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蓄电池充电毕业设计论文.doc

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蓄电池充电毕业设计论文.doc

华北科技学院毕业设计(论文)第1页共52页目录综述..............................................................4Summary............................................................6第1章蓄电池充电特性及充电技术现状...............................91.1蓄电池充电特性..............................................................................................91.2蓄电池充电过程..............................................................................................9第二章IGBT特性............................................................................................102.1IGBT的基本结构......................................................................................102.2IGBT的工作原理......................................................................................132.3IGBT的工作特性.......................................................................................132.3.1静态特性................................................132.3.2动态特性................................................142.4IGBT的擎住效应与安全工作区................................................................152.4.1擎住效应................................................152.4.2安全工作区..............................................162.5栅极特性.....................................................................................................172.6栅极串联电阻及栅极驱动波形的上升、下降速率.................................192.7IGBT的驱动电路......................................................................................212.7.1IGBT的驱动与保护技术.......................................................................212.7.2驱动电路的要求.......................................................................................222.7.3模块驱动中对电源的要求.......................................................................232.8驱动电路的种类..........................................................................................232.8.1采用脉冲变压器隔离驱动IGBT............................................................232.8.2采用光耦合器等分立元器件驱动IGBT................................................242.8.3专用光耦合器等分立元器件驱动IGBT................................................242.9IGBT模块保护..........................................................................................252.9.1IGBT的过电流保护...................................................................................25矿用铅酸蓄电池组高频智能充电器主电路的研究设计第2页共52页2.9.2IGBT的过压保护........................................................................................252.9.3IGBT的关断缓冲吸收电路........................................................................252.9.4缓冲电路的基本结构.................................................................................26第3章高频变压器特性.............................................28第4章DC/DC变换原理....................................................................................294.1一般情况...................................................294.2工作周期......................................................................................................29第5章元器件的选择及参数计算.....................................305.1关键元器件的选择.....................................................................................305.2IGBT的选择...............................................................................................305.3次级快恢复整流二极管的选择................................315.4缓冲电路的计算............................................325.5高频变压器的设计.....................................................................................325.5.1AP法公式推倒..........................................................................................325.5.2变压器视在功率的TP确定.......................................................................345.5.3窗口使用系数0K的确定..........................................................................355.5.4磁心结构常数...........................................................................................355.5.5AP的计算.................................