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外文翻译---汽车制动系统.doc

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外文翻译---汽车制动系统.doc

1附录1外文翻译AUTOMOBILEBRAKESYSTEMTHEBRAKINGSYSTEMISTHEMOSTIMPORTANTSYSTEMINCARSIFTHEBRAKESFAIL,THERESULTCANBEDISASTROUSBRAKESAREACTUALLYENERGYCONVERSIONDEVICES,WHICHCONVERTTHEKINETICENERGYMOMENTUMOFTHEVEHICLEINTOTHERMALENERGYHEATWHENSTEPPINGONTHEBRAKES,THEDRIVERCOMMANDSASTOPPINGFORCETENTIMESASPOWERFULASTHEFORCETHATPUTSTHECARINMOTIONTHEBRAKINGSYSTEMCANEXERTTHOUSANDSOFPOUNDSOFPRESSUREONEACHOFTHEFOURBRAKESTWOCOMPLETEINDEPENDENTBRAKINGSYSTEMSAREUSEDONTHECARTHEYARETHESERVICEBRAKEANDTHEPARKINGBRAKETHESERVICEBRAKEACTSTOSLOW,STOP,ORHOLDTHEVEHICLEDURINGNORMALDRIVINGTHEYAREFOOTOPERATEDBYTHEDRIVERDEPRESSINGANDRELEASINGTHEBRAKEPEDALTHEPRIMARYPURPOSEOFTHEBRAKEISTOHOLDTHEVEHICLESTATIONARYWHILEITISUNATTENDEDTHEPARKINGBRAKEISMECHANICALLYOPERATEDBYWHENASEPARATEPARKINGBRAKEFOOTPEDALORHANDLEVERISSETTHEBRAKESYSTEMISCOMPOSEDOFTHEFOLLOWINGBASICCOMPONENTSTHE“MASTERCYLINDER”WHICHISLOCATEDUNDERTHEHOOD,ANDISDIRECTLYCONNECTEDTOTHEBRAKEPEDAL,CONVERTSDRIVERFOOT’SMECHANICALPRESSUREINTOHYDRAULICPRESSURESTEEL“BRAKELINES”ANDFLEXIBLE“BRAKEHOSES”CONNECTTHEMASTERCYLINDERTOTHE“SLAVECYLINDERS”LOCATEDATEACHWHEELBRAKEFLUID,SPECIALLYDESIGNEDTOWORKINEXTREMECONDITIONS,FILLSTHE2SYSTEM“SHOES”AND“PADS”AREPUSHEDBYTHESLAVECYLINDERSTOCONTACTTHE“DRUMS”AND“ROTORS”THUSCAUSINGDRAG,WHICHHOPEFULLYSLOWSTHECARTHETYPICALBRAKESYSTEMCONSISTSOFDISKBRAKESINFRONTANDEITHERDISKORDRUMBRAKESINTHEREARCONNECTEDBYASYSTEMOFTUBESANDHOSESTHATLINKTHEBRAKEATEACHWHEELTOTHEMASTERCYLINDERFIGUREBASICALLY,ALLCARBRAKESAREFRICTIONBRAKESWHENTHEDRIVERAPPLIESTHEBRAKE,THECONTROLDEVICEFORCESBRAKESHOES,ORPADS,AGAINSTTHEROTATINGBRAKEDRUMORDISKSATWHEELFRICTIONBETWEENTHESHOESORPADSANDTHEDRUMSORDISKSTHENSLOWSORSTOPSTHEWHEELSOTHATTHECARISBRAKEDINMOSTMODERNBRAKESYSTEMSSEEFIGURE151,THEREISAFLUIDFILLEDCYLINDER,CALLEDMASTERCYLINDER,WHICHCONTAINSTWOSEPARATESECTIONS,THEREISAPISTONINEACHSECTIONANDBOTHPISTONSARECONNECTEDTOABRAKEPEDALINTHEDRIVER’SCOMPARTMENTWHENTHEBRAKEISPUSHEDDOWN,BRAKEFLUIDISSENTFROMTHEMASTERCYLINDERTOTHEWHEELSATTHEWHEELS,THEFLUIDPUSHESSHOES,ORPADS,AGAINSTREVOLVINGDRUMSORDISKSTHEFRICTIONBETWEENTHESTATIONARYSHOES,ORPADS,ANDTHEREVOLVINGDRUMSORDISKSSLOWSANDSTOPSTHEMTHISSLOWSORSTOPSTHEREVOLVINGWHEELS,WHICH,INTURN,SLOWORSTOPTHECARTHEBRAKEFLUIDRESERVOIRISONTOPOFTHEMASTERCYLINDERMOSTCARSTODAYHAVEATRANSPARENTRRESERVOIRSOTHATYOUCANSEETHELEVELWITHOUTOPENINGTHECOVERTHEBRAKEFLUIDLEVELWILLDROPSLIGHTLYASTHEBRAKEPADSWEARTHISISANORMALCONDITIONANDNOCAUSEFORCONCERNIFTHELEVELDROPSNOTICEABLYOVERASHORTPERIODOFTIMEORGOESDOWNTOABOUTTWOTHIRDSFULL,HAVEYOURBRAKESCHECKEDASSOONASPOSSIBLEKEEPTHERESERVOIRCOVEREDEXCEPTFORTHEAMOUNTOFTIMEYOUNEEDTOFILLITANDNEVERLEAVEACAMOFBRAKEFLUIDUNCOVEREDBRAKEFLUIDMUSTMAINTAINAVERYHIGHBOILINGPOINTEXPOSURETOAIRWILLCAUSETHEFLUIDTOABSORBMOISTUREWHICHWILLLOWERTHATBOILINGPOINTTHEBRAKEFLUIDTRAVELSFROMTHEMASTERCYLINDERTOTHEWHEELSTHROUGHASERIESOFSTEELTUBESANDREINFORCEDRUBBERHOSESRUBBERHOSESAREONLYUSEDINPLACESTHATREQUIREFLEXIBILITY,SUCHASATTHEFRONTWHEELS,WHICHMOVEUPANDDOWNASWELLASSTEERTHERESTOFTHESYSTEMUSESNONCORROSIVESEAMLESSSTEELTUBINGWITHSPECIALFITTINGSATALLATTACHMENTPOINTSIFASTEELLINEREQUIRESAREPAIR,THEBESTPROCEDUREISTOREPLACETHECOMPETELINEIFTHISISNOTPRACTICAL,ALINECANBEREPAIREDUSINGSPECIALSPLICEFITTINGSTHATAREMADEFORBRAKESYSTEMREPAIRYOUMUSTNEVERUSECOPPERTUBINGTOREPAIRABRAKESYSTEMTHEYAREDANGEROUSANDILLEGALDRUMBRAKES,ITCONSISTSOFTHEBRAKEDRUM,ANEXPANDER,PULLBACKSPRINGS,ASTATIONARYBACKPLATE,TWOSHOESWITHFRICTIONLININGS,ANDANCHORPINSTHESTATIONARYBACKPLATEISSECUREDTOTHEFLANGEOFTHEAXLEHOUSINGORTOTHESTEERINGKNUCKLETHEBRAKEDRUMISMOUNTEDONTHEWHEELHUBTHEREISACLEARANCEBETWEENTHEINNERSURFACEOFTHEDRUMANDTHESHOELININGTOAPPLYBRAKES,THEDRIVERPUSHESPEDAL,THE3EXPANDEREXPANDSTHESHOESANDPRESSESTHEMTOTHEDRUMFRICTIONBETWEENTHEBRAKEDRUMANDTHEFRICTIONLININGSBRAKESTHEWHEELSANDTHEVEHICLESTOPSTORELEASEBRAKES,THEDRIVERRELEASETHEPEDAL,THEPULLBACKSPRINGRETRACTSTHESHOESTHUSPERMITTINGFREEROTATIONOFTHEWHEELSDISKBRAKES,ITHASAMETALDISKINSTEADOFADRUMAFLATSHOE,ORDISKBRAKEPAD,ISLOCATEDONEACHSIDEOFTHEDISKTHESHOESSQUEEZETHEROTATINGDISKTOSTOPTHECARFLUIDFROMTHEMASTERCYLINDERFORCESTHEPISTONSTOMOVEIN,TOWARDTHEDISKTHISACTIONPUSHESTHEFRICTIONPADSTIGHTLYAGAINSTTHEDISKTHEFRICTIONBETWEENTHESHOESANDDISKSLOWSANDSTOPSITTHISPROVIDESTHEBRAKINGACTIONPISTONSAREMADEOFEITHERPLASTICORMETALTHEREARETHREEGENERALTYPESOFDISKBRAKESTHEYARETHEFLOATINGCALIPERTYPE,THEFIXEDCALIPERTYPE,ANDTHESLIDINGCALIPERTYPEFLOATINGCALIPERANDSLIDINGCALIPERDISKBRAKESUSEASINGLEPISTONFIXEDCALIPERDISKBRAKESHAVEEITHERTWOORFOURPISTONSTHEBRAKESYSTEMASSEMBLIESAREACTUATEDBYMECHANICAL,HYDRAULICORPNEUMATICDEVICESTHEMECHANICALLEVERAGEISUSEDINTHEPARKINGBRAKESFITTEDINALLAUTOMOBILEWHENTHEBRAKEPEDALISDEPRESSED,THERODPUSHESTHEPISTONOFBRAKEMASTERCYLINDERWHICHPRESSESTHEFLUIDTHEFLUIDFLOWSTHROUGHTHEPIPELINESTOTHEPOWERBRAKEUNITANDTHENTOTHEWHEELCYLINDERTHEFLUIDPRESSUREEXPANDSTHECYLINDERPISTONSTHUSPRESSINGTHESHOESTOTHEDRUMORDISKIFTHEPEDALISRELEASED,THEPISTONRETURNSTOTHEINITIALPOSITION,THEPULLBACKSPRINGSRETRACTTHESHOES,THEFLUIDISFORCEDBACKTOTHEMASTERCYLINDERANDBRAKINGCEASESTHEPRIMARYPURPOSEOFTHEPARKINGBRAKEISTOHOLDTHEVEHICLESTATIONARYWHILEITISUNATTENDEDTHEPARKINGBRAKEISMECHANICALLYOPERATEDBYTHEDRIVERWHENASEPARATEPARKINGBRAKINGHANDLEVERISSETTHEHANDBRAKEISNORMALLYUSEDWHENTHECARHASALREADYSTOPPEDALEVERISPULLEDANDTHEREARBRAKESAREAPPROACHEDANDLOCKEDINTHE“ON”POSITIONTHECARMAYNOWBELEFTWITHOUTFEAROFITSROLLINGAWAYWHENTHEDRIVERWANTSTOMOVETHECARAGAIN,HEMUSTPRESSABUTTONBEFORETHELEVERCANBERELEASEDTHEHANDBRAKEMUSTALSOBEABLETOSTOPTHECARINTHEEVENTOFTHEFOOTBRAKEFAILINGFORTHISREASON,ITISSEPARATEFROMTHEFOOTBRAKEUSESCABLEORRODSINSTEADOFTHEHYDRAULICSYSTEMANTILOCKBRAKESYSTEMANTILOCKBRAKESYSTEMSMAKEBRAKINGSAFERANDMORECONVENIENT,ANTILOCKBRAKESYSTEMSMODULATEBRAKESYSTEMHYDRAULICPRESSURETOPREVENTTHEBRAKESFROMLOCKINGANDTHETIRESFROMSKIDDINGONSLIPPERYPAVEMENTORDURINGAPANICSTOPANTILOCKBRAKESYSTEMSHAVEBEENUSEDONAIRCRAFTFORYEARS,ANDSOMEDOMESTICCARWEREOFFEREDWITHANEARLYFORMOFANTILOCKBRAKINGINLATE1990’SRECENTLY,SEVERALAUTOMAKERSHAVEINTRODUCEDMORESOPHISTICATEDANTILOCKSYSTEMINVESTIGATIONSINEUROPE,WHEREANTILOCKBRAKINGSYSTEMSHAVEBEENAVAILABLEFORADECADE,HAVELEDONEMANUFACTURETOSTATETHATTHENUMBEROFTRAFFICACCIDENTSCOULDBE4REDUCEDBYSEVENANDAHALFPERCENTIFALLCARSHADANTILOCKBRAKESSOSOMESOURCESPREDICTTHATALLCARSWILLOFFERANTILOCKBRAKESTOIMPROVETHESAFETYOFTHECARANTILOCKSYSTEMSMODULATEBRAKEAPPLICATIONFORCESEVERALTIMESPERSECONDTOHOLDTHETIRESATACONTROLLEDAMOUNTOFSLIP;ALLSYSTEMSACCOMPLISHTHISINBASICALLYTHESAMEWAYONEORMORESPEEDSENSORSGENERATEALTERNATINGCURRENTSIGNALWHOSEFREQUENCYINCREASESWITHTHEWHEELROTATIONALSPEEDANELECTRONICCONTROLUNITCONTINUOUSLYMONITORSTHESESIGNALSANDIFTHEFREQUENCYOFASIGNALDROPSTOORAPIDLYINDICATINGTHATAWHEELISABOUTTOLOCK,THECONTROLUNITINSTRUCTSAMODULATINGDEVICETOREDUCEHYDRAULICPRESSURETOTHEBRAKEATTHEAFFECTEDWHEELWHENSENSORSIGNALSINDICATETHEWHEELISAGAINROTATINGNORMALLY,THECONTROLUNITALLOWSINCREASEDHYDRAULICPRESSURETOTHEBRAKETHISRELEASEAPPLYCYCLEOCCURSSEVERALTIMEPERSECONDTO“PUMP”THEBRAKESLIKEADRIVERMIGHTBUTATAMUCHFASTERRATEINADDITIONTOTHEIRBASICOPERATION,ANTILOCKSYSTEMSHAVETWOOTHERTHINGSINCOMMONFIRST,THEYDONOTOPERATEUNTILTHEBRAKESAREAPPLIEDWITHENOUGHFORCETOLOCKORNEARLYLOCKAWHEELATALLOTHERTIMES,THESYSTEMSTANDSREADYTOFUNCTIONBUTDOESNOTINTERFEREWITHNORMALBRAKINGSECOND,IFTHEANTILOCKSYSTEMFAILINANYWAY,THEBRAKESCONTINUETOOPERATEWITHOUTANTILOCKCAPABILITYAWARNINGLIGHTONTHEINSTRUMENTPANELALERTSTHEDRIVERWHENAPROBLEMEXISTSINTHEANTILOCKSYSTEMTHECURRENTBOSCHCOMPONENTANTILOCKBRAKINGSYSTEMABSⅡ,ISASECONDGENERATIONDESIGNWILDLYUSEDBYEUROPEANAUTOMAKERSSUCHASBWM,MERCEDESBENZANDPORSCHEABSⅡSYSTEMCONSISTSOFFOURWHEELSPEEDSENSOR,ELECTRONICCONTROLUNITANDMODULATORASSEMBLYASPEEDSENSORISFITTEDATEACHWHEELSENDSSIGNALSABOUTWHEELROTATIONTOCONTROLUNITEACHSPEEDSENSORCONSISTSOFASENSORUNITANDAGEARWHEELTHEFRONTSENSORMOUNTSTOTHESTEERINGKNUCKLEANDITSGEARWHEELISPRESSEDONTOTHESTUBAXLETHATROTATESWITHTHEWHEELTHEREARSENSORMOUNTSTHEREARSUSPENSIONMEMBERANDITSGEARWHEELISPRESSEDONTOTHEAXLETHESENSORITSELFISAWINDINGWITHAMAGNETICCORETHECORECREATESAMAGNETICFIELDAROUNDTHEWINDING,ANDASTHETEETHOFTHEGEARWHEELMOVETHROUGHTHISFIELD,ANALTERNATINGCURRENTISINDUCEDINTHEWINDINGTHECONTROLUNITMONITORSTHERATEOCHANGEINTHISFREQUENCYTODETERMINEIMPENDINGBRAKELOCKUPTHECONTROLUNIT’SFUNCTIONCANBEDIVIDEDINTOTHREEPARTSSIGNALPROCESSING,LOGICANDSAFETYCIRCUITRYTHESIGNALPROCESSINGSECTIONISTHECONVERTERTHATRECEIVESTHEALTERNATINGCURRENTSIGNALSFORMTHESPEEDSENSORSANDCONVERTSTHEMINTODIGITALFORMFORTHELOGICSECTIONTHELOGICSECTIONTHENANALYZESTHEDIGITIZEDSIGNALSTOCALCULATEANYBRAKEPRESSURECHANGESNEEDEDIFIMPENDINGLOCKUPISSENSED,THELOGICSECTIONSENDSCOMMANDSTOTHEMODULATORASSEMBLYMODULATORASSEMBLY

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