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英语专业毕业论文-中西文化的称谓语差异.doc

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英语专业毕业论文-中西文化的称谓语差异.doc

江西理工大学本科毕业论文TheDifferencesofAddressFormsinEnglishandChineseandtheirCultureConnotation学院TheFacultyofForeignStudy专业English班级Class071学生姓名指导教师江西理工大学2011届本科生毕业设计论文1摘要称谓语是发话人用来称呼交际对方的用语,它是一种语言现象,但其功能远不仅如此。称谓语的使用,反应出特定的社会现象和文化内涵。中国拥有五千多年的悠久历史,中国发展至今,保留着大量的称谓语,这些称谓语都反应了一个时代的特征和文化内涵。如今,随着中国的对外开放以及加入WTO,中国与外界的联系也越来越密切、深入、广泛。同时,中国的现代化发展也使中国在国际上的地位日渐提高,影响力逐渐扩大,全世界开始关注中国,并开始研究和学习中国语言。然而英语仍然是世界通用语言,大多数的发达国家都是英语系国家,因此我们很有必要学习其先进的文化、知识和技术。本文通过收集、归纳中英称谓语,研究和学习中英称谓语的差异,分析其反映的文化内涵,从而达到学习双方文化的目的,利于双方文化交流沟通。关键词称谓语差异文化内涵江西理工大学2011届本科生毕业设计论文2AbstractAddressformsarethelanguagesusedbythespeakerstocalltheotherpeopleofaconversation.Theyarethephenomenaoflanguage,buttheyhavemuchmorefunctions.Addressformsreflecttheparticularsocialphenomenonandcultureconnotation.Chinahasalonghistoryofmorethan5000years.Tillnow,thereexistagreatnumberofaddressforms.Theseaddressformsallreflectthecharacteristicsofanageandthecultureconnotation.Nowadays,withtheChineseopeningtotheoutsideandjoiningintoWTO,itrelateswiththeoutsideworldmoreclosely,moredeeply,morecomprehensively,atthemeantime,thedevelopmentofChinesemodernizationimprovesChinesestatusgraduallyovertheworld,andChineseinfluencesbecomewider.AllthecountriesovertheworldstarttopayattentiontoChina,andstarttostudyandlearnChineselanguage.ButEnglishisstillthecommonusedlanguageovertheworld,andthelanguageofthemostdevelopedcountriesisEnglish.Soitsquitenecessaryforustolearntheiradvancedcultures,knowledge,technologies.ThisthesisfocusoncollectingtheaddressformsofEnglishandChinese,studyingandlearningthedifferences,andanalyzingthecultureconnotationreflectedinthem.Soastoreachthegoaloflearningtheculturesofbothsides,andmaketheexchangingandcommunicationsofdifferentculturesmoreconveniently.KeywordsAddressformsDifferencesCultureconnotation江西理工大学2011届本科生毕业设计论文3ChapterIIntroductionLanguageisacarrierofculture,anditalsoreflectsonecountrysculturalcharacteristics.Addressformisanelementoflanguageandaveryimportantbaseofcommunication.Itsproperuseisthefoundationofmaintainingpeoplesconvenientcommunication.WiththedevelopmentoftheworldandtherisingofChina,thecommunicationsbetweentheculturesofChinaandwesterncountriesbecomemoreandmore.HowtoresearchandstudytheproperuseofaddressformswillplayanimportantroleinthecommunicationsbetweentheChinesecultureandwesternculture.Atpresent,lotsofexpertsandscholarshavestudiedthetopicandmanybooksandpapershavewrittenthetopic,theseworksaremainlyemphasizingontheaddressformsinChineseandEnglish,andthedifferencesbetweentwolanguages.Theseworksarecomprehensiveandtheyhaveachievedgreatsuccesses.Thistopicinthisthesisarebasedonpredecessorsworks,andthepurposeofwritingthisthesisistoraisemyownviewsandideasonaddressforms.Besidesthepredecessorsworks,thisthesiswillalsoraisethegeneralizationandwesternizationofChineseforms.Thedevelopmentofsocietybringspeoplenewideaandnewmind,andlotsoftraditionaladdressformschangetheiroriginalmeaningswiththetimegoing.Also,withtherapidproccedingofInternetandinformationtech,alotofnewaddressformshavebeencreatedandusedinourdailylife.Meanwhile,afterChinasentryintoWTO,culturesofwesterncountriesflowintoChinaandaffectevenimpactChinesecultureandpeoplesmind,peoplestarttoadjusttheirlifeincludingaddressformstoaccordwiththeinternationalstandards.SoitisquitenecessarytoanalysethephenomenaofgeneralizationandwesternizationofChineseaddressforms,andfindouttheorigin.Itwillhelpustounderstandourownhistoryandculture,thentheworld.