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英语专业毕业论文-中西文化的称谓语差异.doc

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英语专业毕业论文-中西文化的称谓语差异.doc

江西理工大学本科毕业论文THEDIFFERENCESOFADDRESSFORMSINENGLISHANDCHINESEANDTHEIRCULTURECONNOTATION学院THEFACULTYOFFOREIGNSTUDY专业ENGLISH班级CLASS071学生姓名指导教师江西理工大学2011届本科生毕业设计论文1摘要称谓语是发话人用来称呼交际对方的用语,它是一种语言现象,但其功能远不仅如此。称谓语的使用,反应出特定的社会现象和文化内涵。中国拥有五千多年的悠久历史,中国发展至今,保留着大量的称谓语,这些称谓语都反应了一个时代的特征和文化内涵。如今,随着中国的对外开放以及加入WTO,中国与外界的联系也越来越密切、深入、广泛。同时,中国的现代化发展也使中国在国际上的地位日渐提高,影响力逐渐扩大,全世界开始关注中国,并开始研究和学习中国语言。然而英语仍然是世界通用语言,大多数的发达国家都是英语系国家,因此我们很有必要学习其先进的文化、知识和技术。本文通过收集、归纳中英称谓语,研究和学习中英称谓语的差异,分析其反映的文化内涵,从而达到学习双方文化的目的,利于双方文化交流沟通。关键词称谓语;差异;文化内涵江西理工大学2011届本科生毕业设计论文2ABSTRACTADDRESSFORMSARETHELANGUAGESUSEDBYTHESPEAKERSTOCALLTHEOTHERPEOPLEOFACONVERSATIONTHEYARETHEPHENOMENAOFLANGUAGE,BUTTHEYHAVEMUCHMOREFUNCTIONSADDRESSFORMSREFLECTTHEPARTICULARSOCIALPHENOMENONANDCULTURECONNOTATIONCHINAHASALONGHISTORYOFMORETHAN5000YEARSTILLNOW,THEREEXISTAGREATNUMBEROFADDRESSFORMSTHESEADDRESSFORMSALLREFLECTTHECHARACTERISTICSOFANAGEANDTHECULTURECONNOTATIONNOWADAYS,WITHTHECHINESEOPENINGTOTHEOUTSIDEANDJOININGINTOWTO,ITRELATESWITHTHEOUTSIDEWORLDMORECLOSELY,MOREDEEPLY,MORECOMPREHENSIVELY,ATTHEMEANTIME,THEDEVELOPMENTOFCHINESEMODERNIZATIONIMPROVESCHINESESTATUSGRADUALLYOVERTHEWORLD,ANDCHINESEINFLUENCESBECOMEWIDERALLTHECOUNTRIESOVERTHEWORLDSTARTTOPAYATTENTIONTOCHINA,ANDSTARTTOSTUDYANDLEARNCHINESELANGUAGEBUTENGLISHISSTILLTHECOMMONUSEDLANGUAGEOVERTHEWORLD,ANDTHELANGUAGEOFTHEMOSTDEVELOPEDCOUNTRIESISENGLISHSOIT’SQUITENECESSARYFORUSTOLEARNTHEIRADVANCEDCULTURES,KNOWLEDGE,TECHNOLOGIESTHISTHESISFOCUSONCOLLECTINGTHEADDRESSFORMSOFENGLISHANDCHINESE,STUDYINGANDLEARNINGTHEDIFFERENCES,ANDANALYZINGTHECULTURECONNOTATIONREFLECTEDINTHEMSOASTOREACHTHEGOALOFLEARNINGTHECULTURESOFBOTHSIDES,ANDMAKETHEEXCHANGINGANDCOMMUNICATIONSOFDIFFERENTCULTURESMORECONVENIENTLYKEYWORDSADDRESSFORMS;DIFFERENCES;CULTURECONNOTATION江西理工大学2011届本科生毕业设计论文3CHAPTERIINTRODUCTIONLANGUAGEISACARRIEROFCULTURE,ANDITALSOREFLECTSONECOUNTRY’SCULTURALCHARACTERISTICSADDRESSFORMISANELEMENTOFLANGUAGEANDAVERYIMPORTANTBASEOFCOMMUNICATIONITSPROPERUSEISTHEFOUNDATIONOFMAINTAININGPEOPLE’SCONVENIENTCOMMUNICATIONWITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHEWORLDANDTHERISINGOFCHINA,THECOMMUNICATIONSBETWEENTHECULTURESOFCHINAANDWESTERNCOUNTRIESBECOMEMOREANDMOREHOWTORESEARCHANDSTUDYTHEPROPERUSEOFADDRESSFORMSWILLPLAYANIMPORTANTROLEINTHECOMMUNICATIONSBETWEENTHECHINESECULTUREANDWESTERNCULTUREATPRESENT,LOTSOFEXPERTSANDSCHOLARSHAVESTUDIEDTHETOPICANDMANYBOOKSANDPAPERSHAVEWRITTENTHETOPIC,THESEWORKSAREMAINLYEMPHASIZINGONTHEADDRESSFORMSINCHINESEANDENGLISH,ANDTHEDIFFERENCESBETWEENTWOLANGUAGESTHESEWORKSARECOMPREHENSIVEANDTHEYHAVEACHIEVEDGREATSUCCESSESTHISTOPICINTHISTHESISAREBASEDONPREDECESSORS’WORKS,ANDTHEPURPOSEOFWRITINGTHISTHESISISTORAISEMYOWNVIEWSANDIDEASONADDRESSFORMSBESIDESTHEPREDECESSORS’WORKS,THISTHESISWILLALSORAISETHEGENERALIZATIONANDWESTERNIZATIONOFCHINESEFORMSTHEDEVELOPMENTOFSOCIETYBRINGSPEOPLENEWIDEAANDNEWMIND,ANDLOTSOFTRADITIONALADDRESSFORMSCHANGETHEIRORIGINALMEANINGSWITHTHETIMEGOINGALSO,WITHTHERAPIDPROCCEDINGOFINTERNETANDINFORMATIONTECH,ALOTOFNEWADDRESSFORMSHAVEBEENCREATEDANDUSEDINOURDAILYLIFEMEANWHILE,AFTERCHINA’SENTRYINTOWTO,CULTURESOFWESTERNCOUNTRIESFLOWINTOCHINAANDAFFECTEVENIMPACTCHINESECULTUREANDPEOPLE’SMIND,PEOPLESTARTTOADJUSTTHEIRLIFEINCLUDINGADDRESSFORMSTOACCORDWITHTHEINTERNATIONALSTANDARDSSOITISQUITENECESSARYTOANALYSETHEPHENOMENAOFGENERALIZATIONANDWESTERNIZATIONOFCHINESEADDRESSFORMS,ANDFINDOUTTHEORIGINITWILLHELPUSTOUNDERSTANDOUROWNHISTORYANDCULTURE,THENTHEWORLD江西理工大学2011届本科生毕业设计论文4CHAPTERIITHEDEFINITIONOFADDRESSFORMANDTHEFUNCTIONS21DEFINITIONACCORDINGTOTHEEXPLANATIONINMODERNCHINESEDICTIONARY,ADDRESSFORMREFERSTOTHENAMESBASEDONTHEKINSHIPOROTHERRELATIONSAMONGTHEPEOPLEANDPEOPLE’SSTATUSESANDPROFESSIONSADDRESSFORMREFLECTSLANGUAGE,ANDITALSOREFLECTSTHESOCIALCULTURESINANYLANGUAGES,ADDRESSFORMPLAYSANIMPORTANTROLEINSOCIALINTERCOURSESTHETHEORYOFSOCIOLINGUISTICSPUTSTHATTHEUSEOFADDRESSFORMSHOULDBELIMITEDINTHEFRAMEOFETHNICCULTUREANDTHEADDRESSFORMDEPENDSONTHERELATIONSOFSIMILARITYORDISSIMILARITY,THERELATIONSOFASCENDANCE,COHERENCERELATIONSANDOTHERRELATIONSITSHOULDPROPERLYRECOGNIZETHERELATIONSAMONGTHEROLESINPARTICULARSITUATIONSITSHOULDALSOOBEYTHEBEHAVIORALNORMSOFSPEECHROLESEXPECTEDBYTHESOCIETYADDRESSFORMCANBEPARTEDINTWOBRANCHESKINSHIPADDRESSFORMANDSOCIALADDRESSFORM22FUNCTIONSININTERPERSONALCOMMUNICATIONS,ADDRESSFORMSCONSISTOFTHREEASPECTSADDRESSFORMSFORBOTHSIDESOFCOMMUNICATION,ADDRESSFORMSFORSPEAKERSOWN,ANDADDRESSFORMSFOROTHERSJOSHUAFISHMANRAISEDTHETHEORYOFREGISTERINTHERESEARCHOFSOCIOLINGUISTICSHEPUTTHEUSEOFADDRESSFORMSINTOFIVEREGISTERSFAMILYREGISTER,FRIENDREGISTER,RELIGIONREGISTER,EDUCATIONREGISTER,WORKREGISTERFISHMANCONSIDERSTHATPEOPLECANCHOOSETHEADDRESSFORMSINDIFFERENTSITUATIONSBASEDONTHEFIVEREGISTERSTHEAUTHORTHINKSTHATTHEFUNCTIONSOFADDRESSFORMSARETOMAINTAINTHECOHERENCEOFSPEECHESANDCLEARANCEOFMEANINGSANDTOMAKETHEPROPAGATIONSOFINFORMATIONBETWEENCOMMUNICATIVESIDESMOREFLUENTLYANDCONVENIENTLYTHEFEATURESAREASFOLLOWING1ADDRESSFORMSHELPTOBUILDNEWHUMANRELATIONS,EXPRESSTHEWILLTOGETCLOSE,ORJUSTBEUSEDASANADDRESSFORMS,OREXPRESSTHEWILLTOBEAWAYFOREXAMPLE,ONTHECALLINGOFNAMES,TWOSTRANGERSMEETWITHEACHOTHERFORTHEFIRSTTIME,ANDONEGETSTOKNOWTHEOTHERONE’SNAMEISZHANGXIAOJUN,WHENHECALLSXIAOJUN,ITWILLLETTHEOTHERONEFEELSFAMILIARITREFLECTSHEWANTSTOGETCLOSETOTHEOTHERONEANDUSEAPROPERSTRATEGY2ADDRESSFORMSADJUSTTHEOLDHUMANRELATION;ITCANMAKETHEORIGINALRELATIONSCLOSERORREMOTERORKEEPTHEMSTILLFROMTHEFOLLOWINGCONVERSATION,WECANSEETHATDIFFERENTUSESOFADDRESSFORMSREFLECTBOTHSIDES’MENTALACTIVITIESINGENIOUSLY,ANDIMPLYTHEIRWILLINGSTOADJUSTTHEORIGINALRELATIONEGAGENTLEMANSAYSTOALADY“DARLING,FORGIVEMETHISTIME,OK”THELADYANSWERS“NOWAYCHENZHONGQING,IWON’TBEFOOLAGAIN”INTHECONVERSATION,THETWOPEOPLECHOOSEDIFFERENTADDRESSFORMS,ANDREFLECTTHEIRDIFFERENTAIMSTOADJUSTTHEORIGINALRELATIONTHEHUSBANDUSEDARLINGAVERYFAMILIARADDRESSFORMHISAIMISQUITECLEAR,HETRIESTOGETCLOSETOHISWIFE,ANDPRAYFORTHEFORGIVENESS,WHILETHEWIFECHOOSETHEFULLNAMETOCALLTHEHUSBANDINORDERTO江西理工大学2011届本科生毕业设计论文5KEEPDISTANCE,EVENMAKETHEORIGINALRELATIONREMOTER,ANDSHOWSHERMENTALACTIVITYOFNONCOOPERATIONANDREFUSETOACCEPTHERHUSBAND’SAPOLOGYCHAPTERIIITHEDIFFERENCESOFKINSHIPADDRESSFORMSINENGLISHANDCHINESEANDTHEIRCULTURECONNOTATION31THEDEFINITIONOFKINSHIPADDRESSFORMSKINSHIPADDRESSFORMSREFERTOTHENAMESTHATDEFINETHEKINMEMBERSANDPRINCIPLE’SRELATIONSCENTEREDONTHEPRINCIPLEKINSHIPADDRESSFORMSARETHENAMESORCALLINGSAMONGRELATIVESBASEDONCONSANGUINITYANDAFFINITYKINSHIPADDRESSFORMSARETHEMARKSCENTEREDONTHEPRINCIPLETODEFINETHERELATIONSAMONGRELATIVESANDPRINCIPLEACCORDINGTOTHECONSANGUINITYANDAFFINITYRELATIONS,THEAUTHORCOLLECTSANDCLASSIFIESTHEKINSHIPADDRESSFORMSUSUALLYUSEDINOURDAILYLIFECONSANGUINITYCHINESEENGLISH丈夫HUSBAND妻子WIFE父亲FATHER母亲MOTHER儿子SON女儿DAUGHTER哥哥、弟弟BROTHER姐姐、妹妹SISTER祖父、外祖父GRANDFATHER祖母、外祖母GRANDMOTHER孙子、外孙GRANDSON孙女、外孙女GRANDDAUGHTER伯父、叔父、舅舅、姑父、姨父UNCLE侄子、外甥NEPHEW伯母、婶母、舅母、姑母、姨母AUNT侄女、外甥女NIECE堂兄弟姐妹、表兄弟姐妹COUSINAFFINITYCHINESEENGLISH公公、岳父FATHERINLAW婆婆、岳母MOTHERINLAW女婿SONINLAW儿媳DAUGHTERINLAW大伯、小叔、内兄、内弟、姐夫、妹夫BROTHERINLAW大姑、小姑、大姨、小姨、嫂子、弟媳妇SISTERINLAW江西理工大学2011届本科生毕业设计论文632KINSHIPADDRESSFORMSINCHINESEAREMORECOMPLEXTHANTHOSEINENGLISHWHYCHINESEKINSHIPADDRESSFORMSAREMORECOMPLEXFIRST,ITISTHEETIQUETTETRADITIONOFCHINESECULTURETHECHINESENATIONWASREPUTEDASACIVILIZEDNATIONANDASTATEOFCEREMONIESINTHEWORLDTHESYSTEMOFETIQUETTEHASFORMEDANDHIGHLYDEVELOPEDMANYTHOUSANDYEARSAGO,ANDITCOMBINEDWITHTHECONFUCIANIDEALSLATERITSAFFLUENCESANDBONDINGFORCESBECAMEMORECOMPREHENSIVEANDWIDERSOINSUCHAETIQUETTESOCIETY,THECULTUREOFETIQUETTEBECOMESOMATURETHEREMUSTBECOMPLEXADDRESSFORMSTOCOMPLYWITHTHEMSECOND,ITISBECAUSEOURNATIONHADBEENINTHEFEUDALSOCIETYFORALONGHISTORY,ANDTHEUNITOFSOCIALCOMMUNITYISFAMILYORCLANSOTHEPOWEROFCLANISVERYSTRONGINTHECLAN,THECLOSEANDDISTANTRELATIONSARECLASSIFIEDBYLEVELSSTRICTLY,ANDTHEDISTINCTIONSOFINTERNALANDEXTERNALRELATIVESAREVERYCLEARSOLOTSOFINTERRELATEDADDRESSFORMSAPPEAREDANDWERECLASSIFIEDINDETAILMEANWHILE,THEADDRESSFORMSINENGLISHAREQUITESIMPLEAFEWWORDSCANCOVERLOTSOFTHEMBRITISHETIQUETTECULTUREFORMEDMANYTHOUSANDYEARSLATERTHANCHINESE,ANDAFTERTHERENAISSANCE,SOMEBOOKSOFETIQUETTEAPPEAREDINTHEWESTERNCOUNTRIES,BUTTHETHEYONLYFOCUSEDONTEACHINGPEOPLEHOWTOHAVEAREFINEDWAYOFSPEAKINGANDGOODMANNERSANDTOBEGENTLETHESEETIQUETTEPRINCIPLESAREJUSTSOMEDECORATIONSANDEMBELLISHESFORTHESUPERCLASSSOCIETYTHEYARENOTLIKEWHATTHECHINESEANCIENTANCESTORSRECOGNIZEDTHEETIQUETTEASTHEFOUNDATIONTORUNTHECOUNTRYWELLANDGIVETHEPEOPLEPEACEANDSECURITYSOTHEETIQUETTEPRINCIPLESARENOTSOCOMPREHENSIVE,SYSTEMATIC,DETAILEDASCHINESEONESEVENTHOUGHTHEWESTERNCOUNTRIESALSOWENTTHROUGHTHEFEUDALSOCIETY,ANDTHEREWERESERFDOMANDTHEFEUDALPATRILINEALCLANSYSTEM,BUTAFTERTHERENAISSANCEANDTHEINDUSTRYREVOLUTION,WESTERNLEGALSYSTEMSTEPPEDINTOANEWPERIODTHEIDEAOFFREEDOM,EQUALITYANDFRATERNITYSPREADEVERYWHERE,ANDUNDERTHEAFFLUENCESOFLEGALSYSTEM,THEADDRESSFORMSOFCONSANGUINITYANDAFFINITYINENGLISHARESIMPLERTHANTHOSEQUITECOMMONFORUSTOSEEINCHINESESOADDRESSFORMSINCHINESEAREMORECOMPLEX33KINSHIPADDRESSFORMSINCHINESEEMPHASIZETHEPOSITIONWHILETHOSEINENGLISHDONOTKINSHIPADDRESSFORMSINCHINESEEMPHASIZETHEPOSITIONANDELDERSANDJUNIORSAREEACHINTHEIRPLACESKINSHIPADDRESSFORMSSHOULDRECOGNIZETHEEXACTPOSITIONOFONEAMONGTHEBROTHERSANDSISTERS,THISCOMPLYWITHTHEIDEASOFELDERSGAINTHERESPECTSINETIQUETTETHEFAMILYSHOULDOBEYTHEPATRILINEALCLANSYSTEMORDEROFELDERSANDJUNIORSAREEACHINTHEIRPLACESANDELDERSGAINTHERESPECTSFROMTHEJUNIORSAGEANDPOSITIONAREIMPORTANTANDSTRICTBASISTODISTINGUISH,BECAUSEINTHEFEUDALSOCIETYWHEREGAINRESPECTSORNOTBASEDONAGE,EVENONEHOUR,ONEDAYEARLIER,THEFORMERONEGETSTHEPOSITIONASELDER,ANDHASTHERIGHTSTOGAINRESPECTSANDOBEDIENCEFROMTHELATERONES,ANDTHEDUTIESATTACHWITHTHERIGHTS,SUCHASRECOGNIZINGTHEELDERBROTHERASTHEFATHERANDINTHEANCIENTTIMETHEEMPERORPASSEDTHEPOSITIONTOTHEELDESTSONSOTHEKINSHIPADDRESSFORMSINCHINESEDISTINGUISHTHEELDERANDJUNIORONESCLEARLYBUTTHEKINSHIPADDRESSFORMSINENGLISHDONOTEMPHASIZETHEDIFFERENCEOFAGESTHE

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