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外文翻译--两段式厌氧固定床反应器处理含愈创木酚废水的研究 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--两段式厌氧固定床反应器处理含愈创木酚废水的研究 英文版.pdf

第33卷第4期2007年12月延边大学学报自然科学版JournalofYanbianUniversityNaturalScienceVol.33No.4Dec.2007收稿日期2007208222基金项目教育部留学回国人员科研启动基金资助项目20052383号作者简介尹成日1963,男朝鲜族,博士,教授,研究方向为环境污染物的生物处理.文章编号10042435320070420259205TreatmentofWastewaterContainingChloroguaiacolsUsingTwo2stageAnaerobicFixedBedReactorYinCheng2ri1,GAOZai2yuan21.KeyLaboratoryofOrganismFunctionalFactorsoftheChangbaiMountain,MinistryofEducation,YanbianUniversity2.LibraryofYanbianUniversityYanjiJilin133002,ChinaAbstractAnaerobictreatmentofwastewatercontainingchloroguaiacolswasstudiedwithfocusontheremovalofchlorinatedguaiacols.Experimentswerecarriedoutusingalaboratory2scaleanaerobicfixedbedreactoroperatedatdifferenthydraulicretentiontimesHRTs.TheprocessefficientlyremovedfourtypesofchlorinatedguaiacolswhentheHRTwas24h.Inthiscondition,allchlorinatedguaiacolswerealmostcompletelyremoved.Themicrobialcommunitystructureinthereactorwasnotchangedsignificantlyduringoperatingperiod.KeywordsanaerobictreatmentchloroguaiacolsfixedbedreactorCLCnumberX703.1DocumentcodeA1IntroductionTraditionally,theconcernoverdischargesfromthepulpandpaperindustryhasbeenfocusedontheriskoffiberdepositionsandoxygendeficiency.Inrecentyears,however,interesthasshiftedtowardstheenvironmentalimpactofchlorinatedorganiccompoundsintheeffluents,resultingfrompulpbleachingwithchlorine2containingchemicals.Manychlorinatedorganiccompoundsoflowmolecu2larmassareknowntobetoxic,bioaccumulable,mutagenicandpersistentanditisthereforeimportanttoavoidreleasingsuchcompoundsintotheenvironment.ConventionalaerobicbiologicaltreatmentemployingaeratedlagoonsandactivatedsludgeprocessesiscommonlyusedatpulpandpapermillstoremovebiochemicaloxygendemandBODfromtheefflu2ents.ThesetreatmentmethodsremovealsoasignificantpartofabsorbableorganichalogensAOXtheAOXremovalrangingfrom20to60hasbeenreported1.However,aerobictreatmentgeneral2lyhasapooreffectonpolychlorinatedcompounds.Underaerobicconditions,chlorinatedguaiacolsandphenolscanbeO2methylatedtothecorrespondinganisolesandveratroles,whicharemoreresistanttobiodegradationandhavehigherpotentialforbioaccumulationinfish2.Andmanyvolatilechloro2organiccompounds,suchaschloroform,arelikelytoberemovedfromtheeffluentbystrippingratherthanbybiodegradation,resultinginanuncontrolledemissionofthesecompoundsintotheenvironment.Studiesonanaerobictreatmentofbleachingplanteffluenthaveshownthistreatmenttohaveseveraladvantagesascomparedtoaerobictreatmentpolychlorinatedchlorophenolicsareremovedsignificantly,ahigherAOXremovalisachievedandthephytotoxicchlorateeliminated.Furthermore,anaerobictreatmentshouldbeasignificantlymorecost2efficientwaythanaerobictreatmenttoremoveBOD,providingthatanefficientconversionoforganicmatterintobiogascanbemaintainedintheprocess.Thusfar,mostinvestigationshavebeenfocusedontheremovalofunspecifiedAOX.However,thedegradationofspecificcompounds,e.g.chlorinatedguaiacolsintheanaerobictreatmentprocesshasnot©19942009ChinaAcademicJournalElectronicPublishingHouse.Allrightsreserved.http//www.cnki.net延边大学学报自然科学版第33卷beensystematicallystudied.TheaimofthepresentstudywastoevaluatethepossibilityofachievingchloroguaiacolstetrachloroguaiacolTeCG,4,5,62trichloroguaiacol4,5,62TriCG,4,52dichloroguaiacol4,52DCG,and42chloroguaiacol42CGremovalinthetwo2stageanaerobicfixedbedreactor.2Materialsandmethods2.1SyntheticwastewatercontainingchloroguaiacolsSyntheticwastewatercontainedmixturesof42CG,4,52DCG,4,5,62TriCG,andTeCG.Thewastewaterwassuppliedwith0.2gyeastextract,0.1gNH4Cl,27mgKH2PO4,25mgMgSO47H2O,11.3mgCaCl2,2.8mgFeSO4H2O,5.5mgMnCl2H2O,0.68mgZnCl2,1.2mgCoCl26H2O,1.2mgNiSO44H2O,0.025mgNa2MoO42H2Oand0.026mgNa2SeO35H2Ol1.Theconcentrationofallfourchloroguaiacolsinthesyntheticwastewaterwas0.05