江西理工大学2011届本科生毕业设计论文4ChapterIIThedefinitionofaddressformandthefunctions2.1.DefinitionAccordingtotheexplanationinModernChineseDictionary,addressformreferstothenamesbasedonthekinshiporotherrelationsamongthepeopleandpeoplesstatusesandprofessions.Addressformreflectslanguage,anditalsoreflectsthesocialcultures.Inanylanguages,addressformplaysanimportantroleinsocialintercourses.Thetheoryofsociolinguisticsputsthattheuseofaddressformshouldbelimitedintheframeofethnicculture.Andtheaddressformdependsontherelationsofsimilarityordissimilarity,therelationsofascendance,coherencerelationsandotherrelations.Itshouldproperlyrecognizetherelationsamongtherolesinparticularsituations.Itshouldalsoobeythebehavioralnormsofspeechrolesexpectedbythesociety.Addressformcanbepartedintwobrancheskinshipaddressformandsocialaddressform.2.2.FunctionsIninterpersonalcommunications,addressformsconsistofthreeaspectsaddressformsforbothsidesofcommunication,addressformsforspeakersown,andaddressformsforothers.JoshuaFishmanraisedthetheoryofregisterintheresearchofsociolinguistics.Heputtheuseofaddressformsintofiveregistersfamilyregister,friendregister,religionregister,educationregister,workregister.Fishmanconsidersthatpeoplecanchoosetheaddressformsindifferentsituationsbasedonthefiveregisters.Theauthorthinksthatthefunctionsofaddressformsaretomaintainthecoherenceofspeechesandclearanceofmeaningsandtomakethepropagationsofinformationbetweencommunicativesidesmorefluentlyandconveniently.Thefeaturesareasfollowing1Addressformshelptobuildnewhumanrelations,expressthewilltogetclose,orjustbeusedasanaddressforms,orexpressthewilltobeaway.Forexample,onthecallingofnames,twostrangersmeetwitheachotherforthefirsttime,andonegetstoknowtheotheronesnameisZhangXiaojun,whenhecallsXiaoJun,itwilllettheotheronefeelsfamiliar.Itreflectshewantstogetclosetotheotheroneanduseaproperstrategy.2Addressformsadjusttheoldhumanrelationitcanmaketheoriginalrelationscloserorremoterorkeepthemstill.Fromthefollowingconversation,wecanseethatdifferentusesofaddressformsreflectbothsidesmentalactivitiesingeniously,andimplytheirwillingstoadjusttheoriginalrelation.E.g.AgentlemansaystoaladyDarling,forgivemethistime,okTheladyanswersNowayChenZhongqing,IwontbefoolagainIntheconversation,thetwopeoplechoosedifferentaddressforms,andreflecttheirdifferentaimstoadjusttheoriginalrelation.ThehusbanduseDarlingaveryfamiliaraddressform.Hisaimisquiteclear,hetriestogetclosetohiswife,andprayfortheforgiveness,whilethewifechoosethefullnametocallthehusbandinorderto江西理工大学2011届本科生毕业设计论文5keepdistance,evenmaketheoriginalrelationremoter,andshowshermentalactivityofnoncooperationandrefusetoacceptherhusbandsapology.ChapterIIIThedifferencesofkinshipaddressformsinEnglishandChineseandtheircultureconnotation3.1.ThedefinitionofkinshipaddressformsKinshipaddressformsrefertothenamesthatdefinethekinmembersandprinciplesrelationscenteredontheprinciple.Kinshipaddressformsarethenamesorcallingsamongrelativesbasedonconsanguinityandaffinity.Kinshipaddressformsarethemarkscenteredontheprincipletodefinetherelationsamongrelativesandprinciple.Accordingtotheconsanguinityandaffinityrelations,theauthorcollectsandclassifiesthekinshipaddressformsusuallyusedinourdailylife.ConsanguinityChineseEnglish丈夫husband妻子wife父亲father母亲mother儿子son女儿daughter哥哥、弟弟brother姐姐、妹妹sister祖父、外祖父grandfather祖母、外祖母grandmother孙子、外孙grandson孙女、外孙女granddaughter伯父、叔父、舅舅、姑父、姨父uncle侄子、外甥nephew伯母、婶母、舅母、姑母、姨母aunt侄女、外甥女niece堂兄弟姐妹、表兄弟姐妹cousinAffinityChineseEnglish公公、岳父fatherinlaw婆婆、岳母motherinlaw女婿soninlaw儿媳daughterinlaw大伯、小叔、内兄、内弟、姐夫、妹夫brotherinlaw大姑、小姑、大姨、小姨、嫂子、弟媳妇sisterinlaw江西理工大学2011届本科生毕业设计论文63.2.KinshipaddressformsinChinesearemorecomplexthanthoseinEnglishWhyChinesekinshipaddressformsaremorecomplex.First,itistheetiquettetraditionofChineseculture.TheChinesenationwasreputedasacivilizednationandastateofceremoniesintheworld.Thesystemofetiquettehasformedandhighlydevelopedmanythousandyearsago,anditcombinedwiththeConfucianidealslater.Itsaffluencesandbondingforcesbecamemorecomprehensiveandwider.Soinsuchaetiquettesociety,thecultureofetiquettebecomesomature.Theremustbecomplexaddressformstocomplywiththem.Second,itisbecauseournationhadbeeninthefeudalsocietyforalonghistory,andtheunitofsocialcommunityisfamilyorclan.Sothepowerofclanisverystrong.Intheclan,thecloseanddistantrelationsareclassifiedbylevelsstrictly,andthedistinctionsofinternalandexternalrelativesareveryclear.Solotsofinterrelatedaddressformsappearedandwereclassifiedindetail.Meanwhile,theaddressformsinEnglisharequitesimple.Afewwordscancoverlotsofthem.BritishetiquettecultureformedmanythousandyearslaterthanChinese,andaftertheRenaissance,somebooksofetiquetteappearedinthewesterncountries,butthetheyonlyfocusedonteachingpeoplehowtohavearefinedwayofspeakingandgoodmannersandtobegentle.Theseetiquetteprinciplesarejustsomedecorationsandembellishesforthesuperclasssociety.TheyarenotlikewhattheChineseancientancestorsrecognizedtheetiquetteasthefoundationtorunthecountrywellandgivethepeoplepeaceandsecurity.Sotheetiquetteprinciplesarenotsocomprehensive,systematic,detailedasChineseones.Eventhoughthewesterncountriesalsowentthroughthefeudalsociety,andtherewereserfdomandthefeudalPatrilinealclansystem,butaftertheRenaissanceandtheindustryrevolution,westernlegalsystemsteppedintoanewperiod.Theideaoffreedom,equalityandfraternityspreadeverywhere,andundertheaffluencesoflegalsystem,theaddressformsofconsanguinityandaffinityinEnglisharesimplerthanthosequitecommonforustoseeinChinese.SoaddressformsinChinesearemorecomplex.3.3.KinshipaddressformsinChineseemphasizethepositionwhilethoseinEnglishdonotKinshipaddressformsinChineseemphasizethepositionandeldersandjuniorsareeachintheirplaces.Kinshipaddressformsshouldrecognizetheexactpositionofoneamongthebrothersandsisters,thiscomplywiththeideasofeldersgaintherespectsinetiquette.ThefamilyshouldobeythePatrilinealclansystemorderofeldersandjuniorsareeachintheirplacesandeldersgaintherespectsfromthejuniors.Ageandpositionareimportantandstrictbasistodistinguish,becauseinthefeudalsocietywheregainrespectsornotbasedonage,evenonehour,onedayearlier,theformeronegetsthepositionaselder,andhastherightstogainrespectsandobediencefromthelaterones,andthedutiesattachwiththerights,suchasrecognizingtheelderbrotherasthefatherandintheancienttimetheemperorpassedthepositiontotheeldestson.SothekinshipaddressformsinChinesedistinguishtheelderandjunioronesclearly.ButthekinshipaddressformsinEnglishdonotemphasizethedifferenceofages.The

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