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英语论文 跨文化交际中肢体语言的沟通.doc

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英语论文 跨文化交际中肢体语言的沟通.doc

论文写作指导、各类文案代写QQ625880526IntroductionAsthetrendofglobalizationisstrengthenedstepbystep,internationalcommunicationisfrequentandimportantdaybyday.Thus,thesignificanceofbodylanguageininterculturalcommunicationhasbeengreatlyrealized.Researchshowsthatwhenpeoplemeetsomeoneforthefirsttime,only7oftheirinitialimpactonothersisdeterminedbythecontentofwhattheysaytheother93oftheirmessageismadeupofbodylanguage55andthetoneoftheirvoice(38).Bodylanguagehelpsustomanageandguardagainstthesetendencies,andalsosignificantlyespeciallyinflirting/dating/matingritualsbodylanguageoftenhelpspeopletocommunicateandresolverelationshipissueswhenconsciousbehaviourandspeechfailstodoso.Bodylanguagehasevolvedinspiteofhumanawarenessandconsciousintelligenceratherlikeaguardianangel,bodylanguagecanhelptakecareofus,connectingustokindredsouls,andprotectingusfromthreats.Whiletheimportanceofbodylanguageincommunicationsandmanagement,etc.,hasbecomeapopularinterestandscienceinthelastfewdecades,humanbeingshavereliedonbodylanguageinstinctivelyinmanywaysformanythousandsofyears.Andthusthispaperintendstopresentitsmeaningandclassification,culturaldifferencesandanalyzethefactorsthatinfluencebodythatinfluenceourcommunicationofbodylanguagesothatwecanimproveourcommunicationskillsandabilitiesbyunderstandingitwell.论文写作指导、各类文案代写QQ6258805262BodyLanguage2.1DefinitionofBodyLanguageBodylanguageisatermforcommunicationusingbodymovementsorgesturesinsteadof,orinadditionto,sounds,verballanguageorothercommunication.Itformspartofthecategoryofparalanguage,whichdescribesallformsofhumancommunicationthatarenotverballanguage.Thisincludesthemostsubtleofmovementsthatmanypeoplearenotawareof,includingwinkingandslightmovementoftheeyebrows.Inadditionbodylanguagecanalsoincorporatetheuseoffacialexpressions.Westernscholarshavemadealotofdefinitionsaboutit,themostvividandspecificdefinitionisthatbodylanguageisthenonverballanguagewhichcanexpressinformationthatlanguagecannotexpressandtheactionsmostpeoplecanunderstand.Togetgoodatreadingbodylanguage,gooutanddotheRoverandover.Openyoureyesandears.Turnoffyourbiased,overanalyticalbrainandobservethewayachildobserves.Atoddlerseesobjectsandactionsinamorestandalonewaythanadults,whogotoextraordinarymeanstomakeconnections.Hehasnopreexistingframeworktooverlayhisobservationsonto,sohesamuchbettercollectorofpurebodylanguagethanolder,wellsocializedpeople.Ifyouplaceawrappedboxonthetableinfrontofayoungchildcapableofspeech,thequestionsareendless.Asyougetolder,youanswerthequestionsforyourself,assumingyouknowwhateverythingmeans.2.2TheClassificationofBodyLanguageBodylanguagecanbedividedintoeyecontractlanguage,bodytoucheslanguage,postureandgesture,manner,facialexpression,flavorlanguage,proxemicsandclotheslanguage.Andinthispaperjustintroducefourofthemeyecontract,bodydistance,facialexpressionandgesture.2.2.1EyecontractA16thcenturyproverbcallstheeyesthewindowstothesoul.Morethan500years论文写作指导、各类文案代写QQ625880526later,theproverbhasassumedthestatureofgospel.Whenyoureallyunderstandtheeyes,youllseehowclosetheproverbistothemark.Someofthefollowingwordsusedtodescribeapersonseyesarehearddailydirect,sensual,sardonic,expressive,intelligent,penetrating,sad,cheerful,worldly,hard,trusting,andsuspicious.Moststudents,aswellasyourpersonalobservations,tellyouthatculturemodifiestheamountofeyecontactinwhichyouengageandwhoistherecipientoftheeyecontact.IftwoArabiansareinconversation,theywilllookateachotherwarmly.Becausetheythinkeyesarethekeyoftheirexistence.ButinAmericaneyes,theythinkthisbehaviorisunsuitableorahomosexualbehavior.TheeducatedEnglishmenbelievedirecteyecontactwithourcommunicatorsisgentlemanly.Japaneseoftenlookattheothercommunicatorsneckwhentheyareinconversation.Theybelieveeyecontactisimpolite.AndChineseconsidergazingpeopleisanunfriendlybehavioranditisachallenge.SomeSouthAmericanIndiansusedtolookatdifferentdirectionswhentheyaretalking.IntheMiddleEast,itisconsideredextremelyprovocativeforawomantoletamancatchhereyes,letalone,returnhisgaze.2.2.2GestureGestureactionlanguageisahighlyexpressivebodylanguage,itisnotonlyrichindiversity,butalsosimpleandintuitive,soIuseawiderange,highfrequency,effectivegood.Agoodexampleistheawardin2005CCTVSpringFestivalGalasmostpopulardanceaudienceshowspecialawardcategoryofAvalokitesvara,21liveinthesilentgirlintheworldofsignlanguagewiththeirhundredsofmillionstothenationtransmissionofinformationtheaudiencetoexpressNewYearsblessing.Inaverygeneralsense,weallusegesturestoreinforceanideaortohelpdescribesomething.Whenwesay,ThatsanEnglishbook,atthesametimewearepointingtothebook.Ifsomeoneasksusthewaytothelibrary,wepointtotheright,addingalittleinformationaboutit,whichwillbemoreclearandconcrete.Weliketouseourhandsto论文写作指导、各类文案代写QQ625880526indicatethedimensionswhensomeoneasksustodescribethesizeorshapeofsomething.Americansoftentouchtheirtemplestoexpresssomebodyscleverness.ButthisactionmeansthereissomethingwrongwithonesmindoroneisstupidtoChinese.ChineseareoftensurprisedtoseeAmericanslaytheirhandsontheirneckswhentheyarefull.BecauseitisansuicideactiontoChinese,whousedtoexpressfullnessbypattingtheirstomachs.Andanotherexample,2.2.3FacialexpressionFaceistheorganofexpression.Morrisconjecturedthatitistheeasiesttocontrolbecauseitistheclosesttothebrain.Whenitcomestotheface,IthinkweredealingwithaparadoxThefaceisboththeeasiestandthehardestareaofthebodytocontrol.Therearemanythingswedowithourfacesthatwearentevenawareofbecausetheyaresecondnature.Alotofemotioncomesoutthroughthebrowinbothvoluntaryandinvoluntaryexpressions.Weusetheforeheadmuscleswhenwenormallyinteractwithpeople,evenonthephone,andwedevelopwrinklesasaresult.IfMorriswererightandwecancontrolthemusclesinthefacemoreeasilythanothers,thenwewouldntbeusingsomuchBotox.Wecouldvoluntarilystopusingthemusclesthatcreatetheproblem,andevenvoluntarilyreversetheprocessofwrinklingbyexercisingthem.Inaddition,ifthefacewereunderourcontrol,morefacialmovementswouldbecultural,notuniversal.Facialmovementsbecomepracticedbehaviorovertime,becausewelearnhowtopresentanevensmilewhenmeetingsomeoneandanarchedeyebrowwhenourkiddropsmustardonthefloor.Buttheplethoraofmusclesinourfacesmakesithardforustokeeptrackofthem.Weoftendonotevenrealizetherangeofemotionsandphysiologicalreactionsweexpresswithourfaces.WhatdoesthatupturnedbrowmeanIsthereadifferenceifthepersonsendingthemessageismaleorfemaleIfthereceiverismaleorfemaleTheheadistheworkhorseofcommunication.Andalthoughmuchofwhatitconveysisintentional,westillleakmessagesthatareimpossibletocover.2.2.4Bodydistance论文写作指导、各类文案代写QQ625880526Psychologistsdiscoveranypersonneedspersonalspace,yetskinsarenottheboundaryofpersonalspace,theirpersonalspacesareencircledbybubblesandotherpeoplecantbreakinatwill.Peoplealwayscarrypersonalspacewiththemnomatterhowfartheywillgo,andtheyalwayshaveakindofinstinctivecommonsenseofselfguard.Sothespeakerstalkingwithhimneedtokeepadistanceduringconversationtoavoidoffence.TheanthropologistandsocialistDoctorHalladvanced4kindsofdefinitionsforit.1.Intimatedistance045cmproperforspouseandlovers2.personaldistance5120cmProperforfriends,acquaintances,andrelatives3.socialdistance120360cmproperfordealingwithimpersonalthing4,publicdistance360750cmproperforinformalparty.TakeBritainandItalianforexample,therewouldbeaveryinterestingsensewhenpeoplefromthetwocountriesaretalkingtoeachother.ItseemsthattheItalianwouldalwaysbetheaggressorwhiletheEnglishbethedefender.However,intheirowncondition,theyjustwanttoholdthecommunicationspacetheyusedto.Apersonsuseofspaceisdirectlylinkedtothevaluesystemoftheirculture.Forexample,orientalpeoplecouldbearthephysicaltouchinacrowdbus,whilewesternpeoplemayfinditunabletoendure.Astopersonalspace,Chinese,Japanese,evenmostofAsianpeoplehavefewerrequirementsthanwesternpeople.Forwesternersvaluemoreonindividualism.2.3FunctionsofNonverbalCommunicationNonverbalcommunication,likeverbalcommunicationisalsoapartofcultureandthecarrierofacertainculture.Thefunctionofnonverbalcommunicationinthewholecommunicationcantbeoverlooked.Inthedailycommunication,wecanseepeoplecantcommunicateefficientlybyverballanguagealone.Andnonverbalcommunicationwillexpressclearmeaningsinacertaincontext.Andacertainnonverbalcommunicationshouldbeconnectedwithverbalcommunicationortheothernonverbalcommunicationtoprovidecorrectinformation.Soincommunicativeactivities,nonverbalcommunicationalsoplaysagreatrole.Ofcourse,weshouldpaycloseattentiontothefunctionsof论文写作指导、各类文案代写QQ625880526nonverbalcommunication.Inanycase,whenverbalcommunicationconflictswithnonverbalcommunication,peoplearewillingtoaccepttheinformationnonverbalcommunicationdelivers.Becausenonverbalcommunicationsoundsmorenatural,moreinstinctiveanditishardtopretend.Obviously,weshouldmakefulluseofnonverbalcommunicationtoachieveefficientcommunication.Now,wewilldiscussthefunctionsofnonverbalcommunication.Repetition.Forexample,whenwetellpeoplehowtogettothenearesthospital,wearenotonlytellingthemthedirectionbutalsopointingtothedirectionwithhands.Supplement.Forinstance,wegreetpeoplewithasmile.Smilefunctionsasasupplementtothepleasureofmeetingpeople.Replacement.Whenwecommunicatewithothers,wewillfrowninsteadofaskingdirectlytohintthatwedontunderstandandexpectrepetitionorexplanation.Emphasis.Whenwearetalkingormakingaspeech,weoftenraiseourvoicetostressthecontent.Andsometimes,wesay,Itismyfaultwhilehungdownourheads.Wesmileandsay,Welcome.Weshoutouttothepeoplewhilewavingourfists.Allthenonverbalcommunicationhereemphasizeswhatwesay.Adjustment.Weoftensuggestthatourtalkisoverbyourtone,eyes,headnoddingandothernonverbalcommunicativebehaviors.Forexample,themanagerstandsuptoshowtheendoftheinterview.论文写作指导、各类文案代写QQ6258805263TheCommonlyUsedofBodyLanguageBodylanguageisthemostimportantbehaviorofnonverbalcommunication.Forexample,ChineseTibetansstretchouttheirtongueswhenmeetingpeople,thisisthewaytoexpresstheirpolitenessandrespect,butwhenAmericansdoingthis,theywanttoexpressdespitetoothers.Sobodylanguagemaycausedifficultiesandmisunderstanding,leadtofailureininterculturalcommunication.Followingaresomeexamplesofusesomeofthenonverbalmessagesininterculturalcommunicationwhichfrequentlyappearinthecourseofcommunicationandmighteasilycausemisunderstanding.Followingaresomeexamplesofusesomeofthenonverbalmessagesininterculturalcommunicationwhichfrequentlyappearinthecourseofcommunicationandmighteasilycausemisunderstanding.3.1GreetingInAsiancountries,therearesomecommongreetinggestures,theyarehandshaking,bowing,avoideyecontact.InChina,thewesterncustomofshakinghandsisthecustomaryformofgreeting,butoftenanodoftheheadorslightbowissufficient.Huggingandkissingwhengreetingareuncommon.Businesscardsareoftenexchanged,andyoursshouldbeprintedinyourownlanguageandinChinese.Also,itismorerespectfultopresentyourcardoragiftoranyotherarticleusingbothhands.TheChineseareenthusiasticapplauders.Youmaybegreetedwithgroupclapping,evenbysmallchildren.Whenapersonisapplaudedinthisfashionitisthecustomforthatpersontoreturntheapplauseorathankyou.Whenwalkinginpublicplaces,directeyecontactandstaringisuncommoninthelargercities,especiallyinthoseareasaccustomedtoforeignvisitors.However,insmallercommunities,visitorsmaybethesubjectofmuchcuriosityandthereforeyoumaynoticesomestares.InJapan,thegracefulactofbowingisthetraditionalgreeting.However,theyhavealsoadoptedthewesterncustomofshakinghands,albeitwithalightgripandperhapswith

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