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外文翻译--四轮定位简介.doc

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外文翻译--四轮定位简介.doc

辽宁工程技术大学毕业设计(论文)11英文翻译原文AShortCourseonWheelAlignmentbyCharlesOfriaInitsmostbasicform,awheelalignmentconsistsofadjustingtheanglesofthewheelssothattheyareperpendiculartothegroundandparalleltoeachother.Thepurposeoftheseadjustmentsismaximumtirelifeandavehiclethattracksstraightandtruewhendrivingalongastraightandlevelroad.Thisarticlebeginswithinformationthatanymotoristshouldknowhowever,ifyouareinterestedinlearningmoreaboutthistopic,clickontheunderlinedwordsformoredetailedexplanationsofeachterm.Wewillcovervariouslevelsofdetailwiththedeepestlevelscontaininginformationthatevenawheelalignmenttechnicianwillfindinformative.WheelAlignmentisoftenconfusedwithWheelBalancing.Thetworeallyhavenothingtodowitheachotherexceptforthefactthattheyaffectrideandhandling.Ifawheelisoutofbalance,itwillcauseavibrationathighwayspeedsthatcanbefeltinthesteeringwheeland/ortheseat.Ifthealignmentisout,itcancauseexcessivetirewearandsteeringortrackingproblems.Ifyouknowanythingaboutwheelalignment,youveprobablyheardthetermsCamber,CasterandToein.CamberCamberistheangleofthewheel,measuredindegrees,whenviewedfromthefrontofthevehicle.Ifthetopofthewheelisleaningoutfromthecenterofthecar,thenthecamberispositive,ifitsleaningin,thenthecamberisnegative.Ifthecamberisoutofadjustment,itwillcausetirewearononesideofthetirestread.Ifthecamberistoofarnegative,forinstance,thenthetirewillwearontheinsideofthetread.辽宁工程技术大学毕业设计(论文)2CamberwearpatternIfthecamberisdifferentfromsidetosideitcancauseapullingproblem.Thevehiclewillpulltothesidewiththemorepositivecamber.Onmanyfrontwheeldrivevehicles,camberisnotadjustable.Ifthecamberisoutonthesecars,itindicatesthatsomethingiswornorbent,possiblyfromanaccidentandmustberepairedorreplaced.CasterWhenyouturnthesteeringwheel,thefrontwheelsrespondbyturningonapivotattachedtothesuspensionsystem.Casteristheangleofthissteeringpivot,measuredindegrees,whenviewedfromthesideofthevehicle.Ifthetopofthepivotisleaningtowardtherearofthecar,thenthecasterispositive,ifitisleaningtowardthefront,itisnegative.Ifthecasterisoutofadjustment,itcancauseproblemsinstraightlinetracking.Ifthecasterisdifferentfromsidetoside,thevehiclewillpulltothesidewiththelesspositivecaster.Ifthecasterisequalbuttoonegative,thesteeringwillbelightandthevehiclewillwanderandbedifficulttokeepinastraightline.Ifthecasterisequalbuttoopositive,thesteeringwillbeheavyandthesteeringwheelmaykickwhenyouhitabump.Casterhaslittleaffectontirewear.Thebestwaytovisualizecasteristopictureashoppingcartcaster.Thepivotofthistypeofcaster,whilenotatanangle,intersectsthegroundaheadofthewheelcontactpatch.Whenthewheelisbehindthepivotatthepointwhereitcontactstheground,itisinpositivecaster.Pictureyourselftryingtopushthecartandkeepthewheelaheadofthepivot.Thewheelwillcontinuallytrytoturnfromstraightahead.Thatiswhathappenswhenacarhasthecastersettoofarnegative.Likecamber,onmanyfrontwheeldrivevehicles,casterisnotadjustable.Ifthecasterisoutonthese辽宁工程技术大学毕业设计(论文)3cars,itindicatesthatsomethingiswornorbent,possiblyfromanaccident,andmustberepairedorreplaced.ToeinThetoemeasurementisthedifferenceinthedistancebetweenthefrontofthetiresandthebackofthetires.ItismeasuredinfractionsofaninchintheUSandisusuallysetclosetozerowhichmeansthatthewheelsareparallelwitheachother.Toeinmeansthatthefrontsofthetiresareclosertoeachotherthantherears.Toeoutisjusttheopposite.Anincorrecttoeinwillcauserapidtireweartobothtiresequally.Thistypeoftireweariscalledasawtoothwearpatternasshowninthisillustration.Ifthesharpedgesofthetreadsectionsarepointingtothecenterofthecar,thenthereistoomuchtoein.Iftheyarepointedtotheoutsideofthecarthenthereistoomuchtoeout.Toeisalwaysadjustableonthefrontwheelsandonsomecars,isalsoadjustablefortherearwheels.FourWheelAlignmentsTherearetwomaintypesof4wheelalignments.Ineachcase,thetechnicianwillplaceaninstrumentonallfourwheels.Inthefirsttypethereartoeandtrackingischecked,butalladjustmentsaremadeatthefrontwheels.Thisisdoneonvehiclesthatdonothaveadjustmentsontherear.Thesecondtypeisafull4wheelalignmentwheretheadjustmentsarefirstmadetotrueuptherearalignment,thenthefrontisadjusted.Afull4wheelalignmentwillcostmorethantheothertypebecausethereismoreworkinvolved.Otherfactseverydrivershouldknowaboutwheelalignments.Aproperwheelalignmentshouldalwaysstartandendwithatestdrive.Thefrontendandsteeringlinkageshouldbecheckedforwearbeforeperforminganalignment.Thetiresshouldallbeingoodshapewithevenwearpatterns.Ifyouhaveatirewithexcessivecamberwear,forinstance,andyoucorrectthealignmentproblemthatcausedthatwear,thetirewillnowbemakingonlypartialcontactwiththeroad.see辽宁工程技术大学毕业设计(论文)4illustrationonrightPullingproblemsarenotalwaysrelatedtowheelalignment.Problemswithtiresespeciallyunequalairpressure,brakesandpowersteeringcanalsoberesponsible.Itisuptoagoodwheelalignmenttechniciantodeterminethecause.AdvancedWheelAlignmentInformation.WhileCamber,CasterToeinarethesettingsthatarealwayscheckedwhendoingawheelalignment,theyarenottheonlysettings.Belowisalistofthealignmentsettingsthatareimportantforawheelalignmenttechniciantoknowaboutinordertodiagnosefrontendproblems.CamberWhencamberspecificationsaredeterminedduringthedesignstage,anumberoffactorsaretakenintoaccount.Theengineersaccountforthefactthatwheelalignmentspecificationsusedbyalignmenttechniciansareforavehiclethatisnotmoving.Onmanyvehicles,camberchangeswithdifferentroadspeeds.Thisisbecauseaerodynamicforcescauseachangeinridingheightfromtheheightofavehicleatrest.Becauseofthis,ridingheightshouldbecheckedandproblemscorrectedbeforesettingcamber.Camberspecsaresetsothatwhenavehicleisathighwayspeed,thecamberisattheoptimalsettingforminimumtirewear.Formanyyearsthetrendhasbeentosetthecamberfromzerotoslightlypositivetooffsetvehicleloading,howeverthecurrenttrendistoslightlynegativesettingstoincreasevehiclestabilityandimprovehandling.CasterPositivecasterimprovesstraightlinetrackingbecausethecasterlinethelinedrawnthroughthesteeringpivotwhenviewedfromthesideintersectsthegroundaheadofthecontactpatchofthetire.Justlikeashoppingcartcaster,thewheelisforcedbehindthepivotallowingthevehicletotrackinastraightline.Ifthisisthecase,thenwhydidmostcarshavenegativecasterspecspriorto1975Thereareacoupleofreasonsforthis.Inthosedays,peoplewerelookingforcarsthatsteeredaslightasafeather,andcarsbackthenwerenotequippedwithradialtires.NonradialtireshadatendencytodistortathighwayspeedsothatthecontactpatchmovedbackpastthecenterlineofthetirePictureacartooncarspeedingalong,thetiresaregenerallydrawnaseggshaped.Thecontactpatchgenerallymovesbehindthecasterlinecausing,ineffect,apositive

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