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外文翻译--一种挖掘机的装载独立控制 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--一种挖掘机的装载独立控制 英文版.pdf

LOADINDEPENDENTCONTROLOFAHYDRAULICEXCAVATOREUGENIUSZBUDNY,MIROSLAWCHLOSTA,WITOLDGUTKOWSKIINSTITUTEOFMECHANIZEDCONSTRUCTIONANDROCKMINING,ULRACJONALIZACJI6/8,02673WARSAW,POLANDACCEPTED23AUGUST2002ABSTRACTTHEPRIMARYFOCUSOFTHISSTUDYISTOINVESTIGATETHECONTROLOFEXCAVATIONPROCESSESBYAPPLYINGLOADINDEPENDENTHYDRAULICVALVESTHISAPPROACHALLOWSAVOIDINGCLOSEDLOOPCONTROLSYSTEMWITHSENSORSANDTRANSDUCERSMOUNTEDONTHEEXCAVATORATTACHMENTTHEREARE,THEN,NOSENSORCELLSMOUNTEDONTHEMACHINEATTACHMENTTHECONSIDEREDSYSTEMISCOMPOSEDOFTWOSUBSYSTEMSAMICROCOMPUTERANDAHYDRAULICUNITAPUMPANDLOADINDEPENDENTVALVESINTHEMICROCOMPUTERUNIT,THEBUCKETVELOCITYVECTORISRELATEDTOTHEOILFLOWINTOTHREECYLINDERSTHROUGHTHEAPPLICATIONOFINVERSEKINEMATICSTHEN,FLOWSARETRANSFERREDINTOTHEELECTRICSIGNALSACTUATINGTHELOADINDEPENDENTVALVESTHEIRMOTIONISPRESENTEDBYAPPLYINGTRANSFERFUNCTIONTHEPERFORMANCEOFTHESYSTEMISVERIFIEDBYASSUMINGANABRUPTCHANGEOFTHEOILFLOWINTOCYLINDERSTHELASTPARTOFTHEPAPERISDEVOTEDTOTHEOBTAINEDEXPERIMENTALRESULTSTHEFIRSTRESULTDEALSWITHVERTICALDRILLINGTHESECONDRESULTDEALSWITHANEXCAVATIONALONGAHORIZONTALTRAJECTORYD2002ELSEVIERSCIENCEBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSEXCAVATOR;HYDRAULICSYSTEMS;CONTROL;TRAJECTORYEXECUTION1INTRODUCTIONDUETOENCOURAGINGRESULTSOFRECENTRESEARCH,THEREAREINCREASINGPOSSIBILITIESFORENHANCEMENTOFALARGESPECTRUMHUMANEFFORTSINEXCAVATIONPROCESSESTHISMAYOCCURMAINLYTHROUGHCONTROLOFREPETITIVEWORKTASKS,SUCHASTRENCHINGANDDRILLING,REQUIRINGCONSTANTATTENTIONOFMACHINEOPERATORSDURINGTHEPERFORMANCEOFEACHTASKPARTICULARATTENTION,INRESEARCH,ISPAIDTOEXCAVATIONALONGPRESCRIBEDTRAJECTORIESSUBJECTEDTOVARYINGSOILENVIRONMENTFUNDAMENTALSDEALINGWITHCONTROLLEDEXCAVATIONPROCESSESAREDISCUSSEDBYVAHAANDSKIBNIEWSKI1,HEMAMI2,ANDHILLERANDSCHNIDER3ANINTERESTINGAPPROACHTOPILINGPROCESSESBYADIRECTANGULARSENSINGMETHODISPROPOSEDBYKESKINENETAL8BUDNYANDGUTKOWSKI4,6PROPOSEDASYSTEM,APPLYINGKINEMATICALLYINDUCEDMOTIONOFANEXCAVATORBUCKETINTHISAPPROACH,INFLUENCEOFASMALLVARIATIONOFHYDRAULICOILFLOWINTOCYLINDERS,APPLYINGSENSITIVITYANALYSIS,ISDISCUSSEDBYGUTKOWSKIANDCHLGOSTA5HUANGETAL7PRESENTEDANIMPEDANCECONTROLSTUDYFORAROBOTICEXCAVATORTHEYAPPLIEDTWONEURALNETWORKSFIRST,ASAFEEDFORWARDCONTROLLERANDTHESECONDASAFEEDBACKTARGETIMPEDANCEANOTHERIMPEDANCESYSTEM,APPLYINGAHYBRIDPOSITION/FORCECONTROL,ISPROPOSEDBYHAETAL9THEFIRSTGENERATIONOFROBOTSWASCONCEIVEDAS‘‘OPENLOOP’’POSITIONINGDEVICESTHISIMPLIEDTHATALLPARTSHADTOBEMANUFACTUREDWITHAVERYHIGH09265805/02/SEEFRONTMATTERD2002ELSEVIERSCIENCEBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDPIIS0926580502000882CORRESPONDINGAUTHOREMAILADDRESSMCHIMBIGSORGPLEBUDNYURLHTTP//WWWIMBIGSORGPLWWWELSEVIERCOM/LOCATE/AUTCONAUTOMATIONINCONSTRUCTION122003245–254ANDCOSTLYACCURACYNEXT,POSITIONINGROBOTS,WITHSENSORS,REDUCEDTHISACCURACYREQUIREMENTCONSIDERABLYHEREWERESEVERALAPPROACHES,MENTIONEDINABOVEREFERENCES,TOEXTENDTHEINDUSTRIALROBOTSCAPABILITIESTOROBOTICEXCAVATORSYSTEMSOFFORCECELLS,LONGITUDINALANDANGULARSENSORSHAVEBEENAPPLIEDHOWEVER,TWOMAINDIFFERENCESBETWEENREQUIREMENTSFORMANUFACTURINGROBOTSANDROBOTICEXCAVATORSSHOULDBENOTEDTHEFIRSTDIFFERENCEISTHATMANUFACTURINGROBOTSAREWORKINGINALMOSTPERFECTCONDITIONS,FREEOFVIBRATIONS,PROTECTEDAGAINSTSHOCKS,HUMIDITY,ANDOTHERPOSSIBLEDAMAGINGCONDITIONSTHESECONDDIFFERENCEISTHEREQUIREMENTSFORHIGHACCURACYOFMANUFACTURINGROBOTS,OFTENWITHINMICRONSONTHECONTRARY,ROBOTICEXCAVATORSAREWORKINGINVERYDIFFICULTCONSTRUCTIONSITECONDITIONS,ANDREQUIREDACCURACYOFTHEEXECUTEDTRAJECTORIES,COMPARINGWITHINDUSTRIALROBOTS,ISLIMITED,SAYWITHINCENTIMETRESWITHDIFFICULTCONDITIONSOFEXCAVATIONSWORKS,ALLSENSORSATTACHEDTOTHEBOOM,ARM,ANDBUCKETHAVETOBEVERYWELLPROTECTEDBEARINGINMINDTHEABOVEDIFFERENCES,ITWOULDBEOFINTERESTTOINVESTIGATETHEPOSSIBILITIESOFCONTROLLINGEXCAVATIONTRAJECTORYBYAHYDRAULICMODULECOMPOSEDOFAPUMPANDLOADINDEPENDENTVALVESINOTHERWORDS,TOINVESTIGATEASYSTEMFREEOFSENSORCELLSMOUNTEDATTHEEXCAVATORATTACHMENT,COMBINEDWITHAFEEDBACKCONTROLLER,INCLUDEDINTHEHYDRAULICUNITOFTHEMACHINETHEMAINOBJECTIVEOFTHEPRESENTPAPERISTOEXTENDTHEDISCUSSION,INITIATEDBYTHEAUTHORS10,ONTHEPOSSIBILITIESOFAPPLYINGLOADINDEPENDENTVALVESINSTALLEDINSIDEOFOPERATORCABINONLYUNDERTHISASSUMPTION,THESYSTEMISFREEOFSENSORSLOCATEDONTHEEXCAVATORATTACHMENTAFTERDISCUSSINGMATHEMATICALMODELOFTHESYSTEM,PRELIMINARYEXPERIMENTALRESULTSAREPRESENTEDATTHEENDOFTHEPAPER2STATEMENTOFTHEPROBLEMTHEPAPERDEALSWITHACONTROLLED,STABLEMOTIONOFANEXCAVATORBUCKETALONGAPRESCRIBEDPATHTHEPROBLEMISBASEDONPREVIOUSAUTHORS’THEORETICALINVESTIGATIONS4OFQUASISTATIC,KINEMATICALLYINDUCEDEXCAVATIONPROCESSESFORASSUMEDTRAJECTORIESINTHISSTUDY,THEFOLLOWINGASSUMPTIONSAREMADETHEEXCAVATORATTACHMENTISAPLANARMECHANISM,COMPOSEDOFABOOM,ANARM,ANDABUCKETTHREE,INDEPENDENTLYDRIVEN,HYDRAULICCYLINDERSOPERATETHESYSTEMTHEYAREASSURINGAUNIQUEREPRESENTATIONOFTHETHREEDEGREESOFTHEPLANARBUCKETMOTION,TWODISPLACEMENTSANDAROTATIONTHEEXCAVATIONPROCESS,INTHEEXPERIMENTSPERFORMED,ISASSUMEDTOBESLOWENOUGHTOCONSIDERITASAQUASISTATICONEINERTIATERMSINMOTIONEQUATIONSOFATTACHMENTCANBETHENNEGLECTEDONLYSPOOLOFTHESERVOMECHANISMISASSUMEDTOMOVEWITHACCELERATIONS,WHICHCANNOTBENEGLECTEDTHEFORCEPRESSUREDISTURBANCESAREASSUMEDTOHAVESINUSOIDALFORMTHEACCEPTABLEPARAMETERSOFTHESINUSOIDAREDEFINEDFROMSTABILITYCONDITIONSOFTHESYSTEMTHESOILISASSUMEDHOMOGENEOUSSOMESMALLINCLUSIONSINTHEFORMOFSTONESAREACCEPTABLETHEPROPOSEDCONTROLSYSTEMOFEXCAVATIONISOPERATORASSISTEDITMEANSTHATINACASEOFALARGEROBSTACLE,THEOPERATORHASTOINTERVENEIFSUCCESSFUL,THEPROPOSEDCONTROLSETUPCOULDAPPLYTOSTANDARDEXCAVATORSWITHTHEAIMOFENHANCEMENTOFALARGESPECTRUMOFHUMANEFFORTSINREPETITIVEPROCESSESSUCHASTRENCHINGANDDRILLINGTHEEXPERIMENTISCONSIDEREDASASYSTEMCOMPOSEDOFTHREESUBSYSTEMS,NAMELYMICROCOMPUTERWITHPLC;HYDRAULICARRANGEMENTAPUMP,VALVES,CYLINDERS;ANDTHEMECHANISMWITHTHREEDEGREESOFFREEDOMOFTHEBUCKETNEXT,THESUBSYSTEMSARECONSIDEREDASSETSOFCOMPONENTSINTHEFIRSTSUBSYSTEM,THEFOLLOWINGCOMPONENTSARERECOGNISEDPERSONALCOMPUTERWITHAPPROPRIATESOFTWARE,TRANSFORMINGINTRODUCEDEQUATIONSANDINEQUALITIESOFMOTIONANDTRAJECTORYPLANERSINTOELECTRICSIGNALTHELATTERISSENDTOAPLCUNIT,WHICHINTURNCAUSESANELECTRICALACTUATIONOFSOLENOIDVALVESPRESSURESFROMTHESOLENOIDVALVESARECAUSINGCHANGESINSPOOLPOSITIONS,ASSURINGASSUMEDFLOWOFTHEHYDRAULICOILINTOCYLINDERSTHESPOOLPOSITION,INTURN,ISCONVERTEDTHROUGHATRANSDUCERTOANELECTRICFEEDBACKSIGNALSENTTOTHESOLENOIDVALVESOPENEDSPOOLSARELETTINGTHEHYDRAULICOILTOFLOWINTOTHETHIRDSUBSYSTEM,NAMELYCYLINDERSOFTHEEXCAVATORMECHANISMFINALLY,THELASTSUBSYSTEMISCOMPOSEDOFTHREECOMPONENTSTHEHYDRAULICCYLINDERS,THEBOOM,THEARM,ANDTHEBUCKETWITHTHEMOTIONOFTHEEXCAVATOR,ARMSANDTHEBUCKETITSELF,THEPRESSURESINCYLINDERSEBUDNYETAL/AUTOMATIONINCONSTRUCTION122003245–254246ARECHANGINGINFORMATIONABOUTTHESECHANGESISSENTTOTHESECOND,HYDRAULICSUBSYSTEM,WHERETHEFEEDBACKSIGNALCORRECTSPOSITIONOFSPOOLSASSURINGTHEOILFLOWACCORDINGTOTHEDESIGNEDTRAJECTORYINTHEPAPER,TRANSFERFUNCTIONSOFALLSYSTEMCOMPONENTSAREINVESTIGATEDFROMTHEPOINTOFVIEWOFSTABILITYTHEFUNCTIONSAREDEFINEDTHEORETICALLY,ORNUMERICALLYFROMDIAGRAMSPRESENTEDINCATALOGUESOFHYDRAULICEQUIPMENTJOININGALLTRANSFERFUNCTIONOFPARTICULARCOMPONENT,THETRANSFERFUNCTIONOFTHEWHOLESYSTEMISDISCUSSEDFROMTHEPOINTOFVIEWOFPERFORMANCEUNDERABRUPTUNITSIGNALSEVERALEXPERIMENTSWEREPERFORMED,SHOWINGTHATITISPOSSIBLETOASSURESTABLE,ASSUMEDMOTIONOFTHEBUCKETAMONGEXPERIMENTS,ONEWASDEVOTEDTODRILLINGINOTHERWORDS,THEKINEMATICALLYINDUCEDTRAJECTORYWASASTRAIGHT,VERTICALLINEEXPERIMENTALLYOBTAINEDLINEISPRESENTEDINREFS6AND10ITISINTERESTINGTONOTETHATTHEVARIATIONOFEXPERIMENTALLINEDOESNOTEXCEED10CM3THREESUBSYSTEMSOFTHEEXPERIMENTALSETUPTHEDISCUSSEDSYSTEMISDIVIDEDINTHREESUBSYSTEMS,NAMELYMICROCOMPUTER,HYDRAULICVALVES,ANDEXCAVATORARMSWITHABUCKETBELOW,THEYAREDISCUSSEDSEPARATELYANDTHENAJOINTCONTROLPROBLEMISDEFINED31MICROCOMPUTERASASUBSYSTEMWESTARTWITHDEFININGAMODELOFTHEENDEFFECTORBUCKET,DRILL,HAMMERMOTIONTHEENDEFFECTOR,INITSPLANEMOTION,HASTHREEDEGREESOFFREEDOMAJJ1,2,3FIG1THEYAREROTATIONSOFTHEBOOM,OFTHEARM,ANDOFTHEEFFECTORDENOTINGBYX1P,X2PPOSITIONOFTHEENDEFFECTORTIP,ANDBYX3ITSROTATION,THEKINEMATICSOFTHECONSIDEREDMECHANISMISREPRESENTEDBYVECTORRELATIONX1PX2PX3P266664377775C1C2C30S1S2S30000A3266664377775C1L1L2L3266664377775;1WHERECJANDSJDENOTECOSAJANDSINAJ,RESPECTIVELYINFURTHERCONSIDERATIONS,THESUBINDEXPISOMITTEDASTHEPOSITIONOFONLYONEPOINTISCONSIDEREDVELOCITYOFTHEPOINTP,VV1,V2,V3TX˙1,X˙2,X˙3TISOBTAINEDBYTAKINGTIMEDERIVATIVEOFEQ1,ANDBYREDUCING3C24MATRIXTOA3C23MATRIX˙XVA˙AAW;2WHEREAC0L1S1C0L2S2L3S3L1C1L2C2L3C30012666643777753TAKINGINVERSEOFAMATRIXEQUALTOAC01L2C2L1C10C0L2S2C0L1S10L2L3F23L1L3F13L1L2F12266664377775C11L1L2C1S2C0S1C24WITHFIJSICJC0CISJ,WEFINDTHEINVERSEKINEMATICS,RELATINGANGULARVELOCITIESOFMECHANISMELEMENTSTOTHETIPDISPLACEMENTVECTORWAC01V5ANGULARVELOCITIESXJ,INTURN,AREDEPENDENTONTHEELONGATIONVELOCITIESH˙IOFHYDRAULICCYLINDERSTHISDEPENDENCEHASTOBEDETERMINEDFROMGEOMETRICALRELATIONSBETWEENCYLINDERLENGTHS,CONSTANTPARAMETERSOFATTACHMENT,ANDAJWESTARTWITHTHEFIRSTCYLINDERFROMFIG2WEFINDCOORDINATESOFTWOCYLINDERSHINGES,A1ANDB1THEYAREX1A1A0;X2A1B0;X1B1B1C1A1S1;X2B1B1S1C0A1C1TAKINGH21X1B1C0X1A12X2B1C0X2A22;EBUDNYETAL/AUTOMATIONINCONSTRUCTION122003245–254247AFTERTRANSFORMATIONWEOBTAINH21P01Q01C1R01S1;6WHEREP01A20A21B20B21;Q012A1B0C0A0B1;R01C02A0A1B0B1TAKINGTIMEDERIVATIVEOFEQ6WEFIND˙H1C0Q01S1R01C12H1C1X1G1112H1C1X17REPEATINGTHESAMECONSIDERATIONFORTHESECONDCYLINDERLENGTHFIG3WEOBTAINH22P02Q02F12R02G128WHEREP02A22A23B22B23;Q02C02A2A3B2B3;R022A2B3C0B2A3;FIG1THEMINIEXCAVATORCONSIDEREDEBUDNYETAL/AUTOMATIONINCONSTRUCTION122003245–254248

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