mM.Glucoseaselectrondonorforanaerobicdechlorinationwasused.Thecompoundwasaddedtothesyntheticwastewaterinanamountcorrespondingto1000mgCODl1.2.2AnaerobicdigestersludgeTheanaerobicdigestersludgehadbeenobtainedfrom3500m3anaerobicdigesterreactorinopera2tionfor10yearsatthehydraulicretentiontimeof25daysofTaejonsewagetreatmentplantinKorea.Thesludgewasstoredat4℃ingas2tightplasticcontainerforamaximumperiodoffivemonths.Intheassay,17.4gvolatilesuspendedsolidl1ratioofVSStoSSwas0.56∶1oftheanaerobicsludgewasused.2.3ReactordesignandoperationTwoidenticalreactorsR1andR2,designedasanaerobicfixedbedreactorandconstructedofpolyvinylchloridePVC,wereusedinthestudy.Eachreactorwas7.0cmindiameter,andheightfromtheinlettotheoutletwas48.0cm.Thisprovidedaneffectivebedvolumeof1.4L.Atthetimeofexperimentation,thesludgedepthwasapproximately34.0cm.ThereactorswereoperatedathydraulicretentiontimesHRT,basedonthereactorliquidvolume,of12,and24hours,placedinatemperaturecontrolledroomat30℃.ThepHofthebleachingplanteffluentwasmeasuredandadjustedto7.5with2MH2SO4.Thereactorswerefilledwithceramicspheresdiameter≈5mmassupportmediumforanaerobicdigestersludge.Wastewaterwasfedtothesystembyaperistalticpump.Initially,thereactorswereinoculatedwithanaerobicdigestersludge,andthenstartedupandoperatedforaweekonthesyntheticwastewateratalowfeedrateHRT48htoallowthesludgetoacclimatizetothechlorinatedguaiacols.2.4NucleicacidextractionandPCRamplificationof16SrDNADNAwasextractedwithhotsodiumdodecyl2sulfate2phenolandwaspurifiedbyusingphenol2chloroform2isoamylalcohol25∶24∶1,V/V/V,followedbyethanolprecipitationabout100mgfreshweightofsludgeandtheprotocolofOelm¨ulleretal.3wereused.Fragmentsofthe16SribosomalDNArDNAsuitablefordenaturinggradientgelelectrophoresisDGGEanalysiswereobtainedbyusingtwodifferentprimercombinationsfordifferentphylogeneticlineagesTable1onecombinationwasusedformembersofthedomainBacteria4,theothercombinationwasusedformembersofthedomainArchaea5.ThelengthsofthePCRproductswere585and624bp,respectively.Recently,researchershaveshownthatthebacterialprimercombinationconsistingofprimers341Fand907Rusedhereprovidesthemostreliableresults6.ThePCRconditionsusedforthebacterialprimersetshavebeendescribedpreviouslybyMuyzeretal.4Toamplifythearchaealgenes,weusedatouchdownprotocolfor20cycleswithtemperaturesrangingfrom71to61℃theannealingtemperaturewasreduced1℃everytwocycles.Thisprocedurewasfollowedby15additionalcyclesatanannealingtemperatureof61℃.Exceptforthe062©19942009ChinaAcademicJournalElectronicPublishingHouse.Allrightsreserved.http//www.cnki.net第4期尹成日,等两段式固定床厌氧反应器处理含愈创木酚废水的研究initialdenaturationstep94℃,5min,denaturationandannealingphasestepswere1minlong,whilemostofthepolymerizationphasestepswere3minlongtheonlyexceptionwasthefinalcycle,whichwas10minlong.Table1Sequences,targetsites,andspecificitiesoftheprimersusedinthisstudyPrimeraTargetsitebSequence5to3Specificity341F2GCc341~357CCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGMostBacteria907R907~926CCGTCAATTCCTTTGAGTTTMostknownorganismsARC344F2GC344~363ACGGGGYGCAGCAGGCGCGAMostArchaeaARC915R915~934GTGCTCCCCCGCCAATTCCTMostArchaeaaFforwardandRreverseindicatetheorientationoftheprimersinrelationtotherRNAsequences.bEscherichiacolinumberingofBrosiusetal.7.cGCisa402nucleotideGC2richsequenceattachedtothe59endoftheprimerasdescribedbyMuyzeretal.4.TheGCsequenceis52CGCCCGCCGCGCCCCGCGCCCGTCCCGCCGCCCCCGCCCG23.2.5DGGEanalysisofPCRproductsDGGEwasperformedfor4.0hataconstantvoltageof200V.About600ngofPCRproductwasdepositedineachwell.Afterelectrophoresis,thegelswerestainedwithGelStarNucleicAcidStainTakara,JapanandphotographedwithUVtransilluminationwavelength,314nmwithaPolaroidcamera.2.6AnalysisofchloroguaiacolsandVSSThehexaneextractsofacetylatedsamplesweretheninjectedintothegaschromatography,forchlorinatedguaiacolsanalysis.AllgaschromatographyexperimentswereperformedwithaHewlettPackardmodel5890seriesⅡinstrumentequippedwithaflameionizationdetector.Afusedsilicacapillarycolumn30m0.53mm2.65μmwasused.Theinitialoventemperaturewasheldat100℃for1minandthenincreasedatarateof6℃/mintoafinaltemperatureof260℃.Injectionport,anddetectorwereheldat275℃.Heliumwasusedasacarriergasataflowrateof30mL/min.VSSweredeterminedaccordingtothestandardmethods8.2.7ChemicalsChlorinatedguaiacolsthatareusuallypresentinratherhighconcentrationsinbleachingplanteffluentwereanalyzedandusedasindicatorsoftreatmenteffect.Thechlorinatedguaiacolspuritytetrachlo2roguaiacol99,4,5,62trichloroguaiacol99,4,52dichloroguaiacol99,42chloroguaiacol90~95werepurchasedfromHelixBiotech.Corp.Columbia,NewWestminster,BC,Canada.Otherchemicalswerereagentgradeandwerepurchasedfromtheusualcommercialsources.Nitrogengasof99.999V/Vpuritywasusedwithoutanytreatment.3ResultsanddiscussionHydraulicretentiontimeHRTisonethemostimportantfactorsaffectingthebioreactorefficiency.ToinvestigatethebiodegradationefficiencyofchlorinatedguaiacolsinresponsetothevarianceofHRT,syntheticwastewatercontainingchloroguaiacolswascontinuouslyfedintothetwo2stageanaerobicfixedbedreactor,varyingtheHRTfrom24to12hours.DuringtheoperationalperiodthepHremainedcon2stant,between7.0and8.0.AsshowninFig.1andFig.2,the4,5,62TriCGand4,52DCGwereremovedmorethan90,butTeCGand42CGshowedunstableremovalinR1.TheremovalratesofTeCGand42CGwere75~85.However,allchlorinatedguaiacolswerealmostcompletelyremovedinR2.After2weeks,HRTwasdecreasedfrom24totalloadingrateoffourtypesofchlorinatedguaiacolswas42.1g/m3dto12hours.Duringthisperiod,although4,5,62TriCGand4,52DCGwerealsoremovedcompletely,completeremovalofTeCGcouldnotbeattained.However,afterincreasingHRTto24hoursagain,removal162©19942009ChinaAcademicJournalElectronicPublishingHouse.Allrightsreserved.http//www.cnki.net延边大学学报自然科学版第33卷efficienciesofchlorinatedguaiacolswerequicklyrecovered.Theremovalefficienciesofchlorinatedguaiacolsinthetwo2stageanaerobicfixedbedsystemwereinthefollowingorder4,52DCG4,5,62TriCG42CGTeCG.Thisisinaccordancewiththeresultobtainedfrombatchtest.●Influentconcentration○concentrationofR1effluentconcentrationofR2effluentFig.1RemovalratesofTeCGAand4,5,62TriCGBFig.2Removalratesof4,52DCGAand42CGBintwo2stageanaerobicfixedbedreactorintwo2stageanaerobicfixedbedreactorFromtheseexperimentsitispossibletoconcludethattheanaerobicfixedbedreactorisanefficienttreatmentmethodforwastewatercontainingchloroguaiacols.However,finaleffluentshouldundergoanadditionaltreatmente.g.anaerobicprocesstocompletelyeliminatetheresidualfractionofchlorinatedguaiacols2derivedmetabolites.H¨aggblomandSalkinoja2Salonen9treatedkraft2bleachingwastewaterinananaerobicfluidizedbedandobtainedbetween16~61removalofchlorinatedguaiacolsTeCG,3,4,52TriCG,4,5,62TriCG,and4,52DCG.Parkeretal.10alsostudiedtheremovalofchlorinatedphenolicsfromkraftmillbleachⅠfreshsludge,ⅡR1sludge,ⅢR2sludgeFig.3DGGEpatternsof16SrDNAfrag2mentsfromfreshsludge,R1andR2sludgeinthetwo2stageanaerobicfixedbedreactorR1andR2treatingchloroguaiacols2containingwastewaterplanteffluentsinanadaptedanaerobicsludgeblanketreactor.Inthepresenceoftheco2substratesmethanolandethanol,toxicityremovalwasabout93andabout65withouttheco2substrates.Inthesamestudy,42chloroguaiacol,4,52dichloroguaiacol,and4,5,62trichloroguaiacolwerealmostcompletelyremovedinthepresenceofco2substrates95.Microbialcommunitystructureinsludgesampledfromtwo2stageanaerobicfixedbedreactortreatingchloroguaiacols2containingwastewaterwasassessedbyPCR2DGGEanalysisof16SrDNAfragments.PCR2DGGEanalysisshoweddidnotsignificantdifferencesinArchaeamicrobialcommunitystructurebetweenthesludgestudiedFig.3.Anadditionalband3fromR2sludgecomparedtofreshsludgewasfoundinEubacteria262©19942009ChinaAcademicJournalElectronicPublishingHouse.Allrightsreserved.http//www.cnki.net

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