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外文翻译--CCD图像.doc

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外文翻译--CCD图像.doc

附录附录1翻译部分RawCCDimagesareexceptionalbutnotperfect.Duetothedigitalnatureofthedatamanyoftheimperfectionscanbecompensatedfororcalibratedoutofthefinalimagethroughdigitalimageprocessing.CompositionofaRawCCDImage.ArawCCDimageconsistsofthefollowingsignalcomponentsIMAGESIGNALThesignalfromthesource.Electronsaregeneratedfromtheactualsourcephotons.BIASSIGNALInitialsignalalreadyontheCCDbeforetheexposureistaken.ThissignalisduetobiasingtheCCDoffsetslightlyabovezeroA/DcountsADU.THERMALSIGNALSignalDarkCurrentthermalelectronsduetothethermalactivityofthesemiconductor.ThermalsignalisreducedbycoolingoftheCCDtolowtemperature.SourcesofNoiseCCDimagesaresusceptibletothefollowingsourcesofnoisePHOTONNOISERandomfluctuationsinthephotonsignalofthesource.Therateatwhichphotonsarereceivedisnotconstant.THERMALNOISEStatisticalfluctuationsinthegenerationofThermalsignal.Therateatwhichelectronsareproducedinthesemiconductorsubstrateduetothermaleffectsisnotconstant.READOUTNOISEErrorsinreadingthesignalgenerallydominatedbytheonchipamplifier.QUANTIZATIONNOISEErrorsintroducedintheA/Dconversionprocess.SENSITIVITYVARIATIONSensitivityvariationsfromphotositetophotositeontheCCDdetectororacrossthedetector.ModernCCDsareuniformtobetterthan1betweenneighboringphotositesanduniformtobetterthan10acrosstheentiresurface.NoiseCorrectionsREDUCINGNOISEReadoutNoiseandQuantizationNoisearelimitedbytheconstructionoftheCCDcameraandcannotbeimproveduponbytheuser.ThermalNoise,however,canbereducedbycoolingoftheCCDtemperatureregulation.TheSensitivityVariationscanberemovedbyproperflatfielding.CORRECTINGFORTHEBIASANDTHERMALSIGNALSTheBiasandThermalsignalscanbesubtractedoutfromtheRawImagebytakingwhatiscalledaDarkExposure.ThedarkexposureisameasureoftheBiasSignalandThermalSignalandmaysimplybesubtractedfromtheRawImage.FLATFIELDINGArecordofthephotositetophotositesensitivityvariationscanbeobtainedbytakinganexposureofauniformlylitflatfield.ThesevariationscanthenbedividedoutoftheRawImagetoproduceanimageessentiallyfreefromthissourceoferror.Anylengthexposurewilldo,butideallyonewhichsaturatesthepixelstothe50or75levelisbest.TheFinalProcessedImageThefinalProcessedImagewhichremovesunwantedsignalsandreducesnoiseasbestwecaniscomputedasfollowsFinalProcessedImageRawDark/FlatAllofthedigitalimageprocessingfunctionsdescribedabovecanbeaccomplishedbyusingCCDOPSsoftwarefurnishedwitheachSBIGimagingcamera.ThestepstoaccomplishthemaredescribedintheOperatingManualfurnishedwitheachSBIGimagingcamera.AtSBIGweofferourtechnicalsupporttohelpyouwithquestionsonhowtoimproveyourimages.HOWTOSELECTTHECORRECTCCDIMAGINGCAMERAFORYOURTELESCOPEWhennewcustomerscontactSBIGwediscusstheirimagingcameraapplication.Wetrytogetanideaoftheirinterests.Wehavefoundthismethodisaneffectivewayofinsuringthatourcustomersgettherightimagingcamerafortheirpurposes.SomeofthequestionsweaskareasfollowsWhattypeoftelescopedoyoupresentlyownHavingthisinformationallowsustomatchtheCCDimagingCamerasparameters,pixelsizeandfieldofviewtoyourtelescope.WecanalsohelpyouinterfacetheCCDimagingcamerasautomaticguidingfunctionstoyourtelescope.AreyouaMACorPCuserSinceoursoftwaresupportsbothoftheseplatformswecaninsurethatyoureceivethecorrectsoftware.Wecanalsoanswerquestionsaboutanyuniquefunctionsinoneortheother.Wecansendyouademonstrationcopyoftheappropriatesoftwareforyourreview.DoyouhaveatelescopedrivebasewithanautoguiderportDoyouwanttooperatefromaremotecomputerCompanieslikeSoftwareBisquefullysupportourproductswithtelescopecontrolandimagingcamerasoftware.Doyouwanttotakephotographicqualityimagesofdeepspaceobjects,imageplanets,orperformwidefieldsearchesfornearearthasteroidsorsupernovasInlearningaboutyourinterestswecanbetterguideyoutotheoptimumCCDpixelsizeandimagingareafortheapplication.DoyouwanttomakephotometricmeasurementsofvariablestarsordeterminepreciseasteroidpositionsFromthisinformationwecanrecommendaCCDimagingcameramodelandexplainhowtousethespecificanalysisfunctionstoperformthesetasks.Wecanhelpyoucharacterizeyourimagingcamerabyfurnishingadditionaltechnicaldata.DoyouwanttoautomaticallyguidelonguninterruptedastrophotographsAsthecompanywiththemostexperienceinCCDautoguidingwecanhelpyouinstallandoperateaCCDautoguideronyourtelescope.TheModelSTVhasaworldwidereputationforaccurateguidingondimguidestars.Nomatterwhattypeoftelescopeyouownwecanhelpyoucorrectlyinterfaceitandgetitworkingproperly.SBIGCCDIMAGINGCAMERASTheSBIGproductlineconsistsofaseriesofthermoelectricallycooledCCDimagingcamerasdesignedforawiderangeofapplicationsrangingfromastronomy,tricolorimaging,colorphotometry,spectroscopy,medicalimaging,densitometry,tochemiluminescenceandepifluorescenceimaging,etc.Thiscatalogincludesinformationonastronomicalimagingcameras,scientificimagingcameras,autoguiding,andaccessories.Wehavetriedtoarrangethecatalogsothatitiseasytocompareproductsbyspecificationsandperformance.ThetablesintheproductsectioncomparesomeofthebasiccharacteristicsoneachCCDimagingcamerainourproductline.Youwillfindamoredetailedsetofspecificationswitheachindividualimagingcameradescription.HOWTOGETSTARTEDUSINGYOURCCDIMAGINGCAMERAItallstartswiththesoftware.IftheresanycompanywellknownforitsoutstandingimagingcamerasoftwareitsSBIG.OurCCDOPSOperatingSoftwareiswellknownforitsuserorientedcameracontrolfeaturesandstability.CCDOPSisavailableforfreedownloadfromourwebsitealongwithsampleimagesthatyoucandisplayandanalyzeusingtheimageprocessingandanalysisfunctionsoftheCCDOPSsoftware.Youcanbecomethoroughlyfamiliarwithhowourimagingcamerasworkandthecapabilitiesofthesoftwarebeforeyoupurchaseanimagingcamera.WealsoincludeCCDSoftV5andTheSkyfromSoftwareBisquewithmostofourcamerasatnoadditionalcharge.MacintoshusersreceiveafreecopyofEquinoXplanetariumandcameracontrolsoftwarefortheMacOSXoperatingsystem.NoothermanufactureroffersbettersoftwarethanyougetwithSBIGcameras.NewcustomersreceivingtheirCCDimagingcamerashouldfirstreadtheinstallationsectionintheirCCDOPSOperatingManual.OnceyouhavereadthatsectionyoushouldhavenodifficultyinstallingCCDOPSsoftwareonyourharddrive,connectingtheUSBcablefromtheimagingcameratoyourcomputer,initiatingtheimagingcameraandwithinminutesstarttakingyourfirstCCDimages.Manyofourcustomersareamazedathoweasyitistostarttakingimages.AdditionalinformationcanbefoundbyreadingtheimageprocessingsectionsoftheCCDOPSandCCDSoftV5Manuals.Thisinformationallowsyoutoprogresstomoreadvancedfeaturessuchasautomaticdarkframesubtractionofimages,focusingtheimagingcamera,viewing,analyzingandprocessingtheimagesonthemonitor,coaddingimages,takingautomaticsequencesofimages,photometricandastrometricmeasurements,etc.APERSONALTOUCHFROMSBIGAtSBIGwehavehadmuchsuccesswithaprograminwhichwecontinuallyreviewcustomersimagessenttousondiskorviaemail.Wecanoftendeterminethecauseofaproblemfromactualimagessentinbyauser.Wereviewtheimagesandcontact

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