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AT89S52外文文献外文翻译、中英对照、英汉互译.doc

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AT89S52外文文献外文翻译、中英对照、英汉互译.doc

AT89S52THEAT89S52ISALOWPOWER,HIGHPERFORMANCECMOS8BITMICROCOMPUTERWITH8KBYTESOFFLASHPROGRAMMABLEANDERASABLEREADONLYMEMORYPEROMTHEDEVICEISMANUFACTUREDUSINGATMEL’SHIGHDENSITYNONVOLATILEMEMORYTECHNOLOGYANDISCOMPATIBLEWITHTHEINDUSTRYSTANDARD80S51AND80S52INSTRUCTIONSETANDPINOUTTHEONCHIPFLASHALLOWSTHEPROGRAMMEMORYTOBEREPROGRAMMEDINSYSTEMORBYACONVENTIONALNONVOLATILEMEMORYPROGRAMMERBYCOMBININGAVERSATILE8BITCPUWITHFLASHONAMONOLITHICCHIP,THEATMELAT89S52ISAPOWERFULMICROCOMPUTERWHICHPROVIDESAHIGHLYFLEXIBLEANDCOSTEFFECTIVESOLUTIONTOMANYEMBEDDEDCONTROLAPPLICATIONSTHEAT89S52PROVIDESTHEFOLLOWINGSTANDARDFEATURES8KBYTESOFFLASH,256BYTESOFRAM,32I/OLINES,THREE16BITTIMER/COUNTERS,ASIXVECTORTWOLEVELINTERRUPTARCHITECTURE,AFULLDUPLEXSERIALPORT,ONCHIPOSCILLATOR,ANDCLOCKCIRCUITRYINADDITION,THEAT89S52ISDESIGNEDWITHSTATICLOGICFOROPERATIONDOWNTOZEROFREQUENCYANDSUPPORTSTWOSOFTWARESELECTABLEPOWERSAVINGMODESTHEIDLEMODESTOPSTHECPUWHILEALLOWINGTHERAM,TIMER/COUNTERS,SERIALPORT,ANDINTERRUPTSYSTEMTOCONTINUEFUNCTIONINGTHEPOWERDOWNMODESAVESTHERAMCONTENTSBUTFREEZESTHEOSCILLATOR,DISABLINGALLOTHERCHIPFUNCTIONSUNTILTHENEXTHARDWARERESETVCCSUPPLYVOLTAGEGNDGROUNDPORT0PORT0ISAN8BITOPENDRAINBIDIRECTIONALI/OPORTASANOUTPUTPORT,EACHPINCANSINKEIGHTTTLINPUTSWHEN1SAREWRITTENTOPORT0PINS,THEPINSCANBEUSEDASHIGHIMPEDANCEINPUTSPORT0CANALSOBECONFIGUREDTOBETHEMULTIPLEXEDLOWORDERADDRESS/DATABUSDURINGACCESSESTOEXTERNALPROGRAMANDDATAMEMORYINTHISMODE,P0HASINTERNALPULLUPSPORT0ALSORECEIVESTHECODEBYTESDURINGFLASHPROGRAMMINGANDOUTPUTSTHECODEBYTESDURINGPROGRAMVERIFICATIONEXTERNALPULLUPSAREREQUIREDDURINGPROGRAMVERIFICATIONPORT1PORT1ISAN8BITBIDIRECTIONALI/OPORTWITHINTERNALPULLUPSTHEPORT1OUTPUTBUFFERSCANSINK/SOURCEFOURTTLINPUTSWHEN1SAREWRITTENTOPORT1PINS,THEYAREPULLEDHIGHBYTHEINTERNALPULLUPSANDCANBEUSEDASINPUTSASINPUTS,PORT1PINSTHATAREEXTERNALLYBEINGPULLEDLOWWILLSOURCECURRENTIILBECAUSEOFTHEINTERNALPULLUPSINADDITION,P10