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中英文翻译MILLING铣削.doc

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中英文翻译MILLING铣削.doc

MILLING铣削Millingisabasicmachiningprocessinwhichthesurfaceisgeneratedbytheprogressiveformationandremovalofchipsofmaterialfromtheworkpieceasitisfedtoarotatingcutterinadirectionperpendiculartotheaxisofthecutter.Insomecasestheworkpieceisstationaryandthecutterisfedtothework.Inmostinstancesamultipletoothcutterisusedsothatthemetalremovalrateishigh,andfrequentlythedesiredsurfaceisobtainedinasinglepassofthework.Thetoolusedinmillingisknownasamillingcutter.Itusuallyconsistsofacylindricalbodywhichrotatesonitsaxisandcontainsequallyspacedperipheralteeththatintermittentlyengageandcuttheworkpiece.1InsomecasestheteethextendpartwayacrossoneorbothEndsofthecylinder.Becausethemillingprincipleprovidesrapidmetalremovalandcanproducegoodsurfacefinish,itisparticularlywellsuitedformassproductionwork,andexcellentmillingmachineshavebeendevelopedforthispurpose.However,veryaccurateandversatilemillingMachinesofageneralpurposenaturealsohavebeendevelopedthatarewidelyusedinjobshopandtoolanddiework.Ashopthatisequippedwithamillingmachineandanenginelathecanmachinealmostanytypeofproductofsuitablesize.TypesofMillingOperations.Millingoperationscanbeclassifiedintotwobroadcategories,eachofwhichhasseveralvariations1.Inperipheralmillingasurfaceisgeneratedbyteethlocatedintheperipheryofthecutterbodythesurfaceisparallelwiththeaxisofrotationofthecutter.Bothflatandformedsurfacescanbeproducedbythismethod.Thecrosssectionoftheresultingsurfacecorrespondstotheaxialcontourofthecutter.Thisprocedureofteniscalledslabmilling.2.Infacemillingthegeneratedflatsurfaceisatrightanglestothecutteraxisandisthecombinedresultoftheactionsoftheportionsoftheteethlocatedonboththeperipheryandthefaceofthecutter.2Themajorportionofthecuttingisdonebytheperipheralportionsoftheteethwiththefaceportionsprovidingafinishingaction.ThebasicconceptsofperipheralandfacemillingareillustratedinFig.161.Peripheralmillingoperationsusuallyareperformedonmachineshavinghorizontalspindles,whereasfacemillingisdoneonbothhorizontalandverticalspindlemachines.SurfaceGenerationinMimng.SurfacescanbegeneratedinmillingbytwodistinctlydifferentmethodsdepictedinFig.162.Notethatinupmillingthecutterrotatesagainsithedirectionoffeedtheworkpiece,whereasindownmillingtherotationisinthesamedirectionasthefeed.AsshowninFig.162,themethodofchipformationisquitedifferentinthetwocases.Inupmillingthechipisverythinatthebeginning,wherethetoothfirstcontactsthework,andincreasesinthickness,becomingamaximumwherethetoothleavesthework.ThecuttertendstopushtheworkalongandliftitupwardfromToolworkrelationshiosinperipheralandfacemillingthetable.Thisactiontendstoeliminateanyeffectofloosenessinthefeedscrewandnutofthemillingmachinetableandresultsinasmoothcut.However,theactionalsotendstoloosentheworkfromtheclampingdevicesothatgreaterclampingforcersmustbeemployed.Inaddition,thesmoothnessofthegeneratedsurfacedependsgreatlyonthesharpnessofthecuttingedges.Indownmilling,maximumchipthicknesscecumclosetothepointatwhichthetoothcontactsthework.Becausetherelativemotiontendstopulltheworkpieceintothecutter,allpossibilityofloosenessinthetablefeedscrewmustbeeliminatedifdownmillingistobeused.Itshouldneverbeattemptedonmachinesthatarenotdesignedforthistypeofmilling.Inasmushasthematerialyieldsinapproximatelyatangentialdirectionattheendofthetoothengagement,thereismuchlesstendencyforthemachinedsurfacetoshowtoothmarksthanwhenupmillingisused.