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外文翻译--51系列单片机的结构和功能.DOC

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外文翻译--51系列单片机的结构和功能.DOC

StructureandfunctionoftheMCS51seriesStructureandfunctionoftheMCS51seriesonechipcomputerMCS51isanameofapieceofonechipcomputerserieswhichIntelCompanyproduces.Thiscompanyintroduced8topgradeonechipcomputersofMCS51seriesin1980afterintroducing8onechipcomputersofMCS48seriesin1976.Itbelongtoalotofkindsthislineofonechipcomputerthechipshave,suchas8051,8031,8751,80C51BH,80C31BH,etc.,theirbasiccomposition,basicperformanceandinstructionsystemareallthesame.8051dailyrepresentatives51serialonechipcomputer.Anonechipcomputersystemismadeupofseveralfollowingparts1Onemicroprocessorof8CPU.2AtslicedatamemoryRAM128B/256B,itusedtodepositingnotcanreading/datathatwrite,suchasresultnotmiddleofoperation,finalresultanddatawantedtoshow,etc.3ProcedurememoryROM/EPROM4KB/8KB,isusedtopreservetheprocedure,someinitialdataandforminslice.ButdoesnottakeROM/EPROMwithinsomeonechipcomputers,suchas8031,8032,80C,etc..4Four8runsidebysideI/OinterfaceP0fourP3,eachmouthcanuseasintroduction,mayuseasexportingtoo.5Twotimer/counter,eachtimer/countermaysetupandcountintheway,usedtocounttotheexternalincident,cansetupintoatimingwaytoo,andcanaccordingtocountorresultoftimingrealizethecontrolofthecomputer.6Fivecutoffcuttingoffthecontrolsystemofthesource.7OneallduplexserialI/OmouthofUARTuniversalasynchronousreceiver/transmitterUART,isitrealizeonechipcomputeroronechipcomputerandserialcommunicationofcomputertousefor.8Stretchoscillatorandclockproducecircuit,quartzcrystalfinelytuneelectriccapacityneedouter.Allowoscillationfrequencyas12nowatmost.Everytheabovementionedpartwasjoinedthroughtheinsidedatabus.Amongthem,CPUisacoreoftheonechipcomputer,itisthecontrolofthecomputerandcommandcentre,madeupofsuchpartsasarithmeticunitandcontroller,etc..Thearithmeticunitcancarryon8personsofarithmeticoperationandunitALUoflogicoperationwhileincludingone,the1storingdevicetemporarilyof8,storingdevice2temporarily,8saccumulationdeviceACC,registerBandprocedurestateregisterPSW,etc.PersonwhoaccumulateACCcountby2inputendsenteredofcheckingetc.temporarilyasoneoperationoften,comefrompersonwhostore1operationisitisitmakeoperationtogoontocounttemporarily,operationresultandloopbackACCwithanotherone.Inaddition,ACCisoftenregardedasthetransferstationofdatatransmissionon8051inside.Thesameasgeneralmicroprocessor,itisthebusiestregister.HelprememberingthatagreeingwithAexpressesintheorder.Thecontrollerincludestheprocedurecounter,theorderisdeposited,theorderdecipher,theoscillatorandtimingcircuit,etc.Theprocedurecounterismadeupofcounterof8fortwo,amountsto16.Itisabyteaddresscounteroftheprocedureinfact,thecontentisthenextIAthatwillcarriedoutinPC.Thecontentwhichchangesitcanchangethedirectionthattheprocedurecarriesout.Shakethecircuitin8051onechipcomputers,onlyneedouterquartzcrystalandfrequencytofinelytunetheelectriccapacity,itsfrequencyrangeisits12MHZof1.2MHZ.Thispulsesignal,as8051basicbeatsofworking,namelytheminimumunitoftime.8051isthesameasothercomputers,theworkinharmonyunderthecontrolofthebasicbeat,justlikeanorchestraaccordingtothebeatplaythatiscommanded.ThereareROMprocedurememory,canonlyreadandRAMin8051slicesdatamemory,canisitcanwritetwotoread,theyhaveeachindependentmemoryaddressspace,disposewaytobethesamewithgeneralmemoryofcomputer.Procedure8051memoryand8751sliceprocedurememorycapacity4KB,addressbeginfrom0000H,usedforpreservingtheprocedureandformconstant.Data805187518031ofmemorydatamemory128B,addressfalse00FH,useformiddleresulttodepositoperation,thedataarestoredtemporarilyandthedataarebufferedetc..InRAMofthis128B,thereisunitof32bytesthatcanbeappointedasthejobregister,thisandgeneralmicroprocessorisdifferent,8051sliceRAMandjobregisterrankoneformationthesametoarrangethelocation.ItisnotverythesamethatthememoryofMCS51seriesonechipcomputerandgeneralcomputerdisposesthewayinaddition.Generalcomputerforfirstaddressspace,ROMandRAMcanarrangeindifferentspacewithintherangeofthisaddressatwill,namelytheaddressesofROMandRAM,withdistributingdifferentaddressspaceinaformation.Whilevisitingthememory,correspondingandonlyanaddressMemoryunit,canROM,itcanbeRAMtoo,andbyvisitingtheordersimilarly.ThiskindofmemorystructureiscalledthestructureofPrinceton.8051memoriesaredividedintoprocedurememoryspaceanddatamemoryspaceonthephysicsstructure,therearefourmemoryspacesinallTheprocedurestoresinoneanddatamemoryspaceoutsidedatamemoryandoneinprocedurememoryspaceandoneoutsideone,thestructureformsofthiskindofproceduredeviceanddatamemoryseparatedformdatamemory,calledHarvardstructure.Butusetheanglefromusers,8051memoryaddressspaceisdividedintothreekinds1Intheslice,arrangeblocksofFFFFH,0000Hoflocation,inunisonoutsidethesliceuse16addresses.2Thedatamemoryaddressspaceoutsideoneof64KB,theaddressisarrangedfrom0000H64KBFFFFHwith16addressestootothelocation.3Datamemoryaddressspaceof256Buse8addresses.Threeabovementionedmemoryspaceaddressesoverlap,fordistinguishinganddesigningtheordersymbolofdifferentdatatransmissionintheinstructionsystemof8051CPUvisitslice,ROMorderspendMOVC,visitblockRAMorderusesMOVXoutsidetheslice,RAMorderusesMOVtovisitinslice.8051onechipcomputerhavefour8walkabreastI/Oport,callP0,P1,P2andP3.Eachportis8accuratetwowaymouths,accountsfor32pinsaltogether.EveryoneI/Olinecanbeusedasintroductionandexportedindependently.Eachportincludesalatchnamelyspecialfunctionregister,oneexportsthedriverandaintroductionbuffer.Makedatacanlatchwhenoutputting,datacanbufferwhenmakingintroduction,butfourfunctionofpasswaytheseselfsame.Expandamongthesystemofmemoryoutsidehavingslice,fourportthesemayserveasaccuratetwowaymouthofI/Oincommonuse.Expandamongthesystemofmemoryoutsidehavingslice,P2mouthseehigh8addressoffP0mouthisatwowaybus,sendtheintroductionof8lowaddressesanddata/exportintimesharingThecircuitof8051onechipcomputersandfourI/Oportsisveryingeniousindesign.FamiliarwithI/Oportlogicalcircuit,notonlyhelptouseportscorrectlyandrationally,andwillinspiretodesigningtheperipherallogicalcircuitofonechipcomputertosomeextent.Loadabilityandinterfaceofporthavecertainrequirement,becauseoutputgrade,P0ofmouthandP1endoutput,P3ofmouthgradedifferentatstructure,so,theloadabilityandinterfaceofitsdoordemandtohavenothingincommonwitheachother.P0mouthisdifferentfromothermouths,itsoutputgradedrawstheresistancesupreme.Whenusingitasthemouthincommonusetouse,outputgradeisitleakcircuittoturnon,isitisiturgeNMOSdrawtheresistanceontakingtobeouterwithitwhileinputtingtogoouttofail.Whenbeingusedasintroduction,shouldwrite1toalatchfirst.EveryonewithP0mouthcandrive8ModelLSTTLloadtoexport.P1mouthisanaccuratetwowaymouthtoo,usedasI/Oincommonuse.DifferentfromP0mouthoutputofcircuitits,drawloadresistancelinkwithpoweroninsidehave.Infact,theresistanceisthattwoeffectsareinchargeofFETandtogetherOneFETisinchargeofload,itsresistanceisregular.Anotheronecanisitleadtoworkwithcloseattwostate,makeitsPresidentresistancevaluechangeapproximate0orgroupvalueheavytwosituationvery.Whenitis0thattheresistanceisapproximate,candrawthepintothehighlevelfastWhenresistancevalueisverylarge,P1mouth,inordertohindertheintroductionstatehigh.OutputasP1mouthhighelectricityatordinarytimes,canisitdrawelectriccurrentloadtoofferoutwards,drawtheresistanceonneedntanswerandthen.Herewhentheportisusedasintroduction,mustwriteinto1tothecorrespondinglatchfirsttoo,makeFETend.ThestructureofP2somemouthissimilartoP0mouth,thereareMUXswitches.Isitsimilartomouthpartlytourge,butmouthlargeaconversioncontrolssomethanP1.P3mouthonemultifunctionalport,mouthgettingmanythanP1ithaveand3doorand4buffer.Twopartthese,makeherbesidesaccuratetwowayfunctionwithP1mouthjust,canalsousethesecondfunctionofeverypin,anddoor3functiononeswitchinfact,itdeterminestobetooutputdataoflatchtooutputsecondsignaloffunction.ActasWAt1oclock,outputQendsignalActasQAt1oclock,canoutputWlinesignal.Atthetimeofprogramming,itisthatthefirstfunctionisstillthesecondfunctionbutneednthavesoftwarethatsetupP3mouthinadvance.IthardwarenotinsideistheautomatictohavetwofunctionoutputtedwhenCPUcarriesonSFRandseeksthelocationthelocationorthebytetovisittoP3mouth/atnotlastinglining,thereareinsidehardwarelatchQs1.TheoperationprincipleofP3mouthissimilartoP1mouth.Outputgrade,P3ofmouth,P1ofP1,connectwithinsidehaveloadresistanceofdrawing,everyoneoftheycandrive4ModelLSTTLloadtooutput.Aswhileinputtingthemouth,anyTTLorNMOScircuitcandriveP1of8051onechipcomputersasP3mouthinanormalway.Becausedrawresistanceonoutputgradeofthemhave,canopenawaycollectortooordrainsourceresistanceisiturgetoopenaway,donotneedtohavetheresistanceofdrawingouter.Mouthsareallaccuratetwowaymouthstoo.Whentheconductisinput,mustwritethecorrespondingportlatchwith1first.Asto80C51onechipcomputer,portcanonlyoffermilliampereofoutputelectriccurrents,isitoutputmouthgowhenurgingoneordinarybasingoftransistortoregardas,shouldcontactaresistanceamongtheportandtransistorbase,inordertotheelectricitywhilerestrainingthehighlevelfromexportingP1P3Beingrestoredtothethroneistheoperationofinitializingofanonechipcomputer.ItsmainfunctionistoturnPCinto0000Hinitially,maketheonechipcomputerbegintoholdtheconductprocedurefromunit0000H.Exceptthattheonesthatenterthesystemareinitializednormally,asbecauseprocedureoperateitmakemistakesoroperatetherearentmistake,inordertoextricateoneselffromapredicament,needtobepressedandrestoredtothethronethekeyrestartingtoo.Itisaninputendwhichisrestoredtothethronethesignalin8051ChinaRSTpin.Restoretothethronesignalhighlevel

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