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中英文翻译建筑.doc

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中英文翻译建筑.doc

毕业设计论文外文资料翻译系部机械工程系专业机械工程及自动化姓名学号外文出处TheOctober17,1989LomaPrietaEarthquake附件1.外文资料翻译译文2.外文原文。指导教师评语签名注请将该封面与附件装订成册。CommercialStructuresTheLomaPrietaEarthquakeanditssubsequentaftershocksresultedinwidespreaddamagetoavarietyofcommercialstructures.Alargegeographicalareawasaffected,asistypicalforanearthquakeofthismagnitude.Theaffectedareaencompasseseightcounties,fromMontereyandSanBenitointhesouthtoSanFrancisco,Alameda,andContraCostainthenorth.Intotal,buildingstructuresexperienceddamageoveranareaofapproximately3,000squaremiles.Althoughdamagewaswidespread,itwasalsoquitesporadic.Aswouldbeexpected,areasclosesttotheepicenterincludingHollister,LosGatos,SantaCruz,andWatsonvilleexperiencedthemostconcentrateddamage.Fartheraway,heavydamagewasgenerallylimitedtobuildingsofverypoorconstructionfoundedonsoftsoilsthatfailedoramplifiedtheearthquakegroundmotions.Thisissimilartotheeffectsnotedinthe1985MexicoCityEarthquake.Earthquakeeffectsalsotendedtobehighlydirectional.Mostdamageoccurredwithinanarrowbandthatextendsnorthwesttosoutheast,approximatelyparallelingtheSanAndreasFault.ThusmanycommunitiesalongthemarginsofSanFranciscoBayescapedseriousdamage.UnreinforcedMasonryBuildingsAshasbeenobservedinpastCaliforniaearthquakes,themostconcentratedandseveredamagetobuildingstructuresoccurredinunreinforcedmasonryURMbearingwallbuildings.URMbuildings,constructedofwoodframeroofandfloorsystemssupportedbythickunreinforcedbrickwalls,werecommonlyconstructedthroughoutCaliforniauntilthe1930s,whentheadoptionofbuildingcodeswithseismicresistiveprovisionspreventedtheirfurtherdevelopment.Asaresult,URMbuildingsaretypicallyfoundinthecentralbusinessdistrictsofolderCaliforniacitiesFailuresofURMbuildingsresultfrominadequateanchorageofthemasonrywallstoroofandfloordiaphragms,aswellasthelimitedstrengthandductilityofthebasicbuildingmaterialsandpoorconstructionworkmanship.Deteriorationofthesandlimemortarandwoodframingduetoweatherexposurefrequentlycontributestopoorperformance.CaliforniahasrecentlyenactedlegislationSB547requiringcitiestoidentifyURMbuildingsanddevelopplanstoreducetherisktheypresent.DamagetoURMbuildingsintheLomaPrietaEarthquakerangedfromdramaticcollapsesneartheepicentertofallenparapetsinMartinez,morethan70milesaway.LifethreateningcollapsesalsooccurredinHollister,LosGatos,Oakland,andtheSanFranciscofinancialdistrict.Theroofsandfloorsinmanybuildingswithcollapsedwallsseeminglydefiedgravitybycontinuingtostandafterlosingtheirloadbearingsupport.Generally,buildingswiththroughwallanchoragetofloorandroofframingperformedbetterthanbuildingswithoutthisfeature.MostURMbuildingsintheregionsurvivedtheearthquakewithoutcollapseorobvioussubstantialdamage.However,fieldinvestigationsshowthatmanyofthesestructureshaveexperiencedextensivecrackingofthemasonryandarethereforeweakened.Ifnotrepaired,someofthesebuildingsarelikelytocollapseinfutureearthquakes.URMbuildingswithmorethanthreeorfourstoriesweregenerallyconstructedwithsteelframestocarrythegravityloads.Masonrywallsinthesebuildingswereprimarilyprovidedforbuildingclosureandpartitionsandtoaddlateralshearresistancetothestructure.ThesesteelframeinfillmasonrybuildingshavegenerallyperformedbetterinpastCaliforniaearthquakesthanthesmallerbearingwallbuildings.Nonetheless,thesebuildingswereincludedinCalifornialegislationaddressingtheunreinforcedmasonryhazard.IntheLomaPrietaEarthquake,manysteelframebuildingswithinfillmasonrywallsperformedquitepoorly,althoughnocollapsesoccurred.SeveralmajorstructuresofthistypeinSanFranciscoandOaklandexperiencedextensivedamageincludingpartiallossoftheexteriormasonrywalls,shatteringofinteriorclaytilepartitions,andcrackingandspallingofterracottaveneers.ConcreteBuildingsManyolderreinforcedconcretestructureshaveverylimitedseismicresistance.Thesebuildingstendtobequiteheavy,resultinginlargeseismicforces.Inaddition,concreteitselfisquitebrittleandrequiresextensiveamountsofreinforcingsteeltoperformproperlyinearthquakes.Mostconcretestructuresdesignedpriortothemid1970sdonothaveadequatereinforcingsteeltoensuregoodperformance.Termednonductileconcretestructuresbyengineers,thesestructureshavecollapsedinpastearthquakes.TheCypressViaductstructurethatdramaticallycollapsedwasanonductileconcretestructure.Fortunately,therearerelativelyfewnonductileconcretebuildingsintheregionandnobuildingsofthistypecollapsed.Manymidriseconcretestructuresdidexperienceextensivedamage,however.Damagetypicallyconsistedoflargediagonalcrackingofshearwalls,occasionallyaccompaniedbyspallingoflargepiecesofconcretefromthebuildingAfifteenstoryconcreteshearwallstructureindowntownOaklandwasextensivelydamaged.Thelightweightconcreteshearwallsatthefirststoryliterallyshattered,exposingthereinforcingsteeltoview.Thepresenceofaredundantsteelframewithinthebuildingmayhavepreventedthecollapseofthisstructure.AsixstoryconcreteshearwallbuildinginSanFranciscoalsoexperiencedsubstantialdamage.Thisbuildinghadrecentlybeenseismicallystrengthenedwiththeadditionofsteelbracesonthebuildingperimeter.Duetopoordesignandconstructionworkmanship,theattachmentofthebracestothebuildingwasinadequateandmostoftheboltsfailed.Buildingdeflectionsfollowingfailureofthebracingcausedaninteriorcolumntopunchthroughafloorslab.Extensivedamagetoshearwallsabovedooropeningsalsooccurred.

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