1概述......................................................................................................................174.2滚珠丝杠的选用设计..........................................................................................174.3步进电机的选取..................................................................................................184.3.1纵向(y方向)步进电机的选取....................................................................184.3.2横向(x方向)步进电机的选取....................................................................195概述...............................................................................................................................205.1机床介绍...........................................................................................................205.1.1X52K简易数控机床程控系统的硬件结构......................................................2068031单片机及应用简介..............................................................................................227数控铣床存储器的扩充...............................................................................................237.1外部扩充存储器结构..........................................................................................237.2存储器的地址分配..............................................................................................238简易数控铣床的IO设备及其接口............................................................................248.1简易数控铣床所用的输入设备..........................................................................248.2IO接口.............................................................................................................248.38155的RAM和IO编址......................................................................................248.4简易数控铣床的选址逻辑..................................................................................24毕业设计说明书V9在步进电机驱动中应用的斩波电路...........................................................................269.1PWM式单波性斩波器的工作原理..........................................................................269.2PWM式单波性斩波器的电路工作波形.................................................................2710简易数控铣床的自动控制软件系统...........................................................................2910.1简易数控铣床工作台(x或y方向)前进、后退程序....................................2910.1.1程序框图............................................................................................................2910.1.2程序清单............................................................................................................2910.1.3三相六拍方式工作输出代码表.......................................................................3010.2步进电机正转一步子程序..................................................................................3010.2.1程序框图...........................................................................................................3010.2.2程序清单...........................................................................................................3010.3步进电机反转一步子程序..................................................................................3110.3.1程序框图...........................................................................................................3110.3.2程序清单...........................................................................................................3111键盘操作.......................................................................................................................3211.1编程键的种类.......................................................................................................3211.2各编程键的作用、功能......................................................................................3211.3指示灯...................................................................................................................3212MCS51单电机定时控制逻辑.....................................................................................3312.时钟电路................................................................................................................3312.复位电路................................................................................................................3313结论34致谢................................................................................................................................35参考文献............................................................................................................................36毕业设计说明书VI绪论毕业设计是教学计划的重要组成部分,机械制造及自动化专业的毕业设计应以工程设计为主。工程设计是依据开发、研制方案的要求,以科学技术原理为指导,运用已学科学技术知识和实践经验进行构思,使开发、研制方案物化的过程。因此,工程设计是将技术原理转化为技术成果的桥梁,科学可行的设计是科技发明及其成果转变为现实生产力的前提,设计是工程的本质与核心。毕业设计任务的确定首先要考虑教学要求,同时兼顾社会需求。毕业设计要在规定时间内完成,并且要在指导教师的指导下由学生独立完成。①培养学生综合运用多学科的理论知识与技能,解决具有一定复杂程度的工程实际问题的能力。②培养学生严肃认真的科学态度和严谨求实的工作作风。③培养学生优良的思想品质,勇于实践、勇于探索和开拓创新的科学精神,有益于学生综合素质的全面提高。④培养学生树立正确的设计思想和掌握现代设计方法。⑤对学生掌握的知识面进行全面考核。包括掌握知识的深度、运用理论解决实际问题的能力、实验能力、外语水平、计算机运用水平、书面及口头表达能力。毕业设计成果可直接或间接为经济建设服务,为生产科研服务,为社会服务。毕业设计说明书11X52K型数控铣床主传动系统的运动设计1.1主传动系统技术参数的确定(1)选择标准公比的一般原则由于本次设计的X52K型铣床属大批、大量生产的专门化机床,其标准公比应取小一些。在此次设计中,公比1.26(2)在本设计中,加工对象是宽度为16㎜的盘形凸轮槽,工件材料为45#钢。(3)道具材料是高速钢,道具直径16㎜。(4)查阅机械加工工艺手册得pa8㎜ea16㎜fa0.2㎜由此知铣削力ZFpxFyFFFfwFZgFwFocaaaZKdn6397.81N(5)已知主电机功率5.5kw铣床主轴maxn1100minrminn90minr1.2主传动系统的方案论证1.2.1主轴变速范围nRmaxminnn12.671.26查取minn90~maxn1120共12级转速901121401802242803554505607109001120nR12.67>12满足转速范围要求

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