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外文翻译--基于AT89C2051 的智能型汽车防撞报警器的设计.doc

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外文翻译--基于AT89C2051 的智能型汽车防撞报警器的设计.doc

ANAT89C2051BASEDINTELLIGENTPROXIMITYWARNINGINDICATORFORAUTOMOBILEITINTRODUCESTHEFUNCTIONANDCHARACTERISTICSOFMICROCONTROLLERAT89C2051BASEDONITALOWCOSTHIGHACCURACYMICROMINIATURIZATIONANDDIGITALDISPLAYPROXIMITYWARNINGINDICATORFORAUTOMOBILEISDESIGNEDTHEINDICATORMEASURESTHEDISTANCEANDSPEEDOFTHEAUTOMOBILE,WITHULTRASONICWAVEANDINTEGRATEDHALLUNITANDCONTROLSTHESYSTEMBYTHEREALTIMECONTROLANDDATAPROCESSINGOFTHEMICROCONTROLLERMOREOVERITSCIRCUITRYPRINCIPLEISINTRODUCEDINDETAILASWELLASITSSOFTWAREDESIGNALONGWITHMODERNRHYTHMOFLIFESPEEDINGUP,THEFREQUENCYWHICHTHETRAFFICACCIDENTOCCURREDISINCREASING,FORENHANCESTHESECURITYOFAUTOMOBILEMOVEMENTTHISARTICLEINTRODUCEDONEKINDOFALARMSYSTEMBASEDONMONOLITHICINTEGRATEDCIRCUITCONTROLSTHEAUTOMOBILEGUARDSAGAINSTHITTINGTHISEQUIPMENTTHEMONOLITHICINTEGRATEDCIRCUITREALTIMECONTROLANDTHEDATAPROCESSINGFUNCTION,WITHTHEULTRASONICWAVERANGEFINDERTECHNOLOGY,THESENSORTECHNOLOGYUNIFIES,MAYEXAMINEINTHEAUTOMOBILEMOVEMENTREARAREATHEOBSTACLEANDTHEAUTOMOBILEDISTANCEANDTHEAUTOMOBILEVEHICLESPEED,REVEALSTHEINSTALLMENTDEMONSTRATIONDISTANCETHROUGHTHENUMBER,ANDISAWAYFROMFARANDNEARTHESITUATIONBYTHESOUNDPRODUCTIONELECTRICCIRCUITBASISTOSENDOUTTHEWARNINGSOUNDTHEULTRASONICRANGINGPRINCIPLEIS,AFTERUNCEASINGLYEXAMINESTHEULTRASONICWAVELAUNCHTOMEETTHEECHOWHICHTHEOBSTACLEREFLECTS,THUSDETERMINESTHELAUNCHULTRASONICWAVEANDRECEIVESTHEECHOTHETIMEDIFFERENCETHENEXTRACTSISAWAYFROMSCT/2,CISTHEULTRASONICWAVEWAVEVELOCITY,UNDERTHENORMALTEMPERATURETAKESIS344M/SAFTERSONICSPEEDDETERMINATION,SOLONGASOBTAINSTHEULTRASONICWAVEROUNDTRIPTHETIME,THENOBTAINSTHEDISTANCETHEAUTOMOBILEVEHICLESPEEDSURVEYISINTEGRATESTHESENSORTHROUGHHALLTOREALIZENAMELY,ISLOADEDWITHTHEPERMANENTMAGNETTHETURNTABLEINPUTAXISANDTHEWHEELREVOLUTIONAXISISCONNECTED,WHENTHEWHEELROTATES,THETURNTABLEALONGWITHITROTATION,THISTIME,ONTHETURNTABLEPERMANENTMAGNETCANINTEGRATETHESENSORAFTERHALL,THUSINTEGRATESTHESENSORINHALLTHEINPUTENDTOOBTAINAMAGNETISMSIGNAL,IFTHETURNTABLEDOESNOTSTOPTHEROTATION,HALLINTEGRATESTHESENSORTHENTOBEABLETOOUTPUTTHEROTATIONALSPEEDSIGNALITCANBESAIDTHAT,TOTHEAUTOMOBILEVEHICLESPEEDSURVEYESSENCEINTOTHEROTATIONALSPEEDSIGNALFREQUENCYSURVEYAT89C2051ISALOWPOWERLOSS,THEHIGHPERFORMANCE8CMOSMICROPROCESSOR,ISCOMPATIBLEWITHTHEMCS51SERIESINSTRUCTIONCOLLECTIONANDTHEPIN,HASFOLLOWINGCHARACTERISTIC128BYTESINTERNALRAM,2KBYTESEPROM,FIFTEENI/OLINE,TWOSIXTEENFIXEDTIMECOUNTERS,FIVETWOLEVELOFINTERRUPTSOURCES,ONEENTIREDUPLEXSERIALPORT,INTERNALPRECISELYSIMULATESTHECOMPARATORANDINTERNALSWINGMING,THELOWPOWERLOSSLEAVESUNUSEDANDFALLSTHEELECTRICITYPATTERNTHEWORKINGVOLTAGESCOPE42555V,THEOPERATINGFREQUENCYTAKES12MHZINAT89C2051,TWOSIXTEENFIXEDTIME/COUNTERSREGISTERSIST0ANDT1,MAKEFIXEDTIME/COUNTERS,MAYCOUNTTHEMACHINECYCLE,COUNTSTHEFREQUENCYFORTHEOSCILATIONFREQUENCY1/12;WHENMAKESTHECOUNTER,MAYAPPEARSTOONEXTERIORINPUTPINP34/T0ANDP35/T1FROM1TO0CHANGESWHENINCREASE1,COUNTSTHEFREQUENCYFORTHEOSCILATIONFREQUENCY1/24THISALARMAPPARATUSISMADEUPOFTHECONTROLSYSTEM,THEULTRASONICWAVETRANSMISSIONCIRCUIT,THEACCEPTINGCIRCUIT,MEASUREDTHEFASTELECTRICCIRCUIT,THEALARMCIRCUIT,THELEDDISPLAYCIRCUITETCTHEULTRASONICWAVELAUNCHELECTRICITYROUTECC7555TIMEBASECIRCUITANDTHEULTRASONICWAVELAUNCHPOKESHEADINTOCOMPOSETHEMONOLITHICINTEGRATEDCIRCUITAT89C2051PINCONTROLSTHEP17PINTOCONTROLTHECC7555TIMEBASECIRCUITTOPRODUCETHE40KHZFREQUENCYCODEFORTHEULTRASONICGENERATOR,POKESHEADINTHEULTRASONICWAVELAUNCHOBSTACLEBYTHEULTRASONICWAVEWHICHLAUNCHESHASTHECHARACTERISTICBELOWUSINGTHEULTRASONICRANGINGHIGHSURVEYSENSITIVITY,STRONGPENETRATINGPOWER,QUICKSURVEYSPEED,THEBIGSURVEYANGLEIS,INTHECORRELATIONWIDERANGEOBJECTCARRIESONTHEEXAMINATIONTHESUPERSONICRECEPTIONELECTRICCIRCUITISCOMPOSEDOFPOKESHEADIN,THEAMPLIFIERBANDTHESHAPERCIRCUITTHEULTRASONICWAVEREFLECTSWHICHBYTHEOBSTACLEPOKESHEADINAFTERTHERECEIVE,TOTRANSFORMFORTHEELECTRICITYPULSESIGNAL,AGAINAFTERTHEAMPLIFIER,THESHAPERENLARGEMENTANDTHERESHAPINGSENDSINTHEP32PINOFAT89C2051THEAMPLIFIERSUITABLYSELECTSHASTHEENOUGHGAINANDTHELOWERNOISEWIDEBANDAMPLIFIER,MAINTAINSTHEPULSESIGNALFRONTNOTTOHAVETHEDISTORTIONINPARTICULAR,ENHANCESTHERANGEFINDERTHEPRECISIONMEASUREDTHEFASTELECTRICCIRCUITISCOMPOSEDOFTHESENSOR,THEPULSEAMPLIFIER,THESHAPER,THECC7555TIMEBASESIGNALCIRCUIT,THEGATEHALLINTEGRATESTHESENSORTOTURNTHEWHEELROTATIONALSPEEDSIGNALTHEPULSESIGNALOUTPUT,AFTERTHEENLARGEMENT,THERESHAPINGELECTRICCIRCUITSENDSINTHEGATE,PRODUCESUNITTIMEBASESIGNALCONTROLGATEOPENINGBYTHECC7555TIMEBASECIRCUITSWITHTOSHUT,CONTROLSTHEROTATIONALSPEEDSIGNALINTHEUNITTIMETHROUGHTHEGATE,SENDSINMONOLITHICINTEGRATEDCIRCUITTHEP35PINOFAT89C2051,CONTROLLEDTHET1COUNTERTOCOUNT,HASREALIZEDINUNITTIMECOUNTINGTHEALARMCIRCUITISCOMPOSEDOFTHECC7555ELECTRICCIRCUITSANDTHESPEAKERTHEP16PINOFAT89C2051CONTROLSTHECC7555ELECTRICCIRCUITBASISMEASUREMENTRESULT,PRODUCESTHECERTAINFREQUENCYSIGNALACTUATIONSPEAKERTOSENDOUTREPORTSTOTHEPOLICETHESOUNDSENDSOUTWHENTHESPEAKERREPORTSTOTHEPOLICETHESOUND,TIMEBASECIRCUITCC7555ISINTEMPORARILYTHESTABLESTATE,THISTIMEPOWERSOURCETOELECTRICCAPACITYCHARGE,THUSCAUSESCC7555TOENDTEMPORARILYTHESTABLESTATETOREPLYTHESTEADYSTATE,OUTPUTSTHELOWLEVEL,CAUSESTHESPEAKERTOSTOPSENDINGOUTREPORTSTOTHEPOLICETHESOUND,PRODUCESNEWLYUNTILTHENEXTRANGEFINDERCONCLUSIONREPORTSTOTHEPOLICETHESOUNDTHELEDDISPLAYCIRCUITISCOMPOSEDOFTHEDIGITALTUBEANDTHEACTUATIONELECTRICCIRCUITWITHTWODIGITALTUBESDEMONSTRATIONDISTANCE,THEDIGITALTUBEUSESTHESTATICSTATETODEMONSTRATETHAT,BYTHECHIPMCS14495ACTUATIONSDEMONSTRATIONS,P14,P15SEPARATELYSAVESTHESIGNALASTHEACTUATIONCHIPMCS14495LOCKS,USESINBCDWHICHCONTROLSPRODUCESBINARCODEDECIMAL,THEBINARYCODEEXPRESSIONTENSDIGITISDEMONSTRATESTHETOPDIGITORTHELOWPOSITIONTHEAT89C2051MAINLYCOMPLETESTHEPROCEDURETHEEXECUTION,DATAPROCESSINGANDTOEXTERIORELECTRICCIRCUITREALTIMECONTROLINTERNALTIMERT0WORKINFIXEDTIMEWAY,WHENULTRASONICWAVELAUNCHSTARTSTOCOUNT,AFTERPINP32RECEIVESTHEECHO,STOPSCOUNTING,T0TIMESNAMELYFORTHEULTRASONICWAVEROUNDTRIPTRANSMISSIONTIME,THEMONOLITHICINTEGRATEDCIRCUITCARRIESONPROCESSINGTOTHISDATA,THENDETERMINESTHEDISTANCETHEINTERNALTIMERT1WORKISCOUNTINGTHEWAY,COUNTSBYP35PININPUTPULSESIGNALCONTROLT1,COUNTSTHEVALUEBYT1TODETERMINETHEAUTOMOBILETHEROTATIONALSPEEDTHEMONOLITHICINTEGRATEDCIRCUITBASISMEASUREDISAWAYFROMANDTHEVEHICLESPEEDCARRIESONTHECOMPARISON,JUDGESWHETHERACTUATESTHEALARMCIRCUITTOREPORTTOTHEPOLICE,LIKEHYPOTHESISWHENTHEVEHICLESPEEDISSMALLEROREQUALTO30KM/S,THESAFEDISTANCESHOULDBEBIGGERTHANISEQUALTO1M;WHENTHEVEHICLESPEEDISSMALLEROREQUALTO80KM/S,THESAFEDISTANCESHOULDBEBIGGERTHANISEQUALTO2M;WHENTHEVEHICLESPEEDISBIGGERTHAN80KM/S,THESAFEDISTANCESHOULDBEBIGGERTHANISEQUALTO5MTHISINSTALLMENTCONTROLSOFTWAREMUSTCOMPLETETHESYSTEMINITIALIZATION,THECONTROLTRIGGERPULSESIGNALLAUNCHANDTHERECEIVE,ACCORDINGTOFIXEDTIMETHECOUNTDOWNOBSTACLEDISTANCE,ACCORDINGTOCOUNTSTHEFREQUENCYCOMPUTATIONAUTOMOBILEVEHICLESPEED,JUDGESMEASUREDISAWAYFROMWHETHERINTHEMARGINFORSAFETYWHICHTHEVEHICLESPEEDCORRESPONDS,ANDACCORDINGTOCALCULATESHASTHEBCDCODEANDTHECORRESPONDINGFREQUENCYPULSESIGNALWITHTHEJUDGEMENTRESULT,ACTUATESTHEDISPLAYCIRCUITANDTHESOUNDPRODUCTIONELECTRICCIRCUIT基于AT89C2051的智能型汽车防撞报警器的设计本文介绍了AT89C2051单片机的性能及特点,及以其为核心的一种低成本、高精度、微型化、数字显示的汽车防撞报警器。该防撞报警器利用超声波及集成霍尔元件实现对汽车的测距和测速,利用单片机的实时控制和数据处理功能,完成系统的控制。文章给出了报警器的硬件电路原理及软件设计。随着现代生活节奏的加快,交通事故发生的频率也在增加,为提高汽车运行的安全性,本文介绍一种单片机控制的汽车防撞报警系统。该装置将单片机的实时控制及数据处理功能,与超声波的测距技术、传感器技术相结合,可检测汽车运行中后方障碍物与汽车的距离及汽车车速,通过数显装置显示距离,并由发声电路根据距离远近情况发出警告声。超声波测距的原理是,通过不断检测超声波发射后遇到障碍物所反射的回波,从而测出发射超声波和接收到回波的时间差,然后求出距离SCT/2,其中,C为超声波波速,常温下取为344M/S。声速确定后,只要测得超声波往返的时间,即可求得距离。汽车车速的测量是通过霍尔集成传感器来实现的。即,装有永久磁铁的转盘的输入轴与车轮的转轴相连,当车轮转动时,转盘随之转动,此时,转盘上的永久磁铁会经过霍尔集成传感器,从而在霍尔集成传感器的输入端得到一个磁信号,如果转盘不停转动,霍尔集成传感器便会输出转速信号。可以说,对汽车车速的测量实质上是对转速信号的频率的测量。AT89C2051是一个低功耗、高性能的8位CMOS微处理器,与MCS51系列指令集和引脚兼容,具有以下特点128BYTES内部RAM,2KBYTESEPROM,15根I/O线,2个16位定时计数器,5个两级中断源,1个全双工串行口,一个片内精密模拟比较器和片内荡器,低功耗的闲置和掉电模式。工作电压范围425~55V,工作频率取12MHZ。AT89C2051中的两个16位定时/计数器寄存器T0和T1,作定时/计数器时,可计数机器周期,计数频率为振荡频率的1/12;作计数器时,可对外部输入引脚P34/T0和P35/T1上出现从1至0的变化时增1,计数频率为振荡频率的1/24。该报警器由控制系统、超声波发射电路、接收电路、测速电路、报警电路、LED显示电路组成。超声波发射电路由CC7555时基电路和超声波发射探头组成。单片机AT89C2051的引脚控制P17引脚控制CC7555时基电路产生40KHZ的频率信号给超声波发生器,由超声波探头发射的超声波射向障碍物。利用超声波测距具有以下特点测量灵敏度高,穿透力强,测量速度快,测量角度大,可对较大范围内的物体进行检测。超声波接收电路由超声波接收探头、放大器和整形器组成。由障碍物反射回来的超声波经接收探头,变换为电脉冲信号,再由放大器、整形器放大和整形后送入到AT89C2051的P32引脚。放大器宜选用有足够增益和较低噪声的宽带放大器,以保持脉冲信号尤其是前沿不发生畸变,提高测距的精度。测速电路由传感器、脉冲放大器、整形器、CC7555时基信号电路、选通门组成。霍尔集成传感器将车轮转速信号变成脉冲信号输出,经放大、整形电路后送入选通门,由CC7555时基电路产生的单位时基信号控制选通门的开与闭,以控制转速信号在单位时间内通过选通门,送入单片机AT89C2051的P35引脚,控制T1计数器计数,实现了在单位时间内的计数。

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