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中英文翻译系统的分析与设计.doc

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中英文翻译系统的分析与设计.doc

SYSTEMSANALYSISANDDESIGNWORKINGUNDERCONTROLOFASTOREDPROGRAM,ACOMPUTERPROCESSESDATAINTOINFORMATIONTHINKABOUTTHATDEFINITIONFORAMINUTEANYGIVENCOMPUTERAPPLICATIONINVOLVESATLEASTTHREECOMPONENTSHARDWARE,SOFTWARE,ANDDATAMERELYWRITINGAPROGRAMISNTENOUGH;BECAUSETHEPROGRAMISBUTONECOMPONENTINASYSTEMASYSTEMISAGROUPOFCOMPONENTSTHATWORKTOGETHERTOACCOMPLISHANOBJECTIVEFOREXAMPLE,CONSIDERAPAYROLLSYSTEMITSOBJECTIVEISPAYINGEMPLOYEESWHATCOMPONENTSAREINVOLVEDEACHDAY,EMPLOYEESRECORDTHEIRHOURSWORKEDONTIMECARDSATTHEENDOFEACHWEEK,THETIMECARDSARECOLLECTEDANDDELIVEREDTOTHECOMPUTERCENTER,WHERETHEYAREREADINTOAPAYROLLPROGRAMASITRUNS,THEPROGRAMACCESSESDATAFILESFINALLY,THEPAYCHECKSAREPRINTEDANDDISTRIBUTEDFORTHESYSTEMTOWORK,PEOPLE,PROCEDURES,INPUTANDOUTPUTMEDIA,FILES,HARDWARE,ANDSOFTWAREMUSTBECAREFULLYCOORDINATEDNOTETHATTHEPROGRAMISBUTONECOMPONENTINASYSTEMCOMPUTERBASEDSYSTEMSAREDEVELOPEDBECAUSEPEOPLENEEDINFORMATIONTHOSEPEOPLE,CALLEDUSERS,GENERALLYKNOWWHATISREQUIRED,BUTMAYLACKTHEEXPERTISETOOBTAINITTECHNICALPROFESSIONALS,SUCHASPROGRAMMERS,HAVETHEEXPERTISE,BUTMAYLACKTRAININGINTHEUSERSFIELDTOCOMPLICATEMATTERS,USERSANDPROGRAMMERSOFTENSEEMTOSPEAKDIFFERENTLANGUAGES,LEADINGTOCOMMUNICATIONPROBLEMSASYSTEMSANALYSTISAPROFESSIONALWHOTRANSLATESUSERNEEDSINTOTECHNICALTERMS,THUSSERVINGASABRIDGEBETWEENUSERSANDTECHNICALPROFESSIONALSLIKEANENGINEERORANARCHITECT,ASYSTEMSANALYSTSOLVESPROBLEMSBYCOMBININGSOLIDTECHNICALSKILLSWITHINSIGHT,IMAGINATION,ANDATOUCHOFARTGENERALLY,THEANALYSTFOLLOWSAWELLDEFINED,METHODICALPROCESSTHATINCLUDESATLEASTTHEFOLLOWINGSTEPS;1PROBLEMDEFINITION2ANALYSIS3DESIGN4IMPLEMENTATION5MAINTENANCEATTHEENDOFEACHSTEP,RESULTSAREDOCUMENTEDANDSHAREDWITHBOTHTHEUSERANDTHEPROGRAMMERSTHEIDEAISTOCATCHANDCORRECTERRORSANDMISUNDERSTANDINGSASEARLYASPOSSIBLEPERHAPSTHEBESTWAYTOILLUSTRATETHEPROCESSISTHROUGHEXAMPLEPICTUREASMALLCLOTHINGSTORETHATPURCHASESMERCHANDISEATWHOLESALE,DISPLAYSTHISSTOCK,ANDSELLSITTOCUSTOMERSATRETAILONTHEONEHAND,TOOMUCHSTOCKREPRESENTSANUNNECESSARYEXPENSEONTHEOTHERHAND,APOORSELECTIONDISCOURAGESSHOPPERSIDEALLY,ABALANCECANBEACHIEVEDENOUGH,BUTNOTTOOMUCHCOMPLICATINGMATTERSISTHEFACTTHATINVENTORYISCONSTANTLYCHANGING,WITHCUSTOMERPURCHASESDEPLETINGSTOCK,ANDRETURNSANDREORDERSADDINGTOIT1THEOWNERWOULDLIKETOTRACKINVENTORYLEVELSANDREORDERANDGIVENITEMJUSTBEFORETHESTORERUNSOUTFORASINGLEITEM,THETASKISEASYJUSTCOUNTTHESTOCKONHANDUNFORTUNATELY,THESTOREHASHUNDREDSOFDIFFERENTITEMS,ANDKEEPINGTRACKOFEACHONEISIMPRACTICALPERHAPSACOMPUTERMIGHTHELP21PROBLEMDEFINITIONTHEFIRSTSTEPINTHESYSTEMSANALYSISANDDESIGNPROCESSISPROBLEMDEFINITIONTHEANALYSTSOBJECTIVEISDETERMININGWHATTHEUSERINTHISCASE,THESTORESOWNERNEEDSNOTETHAT,ASTHEPROCESSBEGINS,THEUSERPOSSESSESTHECRITICALINFORMATION,ANDTHEANALYSTMUSTLISTENANDLEARNFEWUSERSARETECHNICALEXPERTSMOSTSEETHECOMPUTERASAMAGICBOX,ANDARENOTCONCERNEDWITHHOWITWORKSATTHISSTAGE,THEANALYSTHASNOBUSINESSEVENTHINKINGABOUTPROGRAMS,FILES,ANDCOMPUTERHARDWARE,BUTMUSTCOMMUNICATEWITHTHEUSERONHISORHEROWNTERMTHEIDEAISTOENSURETHATBOTHTHEUSERANDTHEANALYSTARETHINKINGABOUTTHESAMETHINGTHUS,ACLEAR,WRITTENSTATEMENTEXPRESSINGTHEANALYSTSUNDERSTANDINGOFTHEPROBLEMISESSENTIALTHEUSERSHOULDREVIEWANDCORRECTTHISWRITTENSTATEMENTTHETIMETOCATCHMISUNDERSTANDINGSANDOVERSIGHTSISNOW,BEFORETIME,MONEYANDEFFORTAREWASTEDOFTEN,FOLLOWINGAPRELIMINARYPROBLEMDEFINITION,THEANALYSTPERFORMSAFEASIBILITYSTUDYTHESTUDYABRIEFCAPSULEVERSIONOFTHEENTIRESYSTEMSANALYSISANDDESIGNPROCESS,ATTEMPTSTOANSWERTHREEQUESTIONS1CANTHEPROBLEMBESOLVED2CANITBESALVEDINTHEUSERSENVIRONMENT3CANITBESOLVEDATAREASONABLECOSTIFTHEANSWERTOANYONEOFTHESEQUESTIONSISNO,THESYSTEMSHOULDNOTBEDEVELOPEDGIVENAGOODPROBLEMDEFINITIONANDAPOSITIVEFEASIBILITYSTUDY,THEANALYSTCANTURNTOPLANNINGANDDEVELOPINGAPROBLEMSOLUTION22ANALYSISASANALYSISBEGINS,THEANALYSTUNDERSTANDSTHEPROBLEMTHENEXTSTEPISDETERMININGWHATMUSTBEDONETOSOLVEITTHEUSERKNOWSWHATMUSTBEDONE1DURINGANALYSIS;THISKNOWLEDGEISEXTRACTEDANDFORMALLYDOCUMENTEDMOSTUSERSTHINKINTERMSOFTHEFUNCTIONSTOBEPERFORMEDANDTHEDATAELEMENTSTOBEMANIPULATEDTHEOBJECTIVEISTOIDENTIFYANDLINKTHESEKEYFUNCTIONSANDDATAELEMENTS,YIELDINGALOGICALSYSTEMDESIGNSTARTWITHTHESYSTEMSBASICFUNCTIONSTHEKEYISKEEPINGTRACKOFTHESTOCKONHANDFOREACHPRODUCTININVENTORYINVENTORYCHANGESBECAUSECUSTOMERSPURCHASE,EXCHANGE,ANDRETURNPRODUCTS,SOTHESYSTEMWILLHAVETOPROCESSCUSTOMERTRANSACTIONSTHESTORESOWNERWANTSTOSELECTIVELYLOOKATTHEINVENTORYLEVELFORANYPRODUCTINSHORTSUPPLYAND,IFAPPROPRIATE,ORDERREPLACEMENTSTOCK,SOTHESYSTEMMUSTBEABLETOCOMMUNICATEWITHMANAGEMENTFINALLY,FOLLOWINGMANAGEMENTAUTHORIZATION,THESYSTEMSHOULDGENERATEAREORDERREADYTOSENDTOASUPPLIERFIG1GIVENTHESYSTEMSBASICFUNCTIONS,THEANALYSTSNEXTTASKISGAININGASENSEOFTHEIRLOGICALRELATIONSHIPAGOODWAYTOSTARTISBYDESCRIBINGHOWDATAFLOWBETWEENTHEFUNCTIONSASTHENAMEIMPLIES,DATAFLOWDIAGRAMSAREPARTICULARLYUSEFULFORGRAPHICALLYDESCRIBINGTHESEDATAFLOWSFOURSYMBOLSAREUSEDFIG1DATASOURCESANDDESTINATIONSAREREPRESENTEDBYSQUARES;INPUTDATAENTERTHESYSTEMFROMASOURCE,ANDOUTPUTDATAFLOWTOADESTINATIONONCEINTHESYSTEM,THEDATAAREMANIPULATEDORCHANGEBYPROCESSES,REPRESENTEDBYROUNDCORNERRECTANGLESAPROCESSMIGHTBEAPROGRAM,APROCEDURE,ORANYTHINGELSETHATCHANGESORMOVESDATADATACANBEHELDFORLATERPROCESSINGINDATASTORES,SYMBOLIZEDBYOPENENDEDRECTANGLESADATASTOREMIGHTBEADISKFILE,ATAPEFILE,ADATABASE,WRITTENNOTES,OREVENAPERSONSMEMORYFINALLY,DATAFLOWBETWEENSOURCES,DESTINATIONS,PROCESSES,ENDDATASTORESOVERDATAFLOWS,WHICHAREREPRESENTEDBYARROWSFIG2FIGURE2SHOWSAPRELIMINARYDATAFLOWDIAGRAMFORTHEINVENTORYSYSTEMSTARTWITHCUSTOMERTRANSACTIONSFLOWFROMACUSTOMERFINTOTHESYSTEM,WHERETHEYAREHANDLEDBYPROCESSTRANSACTIONADATASTORE,STOCK,HOLDSDATAONEACHITEMININVENTORYPROCESSTRANSACTIONCHANGESTHEDATATOREFLECTTHENEWTRANSACTIONMEANWHILE,MANAGEMENTACCESSESTHESYSTEMTHROUGHCOMMUNICATE,EVALUATINGTHEDATAINSTOCKAND,IFNECESSARY,REQUESTINGAREORDERONCEAREORDERISAUTHORIZEDGENERATEREORDERSENDSNECESSARYDATATOTHESUPPLIER,WHOSHIPSTHEITEMSTOTHESTORENOTETHAT,BECAUSETHEREORDERREPRESENTSACHANGEINTHEINVENTORYLEVELOFAPARTICULARPRODUCTORPRODUCTSITISHANDLEDASATRANSACTIONTHEDATAFLOWDIAGRAMDESCRIBESTHELOGICALSYSTEMTHENEXTSTEPISTRACINGTHEDATAFLOWSSTARTWITHTHEDESTINATIONSUPPLIERREORDERSFLOWTOSUPPLIERS;FOREXAMPLE,THESTOREMIGHTWANT25PAIRSOFJEANSTOFILLTHEORDER,THESUPPLIERNEEDSTHEPRODUCTDESCRIPTIONANDTHEREORDERQUANTITYWHEREDOTHESEDATAELEMENTSCOMEFROMSINCETHEYAREOUTPUTBYGENERATEREORDER,THEYMUSTEITHERBEINPUTTOORGENERATEDBYTHISPROCESSDATAFLOWINTOGENERATEREORDERFORSTOCK;THUS,PRODUCTDESCRIPTIONSANDREORDERQUANTITIESMUSTBESTOREDINSTOCKOTHERDATAELEMENTS,SUCHASTHEITEMPURCHASEDANDTHEPURCHASEQUANTITYAREGENERATEDBYCUSTOMERSTILLOTHERS,FOREXAMPLESELLINGPRICEANDREORDERPOINT,AREGENERATEDBYORNEEDEDBYMANAGEMENTTHECURRENTSTOCKONHANDFORAGIVENITEMISANEXAMPLEOFADATAELEMENTGENERATEDBYANALGORITHMINONEOFTHEPROCEDURESSTEPBYSTEP,METHODICALLY,THEANALYSTIDENTIFIESTHEDATAELEMENTSTOBEINPUTTOSTOREDBY,MANIPULATEDBY,GENERATEDBY,OROUTPUTBYTHESYSTEMTOKEEPTRACKOFTHEDATAELEMENTS,THEANALYSTMIGHTLISTEACHONEINADATADICTIONARYASIMPLEDATADICTIONARYCANBESETUPONINDEXCARDS,BUTCOMPUTERIZEDDATADICTIONARIESHAVEBECOMEINCREASINGLYPOPULARTHEDATADICTIONARY,ACOLLECTIONOFDATADESCRIBINGANDDEFININGTHEDATA,ISUSEFULTHROUGHOUTTHESYSTEMSANALYSISANDDESIGNPROCESS,ANDISOFTENUSEDTOBUILDADATABASEDURINGTHEIMPLEMENTATIONSTAGETHEIDEAOFANALYSISISTODEFINETHESYSTEMSMAJORFUNCTIONSANDDATAELEMENTSMETHODICALLYREMEMBERTHATTHEOBJECTIVEISTRANSLATINGUSERNEEDSINTOTECHNICALTERMSSINCETHESYSTEMSTARTSWITHTHEUSER,THEFIRSTSTEPISDEFININGTHEUSERSNEEDSUSERSTHINKINTERMSOFFUNCTIONSANDDATATHEYDONOTVISUALIZEPROGRAMS,ORFILES,ORHARDWAREANDDURINGTHISINITIAL,CRUCIALANALYSISSTAGEITISESSENTIALTHATTHEANALYSTTHINKLIKEAUSER,NOTLIKEAPROGRAMMERDATAFLOWDIAGRAMSANDDATADICTIONARIESAREUSEFULTOOLSTHEYPROVIDEAFORMATFORRECORDINGKEYINFORMATIONABOUTTHEPROPOSEDSYSTEMALSO,THEYJOGTHEANALYSTSMEMORYFOREXAMPLE,IFTHEANALYSTDOESNTHAVESUFFICIENTINFORMATIONTOCOMPLETEADATADICTIONARYENTRY,HEORSHEHASPROBABLYMISSEDSOMETHINGPERHAPSMOSTIMPORTANTLY,THEDATAFLOWDIAGRAMANDTHEDATADICTIONARYDOCUMENTTHEANALYSTSUNDERSTANDINGOFTHESYSTEMREQUIREMENTSBYREVIEWINGTHESEDOCUMENTS,THEUSERCANCORRECTMISUNDERSTANDINGSOROVERSIGHTSFINALLY,THEYREPRESENTANEXCELLENTSTARTINGPOINTTHENEXTSTEP,DESIGN23DESIGNASWEENTERTHEDESIGNSTAGE,WEKNOWWHATTHESYSTEMMUSTDO,ANDTHUSCANBEGINTHINKINGABOUTHOWTODOITTHEOBJECTIVEISTODEVELOPASTRATEGYFORSOLVINGTHEPROBLEMATTHISSTAGE,WEARENOTINTERESTEDINWRITINGCODEORINDEFININGPRECISEDATASTRUCTURES;INSTEAD,WEWANTTOIDENTIFY,ATABLACKBOXLEVEL,NECESSARYPROGRAMS,FILES,PROCEDURES,ANDOTHERCOMPONENTSTHEDATAFLOWDIAGRAMDEFINESTHESYSTEMSNECESSARYFUNCTIONS;HOWMIGHTTHEYBEIMPLEMENTEDONEPOSSIBILITYISWRITINGONEPROGRAMFOREACHPROCESSANOTHERISCOMBININGTWOORMOREPROCESSESINASINGLEPROGRAM;THEREAREDOZENSOFALTERNATIVESOLUTIONSLETSFOCUSONONEOPTIONANDDOCUMENTITASYSTEMFLOWCHARTUSESSYMBOLSTOREPRESENTPROGRAMS,PROCEDURES,HARDWAREDEVICES,ANDTHEOTHERCOMPONENTSOFAPHYSICALSYSTEMFIG3OURFLOWCHARTFIG4SHOWSTHATTRANSACTIONDATAENTERTHESYSTEMTHROUGHATERMINAL,AREPROCESSEDBYADATACOLLECTIONPROGRAM,ANDTHENARESTOREDONANINVENTORYFILEEVENTUALLY,THEINVENTORYFILEISPROCESSEDBYAREPORTANDREORDERPROGRAMTHROUGHIT,MANAGEMENTMANIPULATESTHEDATAANDAUTHORIZESREORDERSFIG4ONASYSTEMFLOWCHART,SYMBOLSREPRESENTPROGRAMS,PROCEDURES,HARDWAREDEVICES,ANDTHEOTHERCOMPONENTSOFAPHYSICALSYSTEMFIG3LOOKATTHESYSTEMFLOWCHARTITIDENTIFIESSEVERALHARDWARECOMPONENTS,INCLUDINGACOMPUTER,ADISKDRIVE,ADATAENTRYTERMINAL,APRINTER,ANDADISPLAYTERMINALTWOPROGRAMSARENEEDED;PROCESSTRANSACTIONANDREPORTANDREORDERINADDITIONTOTHEHARDWAREANDTHEPROGRAMS,WE1LNEEDDATASTRUCTURESFORTHEINVENTORYFILEANDFORDATAFLAWSBETWEENTHEI/ODEVICESANDTHESOFTWARENOTETHATTHISSYSTEMFLOWCHARTILLUSTRATESONEPOSSIBLESOLUTION;AGOODANALYSTWILLDEVELOPSEVERALFEASIBLEALTERNATIVESBEFORECHOOSINGONEFIG4THEFLOWCHARTMAPSTHESYSTEM,HIGHLIGHTINGITSMAJORPHYSICALCOMPONENTSSINCETHEDATALINKTHECOMPONENTS,THENEXTTASKISDEFININGTHEDATASTRUCTURESCONSIDER,FOREXAMPLE,THEINVENTORYFILEITCONTAINSALLTHEDATAELEMENTSFROMTHEDATASTORESTOCKTHEDATAELEMENTSARE

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