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外文翻译--内燃机主动衰减排气阀门设计 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--内燃机主动衰减排气阀门设计 英文版.pdf

DESIGNOFANACTIVEEXHAUSTATTENUATINGVALVEFORINTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINESRBOONEN,PSASKULEUVEN,DEPARTMENTOFMECHANICALENGINEERING,CELESTIJNENLAAN300B,B3001,HEVERLEE,BELGIUMEMAILRENEBOONENMECHKULEUVENACBEABSTRACTANACTIVESILENCERTOATTENUATEINTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINEEXHAUSTNOISEISDEVELOPEDTHESILENCERCONSISTSOFANELECTRICALLYCONTROLLEDVALVECONNECTEDTOABUFFERVOLUMETHEPULSATINGFLOWFROMTHEENGINEISBUFFEREDINTHEVOLUMEANDTHEVALVERESISTANCEISCONTINUOUSLYCONTROLLEDSUCHTHATONLYTHEMEANFLOWPASSESTOTHEATMOSPHERETHISFLOWISFREEOFFLUCTUATIONSANDCONSEQUENTLYFREEOFSOUNDTHEDESIGNOFTHEACTIVESILENCERISCARRIEDOUTUSINGELECTRICALANALOGCIRCUITSFIRST,THEINTERACTIONBETWEENTHEACTIVESILENCERANDTHEENGINEWILLBESTUDIEDUSINGANANALOGCIRCUITINCLUDINGTHECOMBUSTIONENGINEANDALINEARIZEDACTIVESILENCERTHEN,ADETAILEDVALVEMODELISBUILTINASEPARATEELECTRICALANALOGCIRCUITITINCLUDESTHEELECTRICAL,THEMECHANICALANDTHEFLOWDYNAMICPROPERTIESOFTHEACTUATORVALVETHEACTUATORVALVECONCEPTISTHENSIMULATED,FROMWHICHAPROTOTYPECANBECONSTRUCTEDTHEACTIVESILENCERHASBEENTESTEDONACOLDENGINESIMULATORTHISDEVICEGENERATESREALISTICEXHAUSTNOISEWITHTHEASSOCIATEDGASFLOWUSINGCOMPRESSEDAIRTHESILENCERCANATTENUATEPULSATIONSFROMENGINESATVERYLOWREVOLUTIONSPEED,WITHOUTPASSIVEELEMENTSPRECONNECTEDBETWEENTHEENGINEANDTHEACTIVESILENCERTHISISNOTPOSSIBLEUSINGLOUDSPEAKERBASEDACTIVESILENCERS1INTRODUCTIONTHEINTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINEHASFOUNDITSWAYINTOABROADSPECTRUMOFAPPLICATIONS,WHEREINTRANSPORTATIONHASFARTHELARGESTSHARETHESUCCESSOFTHEINTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINEHASALSOCREATEDPROBLEMSASSOCIATEDWITHIT,SUCHASAIRPOLLUTIONANDENVIRONMENTALNOISEDURINGTHEPASTDECADES,LEGISLATIONHASCOMEFORWARDWHICHSTRINGENTLYREDUCESAIRPOLLUTANTS,GREENHOUSEGASESANDNOISEEMISSIONTODAY,THENOISEEMISSIONLIMITSARESETTO74DBAFORCARSAND80DBAFORHEAVYVEHICLES1FORCARS,THEEMISSIONOFCO2ISLIMITEDTO190G/KMEUIIIDIRECTIVE,ANDWILLBEFURTHERREDUCEDTO170G/KMEUIVIN2003AND140G/KMEUVIN2008ALTHOUGHTHESEDIRECTIVESARENOTRELATEDATFIRSTSIGHT,THEYDOHAVETHEIRIMPLICATIONSONTHEEXHAUSTSYSTEMDEVELOPMENTITWILLBENECESSARYTODEVELOPEXHAUSTSYSTEMSWITHMINIMUMBACKPRESSURETOTHEENGINE,TOMAXIMIZEENGINEEFFICIENCYANDTHISWITHOUTLOSSOFNOISEATTENUATIONPERFORMANCEAWAYOUTTOTHISPROBLEMISTODEVELOPACTIVEEXHAUSTSYSTEMSMUCHRESEARCHONACTIVENOISECANCELLATIONINDUCTSISCARRIEDOUTINTHERECENTYEARSANDNUMEROUSPATENTSHAVEBEENGENERATEDLOUDSPEAKERSYSTEMSARESUCCESSFULLYAPPLIEDANDCOMMERCIALAVAILABLEINVENTILATIONCHANNELS2LOUDSPEAKERSYSTEMSAREALSODEVELOPEDFORSTATIONARYDIESELENGINES,FOREXAMPLEBYDETROITDIESELCORPORATION3ANDTHEKEBAAISTMSYSTEMFORCARS,ACTIVELOUDSPEAKERSYSTEMSAREDEVELOPEDFORSIXORMORECYLINDERENGINES4FORFOURCYLINDERENGINES,LOUDSPEAKERSYSTEMSSUFFERFROMPROBLEMSASTHELOWSOUNDGENERATINGEFFICIENCYANDRELIABILITYINTHEEXTREMECONDITIONSOFANENGINEEXHAUSTAPPLYINGACONTROLLABLEVALVEINTHEEXHAUSTDUCTISAMOREROBUSTCONCEPTTHERESTRICTINGELEMENTOFTHEVALVECANBESMALLANDRIGIDLYCONSTRUCTEDITCANBEEXPOSEDTOTHEEXHAUSTGASDIRECTLYTHERESISTANCEOFTHEVALVEISCONTINUOUSLYVARIABLEBYAPPLYINGANEXTERNALSIGNALITISASSUMEDTHATTHEVALVEISPURELYRESISTIVE,ITISN’TCAPABLETOSTOREENERGYFROMTHEGASFLOWASCONSEQUENCEOFTHEGASFLOW,THEVALVEGENERATESAPRESSUREDROPOVERITACTIVENOISECANCELLATIONISACHIEVED,WHENTHEVOLUMEVELOCITYBEHINDTHEVALVEISKEPTCONSTANTINFIGURE1,THEFIRSTGRAPHDEMONSTRATESHOWTHESOUNDPRESSUREINFLUENCESTHEFLUIDFLOWVIATHEVALVERESISTANCECHARACTERISTICTHESECONDGRAPHDEMONSTRATESHOWTHEOPPOSITEFLUCTUATINGFLOWISGENERATEDFROMTHEMEANPRESSUREDROPOVERTHEVALVEBYVARY33FIGURE1BASICPRINCIPLEUSINGAVALVETOCONTROLTHEFLOWTHROUGHADUCTTHESYMBOLSINTHEFIGUREMEANQ0ISMEANFLUIDFLOW,QISFLOWFLUCTUATION,P0ISMEANPRESSURE,∆PISTHEPRESSUREFLUCTUATION,KISTHEVALVECONSTANTWHICHEXPRESSESTHERELATIONBETWEENPRESSUREANDFLOW,KISTHEVARIATIONONKINGTHEVALVERESISTANCESUPERPOSITIONOFBOTHEFFECTSRESULTSINACONSTANTVOLUMEFLOW,SHOWNINTHETHIRDGRAPHBASEDONTHISCONCEPT,ANOISEATTENUATINGDEVICEISDEVELOPEDBYLEAUNIVERSITYOFPOITIERS,FRANCE5,6,USINGABUTTERFLYVALVE,ANDISTESTEDONANINTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINETESTRIGTHETESTRIGCONSISTSOFAN1350CM3FOURCYLINDERCARENGINEEQUIPPEDWITHANHYDRAULICBRAKEINTHEEXHAUSTLINETWOPASSIVEMUFFLERSAREPRECONNECTEDTOTHEACTUATORVALVEASCONTROLSTRATEGY,AXLMSFEEDFORWARDANDAFEEDBACKCONTROLSYSTEMARETESTEDINTHEFEEDFORWARDCASE,THETHREEFIRSTHARMONICSAREREDUCEDBY20TO30DBINTHEFEEDBACKCASE,THEFIRSTHARMONICISREDUCEDBY20DB,THESECONDHARMONICBY5DBTHERESEARCHWORKPRESENTEDINTHISPAPERAIMSTODEVELOPANACTIVEEXHAUSTSILENCERBASEDONAVALVECONCEPT,CAPABLETOHANDLETHEACOUSTICALPOWEROFTHEPRESSUREPULSATIONOFTHEENGINEEXHAUSTWITHOUTTHEREQUIREMENTTOINSTALLSILENCERSPRIORTOTHEACTIVEDEVICETHEGENERATEDBACKPRESSUREMUSTBELOWAFTERTHEACTIVEDEVICE,ASMALLPASSIVESILENCERCANBEINSTALLEDTOATTENUATETHEHIGHFREQUENCYNOISE2DEVELOPMENTOFTHEACTIVESILENCER21PRINCIPLETHEORETICALLY,INSERTINGANACTIVEVALVEINTHEFLOWOFAVOLUMEVELOCITYSOURCE,LIKEACOMBUSTIONENGINE,HASNOEFFECTIFNOCAPACITIVEELEMENTSAREPRESENTBETWEENTHESOURCEANDTHEVALVETHEVOLUMEVELOCITYSOURCEFORCESAPRESCRIBEDFLOWTHROUGHTHEEXHAUSTSYSTEM,WHATEVERTHEPRESSUREBECOMESINITCAPACITIVEELEMENTSCANBEINTRODUCEDUSINGDUCTSORVOLUMESWHENTHEVALVEISINSERTEDINANEXHAUSTDUCTOFANENGINEWITHOUTADDITIONALCAPACITIVEELEMENTS,AHIGHBACKPRESSUREWILLBEGENERATEDORONLYALOWNOISEATTENUATIONWILLRESULTTHEMOSTSIMPLESYSTEMABLETOCONTROLOFAVOLUMEVELOCITYSOURCEUSINGACONTROLLEDVALVEISPRESENTEDINFIGURE2THEENGINEACTSASAVOLUMEVELOCITYSOURCEATTHEEXHAUST,AVOLUMEWITHCAPACITYCANDAREGULATINGVALVEWITHVARIABLERESISTANCERTISCONNECTEDTHETRANSLATIONOFTHEPHYSICALSYSTEMRESULTSINTHEELECTRICALEQUIVALENTCIRCUIT7SHOWNINFIGURE2BELOWTHEIMPEDANCEZISTHEIMPEDANCEOFTHETAILPIPEANDTHEOPENAIRRADIATORTHEFLOWFROMTHESOURCEWILLSPLITOVERTHECAPACITORCANDTHETIMEDEPENDENTRESISTORRTNOW,THECONTROLLERHASTOVARYTHEVALVERESISTANCEDURINGTIME,SUCHTHATTHEFLUCTUATINGFLOWTHROUGHTHERESISTANCEBECOMESZEROFIGURE2THEMOSTSIMPLESCHEMEOFANACTIVECONTROLVALVEONANINTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINE,APPROXIMATEDASAVOLUMEVELOCITYSOURCETHEVARIATIONOFTHEVALVERESISTANCEISOBTAINEDFROMTHEELECTRICALEQUIVALENTCIRCUITUB1CINTEGRALDISPLAYICDTIRRTZ1DIFFERENTIATING1RESULTSINIC1CDIRDTRTIRDRTDTZDIRDT2CONSTANTFLOWTHROUGHTHEVALVEOPENINGIMPLIESDIRDT03THECONTROLLERHASTOVARYTHEVALVERESISTANCEDURINGTIMEACCORDINGRTR0INTEGRALDISPLAY1CICIRDT434PROCEEDINGSOFISMA2002VOLUMEIWHEREINR0ISTHEINITIALVALVERESISTANCETHESAMERESULTCANBEACHIEVEDBYACONTROLLERWHICHMINIMIZESTHEPRESSUREUZAFTERTHEVALVEDUZDTZDIRDT05THISSIMPLECONSIDERATIONHASTWOIMPORTANTCONSEQUENCESFIRST,BYBALANCINGTHEVOLUMEVALVECOMBINATION,ITISALWAYSPOSSIBLETOCONTROLTHEFLOWOFANYVOLUMEVELOCITYSOURCESECOND,THERESISTANCER0CANBECHOSENFREELYWITHTHEONLYRESTRICTIONTHATTHERESISTANCERTREMAINSALWAYSPOSITIVETHERESISTANCER0CANBEOPTIMIZEDTOOBTAINMINIMUMBACKPRESSURETOTHEENGINE,RESULTINGINAHIGHERENGINEEFFICIENCY22ELECTRICALEQUIVALENTMODELFORTHEENGINEANDTHESILENCERTHESIMPLEMODEL,PRESENTEDINFIGURE2,LOOKSNOTVERYREALISTICFORANENGINEEXHAUSTSYSTEM,THEREFORETHEMODELWILLBEEXPANDEDTHEVOLUMEVELOCITYSOURCEWILLBEREPLACEDBYANENGINEMODEL,ANDADUCTISCONNECTEDBETWEENTHEENGINEANDTHEACTIVESILENCERATAILPIPEISCONNECTEDBEHINDTHESILENCERTHERESULTINGCIRCUITISPRESENTEDINFIGURE3THELEFTPARTOFTHECIRCUITISTHEENGINEMODELTHEFOURVARIABLECAPACITORSREPRESENTTHEFOURENGINECYLINDERS,WHO’SVOLUMEVARIESSINUSOIDALBETWEENMAXIMUMANDDEADVOLUMETHEUPPERSETOFSWITCHRESISTORSREPRESENTTHEINTAKEVALVES,THELOWERSETTHEEXHAUSTVALVESTHESWITCHESAREACTUATEDINTHESAMESEQUENCEASTHECAMSHAFTOPERATESTHEENGINEVALVESTHEFOURSHORTTRANSMISSIONLINESBEHINDTHEEXHAUSTVALVERESISTORSREPRESENTTHEFOUREXHAUSTCONDUITSBETWEENTHECYLINDERPORTSANDTHEEXHAUSTMANIFOLDJUNCTIONTHEINTAKESIDEISCONNECTEDTOAVOLTAGESOURCEUBREPRESENTINGTHEATMOSPHERICPRESSUREANDEQUALS100KVTHECOMBUSTIONISSIMULATEDBYCHARGINGTHECYLINDERCAPACITORBYAPULSINGCURRENTSOURCEPARALLELOVERTHECAPACITORTHECHARGETIMEPOINTCORRESPONDSTOTHEIGNITIONTIMEPOINTTHERIGHTPARTREPRESENTSTHEACTIVEEXHAUSTSYSTEMTHESILENCERISCONNECTEDTOTHEENGINEVIATHEDUCTREPRESENTEDBYTHETRANSMISSIONLINETTHECAPACITORCREPRESENTSTHEBUFFERVOLUMEANDTHEVARIABLERESISTORRTTHECONTROLVALVETHETRANSMISSIONLINETTREPRESENTSTHETAILPIPEANDTHERESISTORINDUCTORCOMBINATIONRAANDLACORRESPONDSTOTHESPHERICALRADIATORIMPEDANCEINSIMULATION,ACOLLOCATEDFEEDBACKCONTROLLERCONDUCTSTHECONTROLVALVEFIGURE3ELECTRICALANALOGCIRCUITFORANINTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINEEQUIPPEDWITHANACTIVENOISECONTROLVALVERESISTANCETHISCONTROLLERISONLYNEEDEDTODETERMINETHEACTIVESILENCERPROPERTIESINPRACTICE,OTHERCONTROLSTRATEGIESMUSTBEAPPLIEDTOHANDLETHETIMEDELAYBETWEENTHEVALVEACTIONANDITSEFFECTINTHEERRORSENSORINPRINCIPLE,THEBACKPRESSURETOTHEENGINECANBESETTOANYDESIREDVALUEBYCHOOSINGTHEAPPROPRIATEBUFFERVOLUMECAPACITORCINPRACTICE,ITWILLRESULTINACOMPROMISEBETWEENAVAILABLESPACEFORTHEACTIVESILENCERANDACCEPTABLEBACKPRESSUREFIGURE4SIMULATEDINDICATORDIAGRAMFROMTHECIRCUITPRESENTEDINFIGURE323SIMULATIONRESULTSINTHEELECTRICALCIRCUITOFFIGURE3,THEENGINEPARAMETERSOFA2000CM3ENGINEAREINTRODUCEDTHEDUCTSHAVEADIAMETEROF60MMTHEDUCTBETWEENTHEENGINEANDTHESILENCERIS500MMLONG,THETAILPIPE700MMLONGTHEBACKPRESSUREISSETTO10KPA,RESULTINGINABUFFERVOLUMEOF12DM3THEINITIALACTUATORVALVERESISTANCEISSETTO200KΩ1Ω1PAS/M3THEFEEDBACKCONTROLGAINISSETTO108INFIGURE4,THESIMULATEDENGINEINDICATORDIAGRAMACTIVENOISECONTROL35FIGURE5SIMULATEDTAILPIPEABSOLUTEPRESSURETHECONTROLLERSTARTSAT02SISPRESENTEDACTUALLY,THISDIAGRAMHASNOPHYSICALSIGNIFICANCE,ITISAN”ISOTHERMAL”SIMULATIONONLYTHEPRESSUREATTHEEXHAUSTVALVEOPENINGTIMEPOINTMUSTHAVEITSCORRECTVALUE,WHICHISDETERMINISTICFORTHEEXHAUSTNOISETHEEXHAUSTPRESSUREINTHETAILPIPEISDISPLAYEDINFIGURE5THECONTROLLERISACTIVATEDAT02SACTIVATINGTHECONTROLLERAT02SDOESNOTEFFECTTHEGASFLOWFROMTHEENGINE,ASINDICATEDINFIGURE6THEENGINEBEHAVESASAVOLUMEVELOCITYSOURCEINFIGURE7,THEABSOLUTEBACKPRESSURETOTHEENGINEISDISPLAYEDAFTERTHETRANSIENTSWITCHINGONTHECONTROLLER,THEBACKPRESSURERETURNSTOTHEPRESETTEDVALUEOF10KPAFIGURE6SIMULATEDGASFLOWTHROUGHTHEEXHAUSTMANIFOLD24ELECTRICALANALOGMODELFORTHEACTUATORVALVETHECONSTRUCTIONOFTHEACTUATORVALVEISPRESENTEDINFIGURE8THEVALVEHASACONICALHEADANDISDRIVENBYAVOICECOILINAPERMANENTMAGNETICCIRCUITTHEFIGURE7SIMULATEDABSOLUTEBACKPRESSURETOTHEENGINETHECONTROLLERSTARTSAT02SVALVEHASAMONOTONICINCREASINGVALVERESISTANCEINTERMSOFHEADDISPLACEMENTTHISRESISTANCEISPRESENTEDINFIGURE10THISISANADVANTAGECOMPAREDTOFOREXAMPLEABUTTERFLYVALVE,WHICHHASASIGNREVE

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