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外文翻译---高速铣加工中轴转矩的模糊控制.doc

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外文翻译---高速铣加工中轴转矩的模糊控制.doc

附录A英文资料TechnicalBriefsFuzzyControlofSpindleTorqueinHighSpeedMillingProcessesRodolfoHaberGuerraInstitutodeAutomáticaIndustrialCSIC,kin.22800NIII,LaProveda,28500Madrid,SpainStevenY.LiangTheGeorgeW.WoodruffSchoolofMechanicalEngineering,GeorgiaInstituteofTechnology,801FerstDrive,N.W.,Atlanta,GA303320405JoseR.AliqueInstitutodeAutomáticaIndustrialCSIC,km.22800NIII,LaProveda,28500Madrid,SpainRodolfoHaberHaberUniversidaddeOriente,Ave.Americass/n.,SantiagodeCuba,90400CubaThispaperpresentsthedesignandimplementationofatwoinput/twooutputfuzzylogicbasedtorquecontrolsystemembeddedinanopenarchitecturecomputernumericalcontrolCNCforoptimizingthematerialremovalrateinhighspeedmillingprocesses.ThecontrolsystemadjuststhefeedrateandspindlespeedsimultaneouslyasneededtoregulatethecuttingtorqueusingtheCNCsownresources.Thecontrolsystemconsistsofatwoinputi.e.,torqueerrorandchangeoferror,twooutputi.e.,feedrateandspindlespeedincrementfuzzycontrollerwhichisembeddedwithinkernelofastandardopencontrol.Twoapproachesaretested,andtheirperformanceisassessedusingseveralperformancemeasurements.Theseapproachesareatwoinput/twooutputfuzzycontrollerandasingleoutputi.e.,feedratemodificationonlyfuzzycontroller.Theresultsdemonstratethattheproposedcontrolstrategyprovidesbetteraccuracyandmachiningcycletimethanotherstrategies,thusincreasingthemetalremovalrate.DOII0.1115/1.2194063Keywordsfuzzycontrol,torque,highspeedmillingContributedbytheManufacturingEngineeringDivisionofASMEforpublicationintheJOURNALOFMANUFACTURINGSCIENCEANDENGINEERING.ManuscriptreceivedAugust19,2005finalrevisionreceivedFebruary14,2006.ReviewconductedbyC.J.Li.IntroductionInordertoimprovemachiningefficiencyinahighspeedmillingprocessthroughahighermaterialremovalrate,thisstudyfocusesonthedesignandimplementationofatwoinput/twooutputTITOfuzzycontrolsystemforspindletorque.ThemajorissuetobedealtwithisthenewdevelopmentandapplicationoffuzzylogicFLusingtheCNCsownresources.Noadditionalhardwareoverheadisrequired,sincethecontrolalgorithmisembeddedwithinthekernelofastandardopencontrol.FuzzylogicFLwasselectedoutofalltheavailabletechniques,becauseithasprovenusefulasahighlypracticaloptimizingtoolforcontrolandindustrialengineering.Tothebestofourknowledge,themainadvantageofthisapproachisthatitincludesiafuzzycontrollerembeddedinanopenarchitectureCNCtodealwiththeproductionenvironmentiiasimplecomputationalprocedureforfulfillingthetimerequirementsandiiinorestrictionsintermsofsensorcostthetorquesignalisprovidedbytheopenCNC,wiring,orsynchronizationwiththeCNC.ThispaperisorganizedasfollowsInSec.ⅡwepresentabriefstudyofamechanisticmodelforpredictingcuttingforceandspindletorqueinSec.IIIwedescribethedesignofthefuzzycontrollertooptimizethemillingprocessinSec.IVwedescribehowthefuzzycontrollercanbeembeddedinopenarchitectureCNCs,andwediscussthekeydesignandprogrammingstagesinSec.Vwereviewtheexperimentalresultsandexploresomeofthecomparativestudies.Finally,wepresentconclusionsinSec.VI.HighSpeedMillingProcessControlBasedontheSpindleTorqueSignalThemechanisticmodelestimatescuttingforcevectorsandspindletorqueonthebasisoffeedrate,spindlespeed,andmaterialconstants.Themechanisticmodelofendmillingimplementedinthisresearchisbasedon1,2.Inordertomakeasimplifiedmodel,weusedthefollowingapproximation3,4IfthefeedpertoothvalueftjissmallwithregardtothetoolradiusD/2,thenforatoolfedinthepositiveXdirection,theinstantaneouschipthicknesshjisrelatedtotherotationangleofthecuttingtool.Asthecuttingtoolrotates,chipthicknessvariesasafunctionoftheradialangleΦandaxialangleκofthecuttingtoolhjΦjfijsinΦjsinκ1Therefore,onthebasisoftheaboveapproximation,andforroughingandsemifinishedcutting,itisnotnecessarytoextracttheinstantaneouschipthicknessfromthevolumeinformation.Certainly,acorrectvalueofthefeedpertoothfijnotonlyincreasestoolperformancebutalsoimprovestheefficiencyofthemachiningprocess.Foracylindricalendmill,thefollowingconditionsaredefinedforfindingthegeneralsolution.rzD2κ90º2Ψk0zk02tanθ/DwhereΨzisthelaganglethatappearsduetothehelixangleθofthecuttingtool.Thisangleisconstantinthecaseofacylindricalendmill,anditvariesforaballendmill.Thetangential,radial,andaxialforcedifferentialsdFt,dFr,dFaactonaninfinitesimallengthdSofthecuttingedgeofthetool4dFtKtedSKtchjΦ,κdbdFrKredSKrchjΦ,κdb3dFaKaedSKachjΦ,κdbItisalsoconsideredthatdbdzsinκ4Furthermore,thecharacteristicsofapointonthecuttingsurfaceareidentifiedusingthepropertiesofkinematicrigidityandthedisplacementsbetweenthetoolandtheworkpiece.TheconstantsorcuttingcoefficientsKtc,Krc,Kac,Kte,Kre,Kaecanbefoundexperimentallyusingcuttingforcespertoothaveragedforaspecifictypeoftoolandmaterial5.ThetotalcuttingforcesasafunctionofΦalongtheaxialdepthofcutforallthecuttingedgesthatareincontactwiththeworkpiececanbecalculatedasNfNfz2FxΦ∑FxjΦjz∑∫dFrjsinΦjsinκjdFijcosΦjdFajsinΦjcosκjdzj1j1z1NfNfz25FyΦ∑FyjΦjz∑∫dFrjcosΦjsinκjdFijsinΦjdFajcosΦjcosκjdzj1j1z1NfNfz2FzΦ∑FzjΦjz∑∫dFrjcosκjdFajsinκjdzj1j1z1wherez1andz2aretheintegrationlimitsandFxΦ,FyΦ,FzΦaretheresultingforcesforeachaxis.CuttingtorqueTqeisestimatedonthebasisofthetangentialforcedifferentialdFtandthetooldiameterD.TheoverallcuttingtorqueisTqeFtD/26FuzzyControlofSpindleTorqueinaHighSpeedMillingProcessThemanipulatedactionvariablesweselectedwerethefeedrateincrement△fasapercentageoftheinitialvalueprogrammedintotheCNCandthespindlespeedincrement△sasapercentageoftheinitialvalueprogrammedintotheCNC.Thethreebasictasksknownasfuzzification,decisionmaking,anddefuzzificationwereused.TheerrorandoutputvectorswereeTKE△TqKCE△2TqFig.1Fuzzypartitionsandmembershipfunctionsfora△Tq,△2Tq,b△f,andc△suGC△f△s

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