................................................................365.6三相全控桥整流电路的计算.....................................................................385.7滤波电容、电感的计算......................................395.7.1支撑电容C1的计算.................................................................................395.7.2滤波LC的计算........................................................................................39第6章散热计算.................................................................................................396.1开关管IGBT散热计算..............................................................................406.1.1功率器件热性能的主要参数...................................................................406.1.2功率器件热设计.......................................................................................406.1.3散热计算...................................................................................................406.2快恢复二极管散热计算.............................................................................426.3散热器的选取.............................................................................................42第7章充电器原理及硬件设计........................................43华北科技学院毕业设计(论文)第3页共52页7.1充电器主电路硬件设计......................................437.1充电器工作原理............................................43第8章MATLAB仿真.....................................................................................448.1MATLAB的概况.......................................................................................448.2MATLAB产生的历史背景.......................................................................458.3MATLAB的语言特点...............................................................................468.4SIMULINK概况..........................................................................................478.5SIMULINK仿真..........................................................................................48结论..............................................................51参考文献..........................................................51致谢..........................................................52矿用铅酸蓄电池组高频智能充电器主电路的研究设计第4页共52页矿用铅酸蓄电池组高频智能充电器主电路的研究设计综述本课题以矿用铅酸蓄电池组高频智能充电器实际科研课题为背景,可以作为实际科研项目的一个功能模块。蓄电池是矿厂在井下必不可少的能源,省去电缆的传输,减少危险的发生,方便生产,保障安全。高频智能充电器缩小了体积,运输方便,可以随时给蓄电池补充能量。并对充电电压和充电电流及电池温度进行着检测,判断蓄电池是否充满,是否发生故障,保证充电安全。基于这些优点,智能充电器广泛应用于矿厂、现代工业的各个行业。因此,设计矿用铅酸蓄电池组高频智能充电器是十分必要的。铅酸蓄电池具有维护简单、价格低廉、供电可靠、电压稳定、使用寿命长等优点,因此广泛应用在矿厂、国防、通信、铁路、交通、工农业生产部门还可以作为汽车、飞机、轮船等机动车辆或发电机组的启动电源也在各类需要不间断供电的电子设备和便携式仪器仪表中用作一些电器及控制回路的工作电源。尤其在环境恶劣的矿厂,蓄电池是必需品,它不仅能保证人身安全,还很方便省去了电缆运输带来的不便。如果蓄电池没电,那么人们最先想到的就是蓄电池充电器。充电器是蓄电池的源泉,基于此,本文提出了一种矿用铅酸蓄电池组充电器主电路的设计方案,采用先进的三段式充电控制方法,有效地提高充电效率,延长电池寿命。随着电力电子变换技术的发展,使得各种各样的电力电子器件得到了迅速的发展。20世纪80年代,为了给高电压应用环境提供一种高输入阻抗的器件,有人提出了绝缘门极双极型晶体管(IGBT)。在IGBT中,用一个MOS门极区来控制宽基区的高电压双极型晶体管的电流传输,这就产生了一种具有功率MOSFET的高输入阻抗与双极型器件优越通态特性相结合的非常诱人的器件。它既有MOSFET易驱动的特点,又具有功率晶体管电压、电流容量大的优点。其频率特性介于MOSFET与功率晶体管间,可正常工作于几十kHz频率范围内,故在较高频率的大、中功率应用占据了主要地位。IGBT是电压控制型器件,在它的栅射极间施加十几伏直流电压时,只会有毫微安级的漏电流流过,基本上不消耗功率。但IGBT的栅射极间存在着较大的电华北科技学院毕业设计(论文)第5页共52页容量(几千至上万pF),在驱动脉冲电压的上升及下降沿需提供数安培的冲放电电流,才能满足它开通和关断的动态要求,使得它的驱动电路也必需输出一定的峰值电流。电路的设计标准为输入电压380V,输出电压100V250V连续可调,输出最大电流80A,工作频率20kHz,温升+25℃,工作环境条件-25℃~+70℃。本文首先介绍了蓄电池充电特性、IGBT特性及高频变压器特性,紧接着分析了DC/DC变换的工作原理,然后介绍了元器件的选型及参数计算,分析电路原理设计出原理图,并且阐述了蓄电池工作原理,最后用MATLAB中的SIMULINK进行结果的仿真。对于蓄电池充电的原理问题,本文采用了三段式充电的原理即快速充电、补足充电、涓流充电三个阶段区别于传统定电压充电和定电流充电方式,这种方式提高电池的充电效率,缩短充电时间,并能有效延长电池寿命。这种三段式的充电方式通过C8051单片机进行智能控制。充电器主电路具体控制方法为首先采用三项全桥整流电路将380V交流电变成直流电,经过支撑电容滤波后送入逆变电路,逆变电路采用单项全桥逆变电路,逆变器件选用IGBT开关管,逆变后的电压送入高频变压器的输入端,然后高频变压器的输出端经过全波整流电路,LC滤波电路后给蓄电池充电。高频变压器的参数设计方法有两种即AP法和KG法,本文采用AP法设计,并详细的介绍了AP法的公式推倒和实际计算方法。最后,主电路的仿真采用MATLAB中的SIMULINK进行仿真实验,仿真实验结果表明,本文设计的蓄电池充电器主电路达到了预期的目标。