ANDP11CANBECONFIGUREDTOBETHETIMER/COUNTER2EXTERNALCOUNTINPUTP10/T2ANDTHETIMER/COUNTER2TRIGGERINPUTP11/T2EX,RESPECTIVELY,ASSHOWNINTHEFOLLOWINGTABLEPORT1ALSORECEIVESTHELOWORDERADDRESSBYTESDURINGFLASHPROGRAMMINGANDVERIFICATIONPORT2PORT2ISAN8BITBIDIRECTIONALI/OPORTWITHINTERNALPULLUPSTHEPORT2OUTPUTBUFFERSCANSINK/SOURCEFOURTTLINPUTSWHEN1SAREWRITTENTOPORT2PINS,THEYAREPULLEDHIGHBYTHEINTERNALPULLUPSANDCANBEUSEDASINPUTSASINPUTS,PORT2PINSTHATAREEXTERNALLYBEINGPULLEDLOWWILLSOURCECURRENTIILBECAUSEOFTHEINTERNALPULLUPSPORT2EMITSTHEHIGHORDERADDRESSBYTEDURINGFETCHESFROMEXTERNALPROGRAMMEMORYANDDURINGACCESSESTOEXTERNALDATAMEMORYTHATUSE16BITADDRESSESMOVXDPTRINTHISAPPLICATION,PORT2USESSTRONGINTERNALPULLUPSWHENEMITTING1SDURINGACCESSESTOEXTERNALDATAMEMORYTHATUSE8BITADDRESSESMOVXRI,PORT2EMITSTHECONTENTSOFTHEP2SPECIALFUNCTIONREGISTERPORT2ALSORECEIVESTHEHIGHORDERADDRESSBITSANDSOMECONTROLSIGNALSDURINGFLASHPROGRAMMINGANDVERIFICATIONPORT3PORT3ISAN8BITBIDIRECTIONALI/OPORTWITHINTERNALPULLUPSTHEPORT3OUTPUTBUFFERSCANSINK/SOURCEFOURTTLINPUTSWHEN1SAREWRITTENTOPORT3PINS,THEYAREPULLEDHIGHBYTHEINTERNALPULLUPSANDCANBEUSEDASINPUTSASINPUTS,PORT3PINSTHATAREEXTERNALLYBEINGPULLEDLOWWILLSOURCECURRENTIILBECAUSEOFTHEPULLUPSPORT3ALSOSERVESTHEFUNCTIONSOFVARIOUSSPECIALFEATURESOFTHEAT89C51,ASSHOWNINTHEFOLLOWINGTABLEPORT3ALSORECEIVESSOMECONTROLSIGNALSFORFLASHPROGRAMMINGANDVERIFICATIONRSTRESETINPUTAHIGHONTHISPINFORTWOMACHINECYCLESWHILETHEOSCILLATORISRUNNINGRESETSTHEDEVICEALE/PROGADDRESSLATCHENABLEISANOUTPUTPULSEFORLATCHINGTHELOWBYTEOFTHEADDRESSDURINGACCESSESTOEXTERNALMEMORYTHISPINISALSOTHEPROGRAMPULSEINPUTPROGDURINGFLASHPROGRAMMINGINNORMALOPERATION,ALEISEMITTEDATACONSTANTRATEOF1/6THEOSCILLATORFREQUENCYANDMAYBEUSEDFOREXTERNALTIMINGORCLOCKINGPURPOSESNOTE,HOWEVER,THATONEALEPULSEISSKIPPEDDURINGEACHACCESSTOEXTERNALDATAMEMORYIFDESIRED,ALEOPERATIONCANBEDISABLEDBYSETTINGBIT0OFSFRLOCATION8EHWITHTHEBITSET,ALEISACTIVEONLYDURINGAMOVXORMOVCINSTRUCTIONOTHERWISE,THEPINISWEAKLYPULLEDHIGHSETTINGTHEALEDISABLEBITHASNOEFFECTIFTHEMICROCONTROLLERISINEXTERNALEXECUTIONMODEPSENPROGRAMSTOREENABLEISTHEREADSTROBETOEXTERNALPROGRAMMEMORYWHENTHEAT89S52ISEXECUTINGCODEFROMEXTERNALPROGRAMMEMORY,PSENISACTIVATEDTWICEEACHMACHINECYCLE,EXCEPTTHATTWOPSENACTIVATIONSARESKIPPEDDURINGEACHACCESSTOEXTERNALDATAMEMORYEA/VPPEXTERNALACCESSENABLEEAMUSTBESTRAPPEDTOGNDINORDERTOENABLETHEDEVICETOFETCHCODEFROMEXTERNALPROGRAMMEMORYLOCATIONSSTARTINGAT0000HUPTOFFFFHNOTE,HOWEVER,THATIFLOCKBIT1ISPROGRAMMED,EAWILLBEINTERNALLYLATCHEDONRESETEASHOULDBESTRAPPEDTOVCCFORINTERNALPROGRAMEXECUTIONSTHISPINALSORECEIVESTHE12VOLTPROGRAMMINGENABLEVOLTAGEVPPDURINGFLASHPROGRAMMINGWHEN12VOLTPROGRAMMINGISSELECTEDXTAL1INPUTTOTHEINVERTINGOSCILLATORAMPLIFIERANDINPUTTOTHEINTERNALCLOCKOPERATINGCIRCUITXTAL2OUTPUTFROMTHEINVERTINGOSCILLATORAMPLIFIERSPECIALFUNCTIONREGISTERSAMAPOFTHEONCHIPMEMORYAREACALLEDTHESPECIALFUNCTIONREGISTERSFRSPACEISSHOWNINTABLE1NOTETHATNOTALLOFTHEADDRESSESAREOCCUPIED,ANDUNOCCUPIEDADDRESSESMAYNOTBEIMPLEMENTEDONTHECHIPREADACCESSESTOTHESEADDRESSESWILLINGENERALRETURNRANDOMDATA,ANDWRITEACCESSESWILLHAVEANINDETERMINATEEFFECTUSERSOFTWARESHOULDNOTWRITE1STOTHESEUNLISTEDLOCATIONS,SINCETHEYMAYBEUSEDINFUTUREPRODUCTSTOINVOKENEWFEATURESINTHATCASE,THERESETORINACTIVEVALUESOFTHENEWBITSWILLALWAYSBE0TIMER2REGISTERSCONTROLANDSTATUSBITSARECONTAINEDINREGISTERST2CONSHOWNINTABLE2ANDT2MODSHOWNINTABLE4FORTIMER2THEREGISTERPAIRRCAP2H,RCAP2LARETHECAPTURE/RELOADREGISTERSFORTIMER2IN16BITCAPTUREMODEOR16BITAUTORELOADMODEINTERRUPTREGISTERSTHEINDIVIDUALINTERRUPTENABLEBITSAREINTHEIEREGISTERTWOPRIORITIESCANBESETFOREACHOFTHESIXINTERRUPTSOURCESINTHEIPREGISTERDATAMEMORYTHEAT89S52IMPLEMENTS256BYTESOFONCHIPRAMTHEUPPER128BYTESOCCUPYAPARALLELADDRESSSPACETOTHESPECIALFUNCTIONREGISTERSTHATMEANSTHEUPPER128BYTESHAVETHESAMEADDRESSESASTHESFRSPACEBUTAREPHYSICALLYSEPARATEFROMSFRSPACEWHENANINSTRUCTIONACCESSESANINTERNALLOCATIONABOVEADDRESS7FH,THEADDRESSMODEUSEDINTHEINSTRUCTIONSPECIFIESWHETHERTHECPUACCESSESTHEUPPER128BYTESOFRAMORTHESFRSPACEINSTRUCTIONSTHATUSEDIRECTADDRESSINGACCESSSFRSPACEFOREXAMPLE,THEFOLLOWINGDIRECTADDRESSINGINSTRUCTIONACCESSESTHESFRATLOCATION0A0HWHICHISP2MOV0A0H,DATAINSTRUCTIONSTHATUSEINDIRECTADDRESSINGACCESSTHEUPPER128BYTESOFRAMFOREXAMPLE,THEFOLLOWINGINDIRECTADDRESSINGINSTRUCTION,WHERER0CONTAINS0A0H,ACCESSESTHEDATABYTEATADDRESS0A0H,RATHERTHANP2WHOSEADDRESSIS0A0HMOVR0,DATANOTETHATSTACKOPERATIONSAREEXAMPLESOFINDIRECTADDRESSING,SOTHEUPPER128BYTESOFDATARAMAREAVAILABLEASSTACKSPACEINFRAREDINFRAREDIRLIGHTISELECTROMAGNETICRADIATIONWITHAWAVELENGTHLONGERTHANTHATOFVISIBLELIGHT,MEASUREDFROMTHENOMINALEDGEOFVISIBLEREDLIGHTAT074MICROMETRESM,ANDEXTENDINGCONVENTIONALLYTO300MTHESEWAVELENGTHSCORRESPONDTOAFREQUENCYRANGEOFAPPROXIMATELY1TO400THZ,ANDINCLUDEMOSTOFTHETHERMALRADIATIONEMITTEDBYOBJECTSNEARROOMTEMPERATUREMICROSCOPICALLY,IRLIGHTISTYPICALLYEMITTEDORABSORBEDBYMOLECULESWHENTHEYCHANGETHEIRROTATIONALVIBRATIONALMOVEMENTSINFRAREDLIGHTISUSEDININDUSTRIAL,SCIENTIFIC,ANDMEDICALAPPLICATIONSNIGHTVISIONDEVICESUSINGINFRAREDILLUMINATIONALLOWPEOPLEORANIMALSTOBEOBSERVEDWITHOUTTHEOBSERVERBEINGDETECTEDINASTRONOMY,IMAGINGATINFRAREDWAVELENGTHSALLOWSOBSERVATIONOFOBJECTSOBSCUREDBYINTERSTELLARDUSTINFRAREDIMAGINGCAMERASAREUSEDTODETECTHEATLOSSININSULATEDSYSTEMS,OBSERVECHANGINGBLOODFLOWINTHESKIN,ANDOVERHEATINGOFELECTRICALAPPARATUSMUCHOFTHEENERGYFROMTHESUNARRIVESONEARTHINTHEFORMOFINFRAREDRADIATIONSUNLIGHTATZENITHPROVIDESANIRRADIANCEOFJUSTOVER1KILOWATTPERSQUAREMETERATSEALEVELOFTHISENERGY,527WATTSISINFRAREDRADIATION,445WATTSISVISIBLELIGHT,AND32WATTSISULTRAVIOLETRADIATIONTHEBALANCEBETWEENABSORBEDANDEMITTEDINFRAREDRADIATIONHASACRITICALEFFECTONTHEEARTHSCLIMATEOBJECTSGENERALLYEMITINFRAREDRADIATIONACROSSASPECTRUMOFWAVELENGTHS,BUTSOMETIMESONLYALIMITEDREGIONOFTHESPECTRUMISOFINTERESTBECAUSESENSORSUSUALLYCOLLECTRADIATIONONLYWITHINASPECIFICBANDWIDTHTHEREFORE,THEINFRAREDBANDISOFTENSUBDIVIDEDINTOSMALLERSECTIONSMUCHOFTHEENERGYFROMTHESUNARRIVESONEARTHINTHEFORMOFINFRAREDRADIATIONSUNLIGHTATZENITHPROVIDESANIRRADIANCEOFJUSTOVER1KILOWATTPERSQUAREMETERATSEALEVELOFTHISENERGY,527WATTSISINFRAREDRADIATION,445WATTSISVISIBLELIGHT,AND32WATTSISULTRAVIOLETRADIATIONTHEBALANCEBETWEENABSORBEDANDEMITTEDINFRAREDRADIATIONHASACRITICALEFFECTONTHEEARTHSCLIMATEOBJECTSGENERALLYEMITINFRAREDRADIATIONACROSSASPECTRUMOFWAVELENGTHS,BUTSOMETIMESONLYALIMITEDREGIONOFTHESPECTRUMISOFINTERESTBECAUSESENSORSUSUALLYCOLLECTRADIATIONONLYWITHINASPECIFICBANDWIDTHTHEREFORE,THEINFRAREDBANDISOFTENSUBDIVIDEDINTOSMALLERSECTIONSHEAT/HEATINGINFRAREDRADIATIONISPOPULARLYKNOWNASHEATRADIATION,BUTLIGHTANDELECTROMAGNETICWAVESOFANYFREQUENCYWILLHEATSURFACESTHATABSORBTHEMINFRAREDLIGHTFROMTHESUNONLYACCOUNTSFOR49OFTHEHEATINGOFTHEEARTH,WITHTHERESTBEINGCAUSEDBYVISIBLELIGHTTHATISABSORBEDTHENRERADIATEDATLONGERWAVELENGTHSVISIBLELIGHTORULTRAVIOLETEMITTINGLASERSCANCHARPAPERANDINCANDESCENTLYHOTOBJECTSEMITVISIBLERADIATIONOBJECTSATROOMTEMPERATUREWILLEMITRADIATIONMOSTLYCONCENTRATEDINTHE8TO25MBAND,BUTTHISISNOTDISTINCTFROMTHEEMISSIONOFVISIBLELIGHTBYINCANDESCENTOBJECTSANDULTRAVIOLETBYEVENHOTTEROBJECTSSEEBLACKBODYANDWIENSDISPLACEMENTLAWHEATISENERGYINTRANSIENTFORMTHATFLOWSDUETOTEMPERATUREDIFFERENCEUNLIKEHEATTRANSMITTEDBYTHERMALCONDUCTIONORTHERMALCONVECTION,RADIATIONCANPROPAGATETHROUGHAVACUUMTHECONCEPTOFEMISSIVITYISIMPORTANTINUNDERSTANDINGTHEINFRAREDEMISSIONSOFOBJECTSTHISISAPROPERTYOFASURFACEWHICHDESCRIBESHOWITSTHERMALEMISSIONSDEVIATEFROMTHEIDEALOFABLACKBODYTOFURTHEREXPLAIN,TWOOBJECTSATTHESAMEPHYSICALTEMPERATUREWILLNOTAPPEARTHESAMETEMPERATUREINANINFRAREDIMAGEIFTHEYHAVEDIFFERINGEMISSIVITIESTHERMOGRAPHYINFRAREDRADIATIONCANBEUSEDTOREMOTELYDETERMINETHETEMPERATUREOFOBJECTSIFTHEEMISSIVITYISKNOWNTHISISTERMEDTHERMOGRAPHY,ORINTHECASEOFVERYHOTOBJECTSINTHENIRORVISIBLEITISTERMEDPYROMETRYTHERMOGRAPHYTHERMALIMAGINGISMAINLYUSEDINMILITARYANDINDUSTRIALAPPLICATIONSBUTTHETECHNOLOGYISREACHINGTHEPUBLICMARKETINTHEFORMOFINFRAREDCAMERASONCARSDUETOTHEMASSIVELYREDUCEDPRODUCTIONCOSTSTHERMOGRAPHICCAMERASDETECTRADIATIONINTHEINFRAREDRANGEOFTHEELECTROMAGNETICSPECTRUMROUGHLY900–14,000NANOMETERSOR09–14ΜMANDPRODUCEIMAGESOFTHATRADIATIONSINCEINFRAREDRADIATIONISEMITTEDBYALLOBJECTSBASEDONTHEIRTEMPERATURES,ACCORDINGTOTHEBLACKBODYRADIATIONLAW,THERMOGRAPHYMAKESITPOSSIBLETOSEEONESENVIRONMENTWITHOR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