Anotherconsiderableadvantageofdownmillingisthatthecuttingforcetendstoholdtheworkagainstthemachinetable,permittinglowerclampingforcetobeemployed.3Thisisparticularlyadvantageouswhenmillingthinworkpieceorwhentakingheavycuts.Sometimesadisadvantageofdownmillingisthatthecutterteethstrikeagainstthesurfaceoftheworkatthebeginningofeachchip.Whentheworkpiecehasahardsurface,suchascastingsdo,thismaycausetheteethtodullrapidly.MillingCutters.Millingcutterscanbeclassifiedseveralways.Onemethodistogroupthemintotwobroadclasses,basedontoothrelief,asfollows1.Profilecuttershavereliefprovidedoneachtoothbygrindingasmalllandbackofthecuttingedge.Thecuttingedgemaybestraightorcurved.2.Informorcamrehevedcuttersthecrosssectionofeachtoothisaneccentriccurvebehindthecuttingedge,thusprovidingrelief.Allsectionsoftheeccentricrelief,parallelwiththecuttingedge,musthavethesamecontourasthecuttingedge.Cuttersofthistypearesharpenedbygrindingonlythefaceoftheteeth,withthecontourofthecuttingedgethusremainingunchanged.Anotherusefulmethodofclassificationisaccordingtothemethodofmountingthecutter.Arborcuttersarethosethathaveacenterholesotheycanbemountedonanarbor.Shankcuttershaveeithertaperedorstraightintegralshank.Thosewithtaperedshankscanbemounteddirectlyinthemillingmachinespindle,whereasstraightshankcuttersareheldinachuck.Facingcuttersusuallyareboltedtotheendofastubarbor.Thecommontypesofmillingcutters,classifiedbythissystemareasfollowsTypesofMillingCutters.Hainmillingcuttersarecylindricalordiskshaped,havingstraightorhelicalteethontheperiphery.Theyareusedformillingflatsurfaces.Thistypeofoperationiscalledplainorslabmilling.Eachtoothinahelicalcutterengagestheworkgradually,andusuallymorethanonetoothcutsatagiventime.Thisreducesshockandchatteringtendenciesandpromotesasmoothersurface.Consequently,thistypeofcutterusuallyispreferredoveronewithstraightteeth.Sidemillingcuttersaresimilartoplainmillingcuttersexceptthattheteethextendradiallypartwayacrossoneorbothendsofthecylindertowardthecenter.Theteethmaybeeitherstraightorhelical.Frequentlythesecuttersarerelativelynarrow,beingdisklikeinshape.Twoormoresidemillingcuttersoftenarespacedonanarbortomakesimultaneous,parallelcuts,inanoperationcalledstraddlemilling.Interlockingslottingcuttersconsistoftwocutterssimilartosidemills,butmadetooperateasaunitformillingslots.Thetwocuttersareadjustedtothedesiredwidthbyinsertingshimsbetweenthem.Staggeredtoothmillingcuttersarenarrowcylindricalcuttershavingstaggeredteeth,andwithalternateteethhavingoppositehelixangles.Theyaregroundtocutonlyontheperiphery,buteachtoothalsohaschipclearancegroundontheprotrudingside.Thesecuttershaveafreecuttingactionthatmakesthemparticnlarlyeffectiveinmillingdeepslots.Metalslittingsawsarethin,plainmillingcutters,usuallyfrom1/32to3/16inchthick,whichhavetheirsidesslightlydishedtoprovideclearanceandpreventbinding.Theyusuallyhavemoreteethperinchofdiameterthanordinaryplainmillingcuttersandareusedformillingdeep,narrowslotsandforcuttingoffoperations.数控铣削铣削是机械加工的一个基础方法。在这一加工过程中,当工件沿垂直于旋转刀具轴线方向进给时,在工件上形成并去除切屑从而逐渐地铣出表面。有时候,工件是固定的,而刀具处于进给状态。在大多数情况下,使用多齿刀具,金属切削量大,只需一次铣削就可以获得所期望的表面。在铣削加工中使用的刀具称做铣刀。它通常是一个绕其轴线旋转并且周边带有同间距齿的圆柱体,铣刀齿间歇性接触并切削工件。在某些情况下,铣刀上的刀齿会高出圆柱体的一端或两端。由于铣削切削金属速度很快,并且能产生良好的表面光洁度,故特别适合大规模生产加工。为了实现这一目的,已经制造出了质量一流的铣床。然而在机修车间和工具模具加工中也已经广泛地使用了非常精确的多功能通用的铣床。车间里拥有一台铣床和一台普通车床就能加工出具有适合尺寸的各种产品。铣削操作类型铣削操作可以分成两大种类,每一类又有多种类型。1.圆周铣削在圆周铣削中,使用的铣刀刀齿固定在刀体的圆周面上,工件铣削表面与旋转刀具轴线平行,从而加工表面。使用这种方法可以加工出平面和成型表面,加工中表面横截面与刀具的轴向外轮廓相一致。这种加工过程常被称为平面铣削。

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