关键词IGBTDC/DC变换高频变压器MATLAB矿用铅酸蓄电池组高频智能充电器主电路的研究设计第6页共52页MineralproductplumbousacidbatteryunithighfrequencyintelligencebatterychargermaincircuitresearchdesignSummaryThistopictakethemineralproductplumbousacidbatteryunithighfrequencyintelligencebatterychargeractualscientificresearchtopicasabackground,cantaketheactualscientificresearchitemafunctionmodule.Theaccumulatorcellisthemineinthemineshaftessentialenergy,omitstheelectriccablethetransmission,reducesthedangeroustheoccurrence,facilitatestheproduction,thesafeguardsecurity.Thehighfrequencyintelligentbatterychargerreducedthevolume,thetransportationhasbeenconvenient,mightgivetheaccumulatorcellsupplementaryenergyasnecessary.Andiscarryingontheexaminationtothechargingvoltageandthechargingcurrentandthebatterytemperature,judgestheaccumulatorcellwhetherfills,whetherbreaksdown,guaranteechargesecurity.Basedonthesemerits,theintelligentbatterychargerwidelyappliesinthemine,modernindustryeachprofession.Therefore,thedesignmineralproductplumbousacidbatteryunithighfrequencyintelligencebatterychargerisextremelyessential.Theleadacidbatteryhasthemaintenancesimply,thepriceinexpensive,thepowersupplyreliable,voltageregulation,theservicelifelongandsoonthemerits,thereforewidelyappliesinthemine,thenationaldefense,thecorrespondence,therailroad,thetransportation,theindustryandagricultureproductiondepartmentAlsomaytaketheautomobile,theairplane,thesteamboatandsoonthemotorvehicleorpowersetsstartpowersourceAlsoservesassomeelectricappliancesandthecontrolloopworkpowersourceineachkindofneeduninterruptedpowersupplyelectronicinstallationandintheportableinstrumentmeasuringappliance.Intheenvironmentbadmine,theaccumulatorcellisespeciallytheessentialitem,notonlyitcanguaranteethepersonalsafety,butalsohasveryconvenientlyomittedinconvenientwhichtheelectriccabletransportationbrings.Iftheaccumulatorcelldoesnothavetheelectricity,thenthepeoplethinkarethebatterychargersfirst.Thebatterychargeristheaccumulatorcellfountainhead,basedonthis,thisarticleproposedonekind华北科技学院毕业设计(论文)第7页共52页ofmineralproductplumbousacidbatteryunitbatterychargermaincircuitdesignproposal,usestheadvancedtriadicchargecontrolmethod,enhancesthechargeefficiencyeffectively,lengthensthebatterylife.Alongwiththeelectricpowerelectrontransformationtechnologydevelopment,enabledvariouselectricpowerelectronicdevicetoobtaintherapiddevelopment.1980s,inordertoprovidesonekindofhighinputimpedancetothehighvoltageusingtheenvironmentthecomponent,somepeopleproposedinsulationgateextremelydoublepoletransistorIGBT.InIGBT,controlsthewidthbaseextremelywithaMOSgateareathehighvoltagedoublepoletransistorelectriccurrenttransmission,thisproducedonekindtohavethepowerMOSFEThighinputimpedanceandthedoublepolecomponentsuperiorlypassestheextremelyattractivecomponentwhichconditionthecharacteristicunified.ItbothhasthecharacteristicwhichMOSFETeasytoactuate,andhasthepowertransistorvoltage,thecurrentcapacitybigmerit.ItsfrequencycharacteristicissituatedbetweenMOSFETandbetweenthepowertransistor,butnormalworkinseveraldozenskHzfrequencyrange,thereforeinthehighfrequencybig,themiddleapplicationofpoweroccupiedthemainstatus.IGBTisthevoltagecontrolcomponent,exertsseveralvoltDCvoltageswhenbetweenitsgridemitter,onlycanhavethenanoampereleveltoleaktheelectriccurrenttoflow,basicallyconsumedpower.ButbetweentheIGBTgridemitterhasthegreatelectriccapacityseveralthousandtouptotenthousandpF,alongmustprovideseveralamperesintheactuationpulsevoltageriseandthedroptoflushthedischargingcurrent,cansatisfythedynamicrequestwhichitclearsandshutsoff,causesitsactuationelectriccircuitalsoessentialoutputcertainpeakvalueelectriccurrent.Electriccircuitdesignstandardforinputvoltage380V,outputvoltage100V250Vcontinuouslyadjustable,outputmaximumcurrent80A,operatingfrequency20kHz,temperaturerise25℃,workingconditionscondition25℃70℃.Thisarticlefirstintroducedthebatterychargingcharacteristic,theIGBTcharacteristicandthehighfrequencytransformercharacteristic,thefollowingcloselyhasanalyzedtheDC/DCtransformationprincipleofwork,thenintroducedtheprimarydeviceshapingandtheparametercomputation,analyzesthecircuitrytodesigntheschematicdiagram,andela

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