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外文翻译--以硫酸镍为主盐的镁合金化学镀镍 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--以硫酸镍为主盐的镁合金化学镀镍 英文版.pdf

MAINBINREVISED261–3ELECTROLESSPLATINGSOLUTIONSANDLITTLEAPPLICATIONSINADDITION,THEBASICNICKELCARBONATEORNICKELACETATEOFAREHARMFULTOTHESURFACECOATINGSTECHNOLOGY2001INTRODUCTIONTHEUSEOFMAGNESIUMALLOYSINAVARIETYOFAPPLICATIONS,PARTICULARLYINAEROSPACE,AUTOMOBILES,ANDMECHANICALANDELECTRONICCOMPONENTS,HASINCREASEDSTEADILYINRECENTYEARSASMAGNESIUMALLOYSEXHIBITANATTRACTIVECOMBINATIONOFLOWDENSITY,HIGHSTRENGTHTOWEIGHTRATIO,EXCELLENTCASTABILITY,ANDGOODMECHANICALANDDAMPINGCHARACTERISTICSHOWEVER,MAGNESIUMISINTRINSICALLYHIGHLYREACTIVEANDITSALLOYSUSUALLYHAVERELATIVELYPOORCORROSIONRESISTANCE,WHICHISACTUALLYONEOFTHEMAINOBSTACLESTOTHEAPPLICATIONOFMAGNESIUMALLOYSINPRACTICALENVIRONMENTSHENCE,THEAPPLICATIONOFASURFACEENGINEERINGTECHNIQUEISTHEMOSTAPPROPRIATEMETHODTOFURTHERENHANCETHECORROSIONRESISTANCEAMONGTHEVARIOUSSURFACEENGINEERINGTECHNIQUESTHATAREAVAILABLEFORTHISPURPOSE,COATINGBYELECTROLESSNICKELISOFSPECIALINTERESTESPECIALLYINTHEELECTRONICINDUSTRY,DUETOTHEPOSSESSIONOFACOMBINATIONOFPROPERTIES,SUCHASGOODCORROSIONANDWEARRESISTANCE,DEPOSITUNIFORMITY,ELECTRICALANDTHERMALCONDUCTIVITY,ANDSOLDERABILITYETCASFARASMAGNESIUMALLOYSARECONCERNED,THEMAINSALTSOFELECTROLESSPLATINGSOLUTIONSMOSTLYFOCUSATTENTIONSONBASICNICKELCARBONATEORNICKELACETATE4–9,WHICHRESULTINHIGHCOST,LOWEFFICIENCY,INSTABILITYOFABSTRACTINTHISPAPER,THEELECTROLESSNICKELPLATINGONMAGNESIUMALLOYWASSTUDIED,USINGNISO4D6H2OASTHEMAINSALTINTHEELECTROLESSPLATINGALKALINESOLUTIONSTHEEFFECTSOFTHEBUFFERAGENTANDPLATINGPARAMETERSONTHEPROPERTIESANDSTRUCTURESOFTHEPLATINGCOATINGSONMAGNESIUMALLOYWEREINVESTIGATEDBYMEANSOFSCANNINGELECTRONMICROSCOPYSEM,ENERGYDISPERSIVEXRAYSPECTROSCOPYEDSANDXRAYDIFFRACTIONXRDINADDITION,THEWEIGHTLOSS/GAINOFTHESPECIMENSIMMERSEDINTHETESTSOLUTIONANDPLATINGBATHWASMEASUREDBYUSINGTHEELECTROBALANCE,TOEVALUATETHEEROSIONOFTHEALLOYINTHEPLATINGSOLUTIONSTHEADHESIONBETWEENTHEELECTROLESSPLATINGCOATINGSANDTHESUBSTRATESWASALSOEVALUATEDTHECOMPOSITIONSOFTHENONFLUORIDEANDENVIRONMENTALLYFRIENDLYPLATINGBATHWEREOPTIMIZEDTHROUGHLATINORTHOGONALEXPERIMENTTHEBUFFERAGENTNA2CO3ADDEDTOTHEPLATINGBATHWASFOUNDTOBEUSEFULININCREASINGTHEGROWTHRATEOFTHEPLATINGCOATING,ADJUSTINGTHEADHESIONBETWEENTHEELECTROLESSPLATINGCOATINGSANDTHESUBSTRATES,ANDMAINTAININGTHEPHVALUEWITHINTHERANGEOF85–115,WHICHISREQUIREDFORTHESUCCESSFULELECTROLESSNICKELPLATINGONMAGNESIUMALLOYWITHNISO4D6H2OASTHEMAINSALTTRISODIUMCITRATEDIHYDRATEWASFOUNDTOBEANESSENTIALCOMPONENTOFTHEPLATINGBATHTOPLATEMAGNESIUMALLOY,WITHANOPTIMUMCONCENTRATIONOF30GLC01THEOBTAINEDPLATINGCOATINGSARECRYSTALLINEWITHPREFERENTIALORIENTATIONOF111,HAVINGADVANTAGESSUCHASLOWPHOSPHORUSCONTENT,HIGHDENSITY,LOWPOROSITY,GOODCORROSIONRESISTANCEANDSTRENGTHENEDADHESIOND2004ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSMAGNESIUMALLOY;ELECTROLESSPLATING;BUFFER;CORROSIONRESISTANCE;ADHESIONTHEELECTROLESSNICKELPLATINGONMAGNESIUMASTHEJIANZHONGLIA,,ZHONGCAISHAOASCHOOLOFMATERIALSANDMETALLURGY,NORTHEASTEBFACULTYOFENVIRONMENTANDCHEMICALENGINEERING,SHENYANGRECEIVED23JULY2004;ACCEPTEDAVAILABLEONLINE02578972/SEEFRONTMATTERD2004ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDDOI101016/JSURFCOAT200412009CORRESPONDINGAUTHORTEL862483687731;FAX862423981731EMAILADDRESSMENGSUO66163COMJLIALLOYUSINGNISO4D6H2OSALT,XINZHANGA,YANWENTIANARNUNIVERSITY,SHENYANG110004,CHINAINSTITUTEOFTECHNOLOGY,SHENYANG110168,CHINAFORM19DECEMBER2004JANUARY200520063010–3015WWWELSEVIERCOM/LOCATE/SURFCOATTODEVELOPNEWPLATINGSOLUTIONSYETINCLUDINGFLUORIDE,ENVIRONMENT,THEREFORE,ITISURGENTLYNEEDEDENVIRONMENTALLYFRIENDLYPLATINGBATHITISDIFFICULTTOCARRYOUTELECTROLESSPLATINGONMAGNESIUMALLOYSDUETOTHEHIGHCORROSIONRATEOFMAGNESIUMALLOYSINTHEPLATINGBATHWITHNISO4D6H2OORNICL2D6H2OASTHEMAINSALTITISREPORTED10THATTHECORROSIONRATEOFMAGNESIUMANDITSALLOYSINNACLSOLUTIONSSOLELYDEPENDSONTHEPHOFTHEBUFFEREDCHLORIDESOLUTIONSTHEOBJECTIVEOFTHISSTUDYWASTOFINDABUFFERAGENTANDDETERMINEHOWTHEBUFFERAGENTAFFECTSTHEDISSOLUTIONOFMAGNESIUMALLOYINNISO4D6H2OALKALINESOLUTIONS,ANDTHENONFLUORIDEPLATINGSOLUTIONSFORMAGNESIUMALLOYWITHNISO4D6H2OASTHEMAINSALTTHEMICROSTRUCTURE,COMPOSITIONSANDCORROSIONBEHAVIOROFTHECOATINGSWEREINVESTIGATEDINDETAILCONSTANTTEMPERATUREOF808CAFRESHBATHWASUSEDFOREACHEXPERIMENTTOAVOIDANYCHANGEINCONCENTRATIONOFBATHSPECIESTHEBATHCOMPOSITIONSANDOTHERPARAMETERSUSEDINTHESEEXPERIMENTSAREGIVENTHROUGHLATINORTHOGONALEXPERIMENTINTABLE3TABLE1CHEMICALCOMPOSITIONOFTHEAZ91DALLOYINWTALMNNICUZNCASIKFEMG9101700010001064B001B001B001B0001BALJLIETAL/SURFACECOATINGSTECHNOLOGY20020063010–30153011TABLE2OPTIMIZEDPRECLEANINGPROCEDURE2EXPERIMENTALTHESUBSTRATEMATERIALUSEDINTHERESEARCHWASAZ91DINGOTCASTALLOYTHECHEMICALCOMPOSITIONOFTHEALLOYISGIVENINTABLE1SUBSTRATESWITHASIZEOF50MMC240MMC220MMWEREUSEDINTHERESEARCHTHESUBSTRATESWEREMECHANICALLYPOLISHEDWITHEMERYPAPERSUPTO1000GRITTOENSURESIMILARSURFACEROUGHNESSTHEPOLISHEDSUBSTRATESWERETHOROUGHLYWASHEDWITHDISTILLEDWATERBEFOREPASSINGTHROUGHTHEPRECLEANINGPROCEDUREASSHOWNINTABLE2THESUBSTRATESWEREAIRDRIEDAFTERTHEFLUORIDEACTIVATIONTHELASTSTEPINTHEPRECLEANINGPROCEDUREINATYPICALEXPERIMENT,THEINITIALWEIGHTOFAAIRDRIEDSUBSTRATEWASMEASUREDANDTHENQUICKLYTRANSFERREDTOTHEPLATINGBATH1000MLINAGLASSCONTAINERPLACEDINAWATERBATHWITHAFINALWEIGHTSOFTHESPECIMENSWEREDETERMINEDANDTHECOATINGRATESINMICROMETERPERHOURWERECALCULATEDFROMTHEWEIGHTGAINATTHESAMETIME,INORDERTOSTUDYTHEEACHBUFFER’SINFLUENCEONTHESUBSTRATESANDFINDABUFFERAPPROPRIATEFORTHEELECTROLESSPLATINGONMAGNESIUMALLOY,TESTSOLUTIONSWITHCOMPOSITIONSSIMILARTOTHOSEOFTHEPLATINGBATHEXCEPTTHATSODIUMHYPOPHOSPHITEWASNOTADDED,WEREPREPAREDTOSIMULATETHECORROSIONRATESOFMAGNESIUMALLOYINPLATINGBATHANDTHEBEHAVIORSOFTHEBUFFERSDUPLICATEEXPERIMENTSWERECONDUCTEDINEACHCASE,ANDTHECOATINGRATEREPORTEDISTHEAVERAGEOFTWOEXPERIMENTSTHEGROWTHRATESOFTHEPLATINGCOATINGWEREMEASUREDUSINGTHEELECTROBALANCEMADEINAMERICA,WHICHISTHE01MGPRECISIONINTHERESEARCH,THEPHVALUEOFPLATINGBATHWASMONITOREDBYAPHS25CMODELOFPRECISIONPH/MVMETERMORPHOLOGYOFTHECOATINGSWASANALYZEDUSINGASCANNINGELECTRONMICROSCOPETHEENERGYDISPERSIVEXRAYSPECTROSCOPYANALYSISWASUSEDFORDETERMININGTHECONTENTOFPHOSPHORUSINTHECOATINGSCRYSTALLINITYOFTHECOATINGSWASINVESTIGATEDBYRIGAKUD/MAXRAXRAYDIFFRACTOMETERWITHCUKALPHARADIATIONTHEADHESIONSTRENGTHOFTHEELECTROLESSLYDEPOSITEDNICKELCOATINGSTOTHEMAGNESIUMALLOYSUBSTRATESWASDETERMINEDBYSCRATCHTESTDURINGTHESCRATCHTEST,THESPECIMENWASMOVEDATACONSTANTSPEEDOFAPPROXIMATELY114MM/MINSCRATCHESWEREGENERATEDONTHESPECIMENUSINGADIAMONDINDENTERWITHASPHERICALTIPOF300AMINDIAMETERCORROSIONPOTENTIALMEASUREMENTIN35WTNACLSOLUTIONWASCARRIEDOUTTOCOMPARATIVELYINVESTIGATETHECORROSIONBEHAVIORSOFTHEBARESUBSTRATEANDTHENICKELPLATEDSUBSTRATESTHEELECTROCHEMICALCELLUSEDFORCORROSIONPOTENTIALMEASUREMENTCONSISTEDOFABARESUBSTRATEORANICKELPLATEDSUBSTRATEASTHEWORKINGELECTRODEEXPOSEDAREA1CM2,ASATURATEDCALOMELELECTRODESCE,ANDAPLATINUMFOILCOUNTERELECTRODETABLE3OPTIMIZEDBATHCOMPOSITIONANDPARAMETERSBATHSPECIESANDPARAMETERSQUANTITYNISO4D6H2O25G/LNAH2PO2DH2O30G/LC6H5NA3O7D2H2O30G/LNA2CO330G/LNH3DH2OADJUSTINGPHPHVALUE11TEMPERATURE80F28C3RESULTSANDDISCUSSION31THEBUFFERS’BEHAVIORSINTHETESTNISO4SOLUTIONSANDTHECHOICEOFANAPPROPRIATEBUFFERFIG1SHOWSTHEVARIATIONOFWEIGHTLOSSOFMAGNESIUMALLOYASAFUNCTIONOFTHEIMMERSIONTIMEWITHDIFFERENTBUFFERSINTHETESTSOLUTIONSTHECOMPOSITIONSANDTHECONTROLLEDTEMPERATUREOFTHETESTSOLUTIONSWERESIMILARTOTHOSEOFTHEPLATINGBATHEXCEPTTHATSODIUMHYPOPHOSPHITEWASNOTINCLUDEDTHEPHVALUESOFTHETESTSOLUTIONSWEREADJUSTEDBYNH3DH2OTOFIXAT11THEWEIGHTLOSSINCREASESLINEARLYWITHTHEIMMERSIONTIMEINCREASINGOFMAGNESIUMALLOYSINTHENA2CO3,NA2B4O7,ANDCH3COONATESTSOLUTIONSITISREVEALEDINFIG1THATTHECORROSIONRATESWERECONSTANTTHROUGHOUTTHEEXAMINEDIMMERSIONTIMEASRECOGNIZEDFROMTHESLOPEOFEACHSOLIDLINEINFIG1,CORROSIONRATEINTHETESTSOLUTIONCONTAININGNA2CO3BUFFERISTHELOWESTAMONGTHETHREETESTEDBUFFERSTHEINDICATESTHEWEIGHTLOSSOFTHESUBSTRATESISRELATEDTOTHEREACTIONBETWEENTHESUBSTRATEMETALANDTHEHYDROGENIONSBUTTHECORROSIONREACTIONBETWEENTHESUBSTRATEMETALANDTHEHYDROGENIONSGOESGRADUALLYON,BECAUSETHELOWCONCENTRATIONOFHYDROGENIONSISPRESENTEDINTHEPLATINGALKALINESOLUTIONSANDTHEN,THECONCENTRATIONOFHYDROGENIONSISWEAKLYDECREASEDDURINGTHETESTPROGRESSTHISLEADSTOTHECONSTANTCORROSIONRATESINTHESHORTTESTTIME,WHICHISSHOWNINFIGS1AND2ATTHESAMETIME,KNOWINGTHATFORMGOH2KSPAT258C89C210C012ATPH9,OHC010C05M,MOSTMG2DIFFUSEDINTOPLATINGSOLUTIONTOFORMUPTO10C02MATPH11,OHC010C03M,THEMG2COULDN’TEXCEED10C06M,THUSMOSTMG2FORMEDMGOH2ANDSTAYEDNEARTHESUBSTRATEMGOH2COULDINCREASETHEADSORPTIONENERGYBARRIERANDREDUCETHECORROSIONRATETHEREFORE,HIGHERPHRESULTEDINLOWERCORROSIONRATEASTOTHENA2CO3BUFFEREDSOLUTIONS,FORMGCO3KSPAT258C10C015,INTESTSOLUTIONS,NA2CO3N01M,THUSTHEPOSSIBLEMG2B10C014MTHISMEANSTHATTHEDRIVINGFORCEFORMGTOFORMMG2WASVERYLOWINSTEADOFDISSOLVINGMG,THECO32C0IONWOULDBONDORBEADSORBEDTOTHESUBSTRATE2C0JLIETAL/SURFACECOATINGSTECHNOLOGY3012OBTAINEDSLOPESARE0015,0022AND0056MGCMC02MINC01FORNA2CO3,NA2B4O7ANDCH3COONABUFFERS,RESPECTIVELYTHESERESULTSCANBEEXPLAINEDINTERMSOFDISSOCIATIONCONSTANTSOFTHECORRESPONDINGACIDS,WHICHAREK247C210C011K144C210C07,K21C210C09K11C210C04,ANDK175C210C05FORH2CO3,H2B4O7ANDCH3COOH,RESPECTIVELYTHESECONDDISSOCIATIONCONSTANTOFABINARYACIDDECIDESTHEBUFFERCAPABILITYOFTHEBUFFEROBVIOUSLY,THENA2CO3BUFFERHASTHELOWESTCOSTANDBESTBUFFERCAPABILITYAMONGTHETESTEDBUFFERSFIG2SHOWSTHEWEIGHTLOSSOFTHESUBSTRATESVERSUSIMMERSIONTIMEINTHETESTSOLUTIONSWITHPHVALUESAT9,10AND11,USINGNA2CO3ASTHEBUFFERCORROSIONOFTHESPECIMENSINNONBUFFEREDTESTSOLUTIONSWITHPHVALUESAT9,10AND11WASALSOINVESTIGATEDTHECORRESPONDINGWEIGHTLOSSCURVESARESHOWNINFIG2ALLTESTSOLUTIONS051015202530350200020406081012141618NACH3COONA2B4O7NA2CO3WEIGHTLOSS/MGCM2TIME/MINFIG1THEVARIATIONOFWEIGHTLOSSOFMAGNESIUMALLOYINTESTSOLUTIONSWITHDIFFERENTBUFFERSUSEDFORTHESEEXPERIMENTSHADCOMPOSITIONSSIMILARTOTHOSEINTHEPLATINGBATHEXCEPTTHATSODIUMHYPOPHOSPHITEWASNOTINCLUDEDTHEWEIGHTLOSSLINEARLYCHANGESWITHTHEINCREASEOFTHEIMMERSIONTIMEINALLCASESSHOWNINFIG2UNDERTHESAMEPHVALUE,THECORROSIONRATEOFTHESUBSTRATESINTHEBUFFERSOLUTIONISOBVIOUSLYLOWERTHANTHATOFTHESUBSTRATESINTHENONBUFFEREDSOLUTION,ASSHOWNBYTHESLOPESOFTHECURVESINFIG2THISSUGGESTSTHATTHEBUFFERSOLUTIONHASACONSIDERABLEEFFECTONTHECORROSIONRATEOFMAGNESIUMALLOYINBOTHTHENA2CO3BUFFEREDANDNONBUFFEREDTESTSOLUTIONS,THECORROS

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