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外文翻译--工业机器人.doc

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外文翻译--工业机器人.doc

Robottheindustrialrobotisatoolthatisusedinthemanufacturingenvironmenttoincreaseproductivity.Itcanperformjobsthatmightsbehazardoustothehumanworker.Oneofthefirstindustrialrobotswasusedtoreplacethenuclearpowerplants.Theindustrialrobotcanalsooperateontheassemblylinesuchasplacingelectroniccomponentsonaprintedcircuitboard.Thus,thehumanworkercanberelievedoftheroutineoperationofthistedioustask.Robotscanalsobeprogrammedtodefusebombs,toservethehandicapped,andtoperformfunctionsinnumerousapplicationsinoursociety.Arobotisareprogrammable,multifunctionalmanipulatordesignedtomoreparts,materialstoolsorspecialdevicesthroughvariablepregrammedlocationsfortheperformanceofavarietyofdifferenttasks.Preprogrammedlocationsarepathsthattherobotmustfollowtoaccomplishwork.Atsomeoftheselocations,therobotwillstopandperformsomeoperation,suchasassemblyofparts,spraypainting,orwelding.Theseppreprogrammedlocationsarestoredintherobotsmemoryandarerecalledlaterforcontinousoperation.Furthermore,thesepreprogrammedlocations,aswellasotherprogramdata,canbechangedlaterastheworkrequirementschange.Thus,withregardtothisprogrammingfeature,anindustrialrobotisverymuchlikeacomputer.Theroboticsystemcanalsocontroltheworkcelloftheoperatingrobot.Theworkcelloftherobotisthetotalenviromentinwhichtherobotmustperformitstask.Includedwithinthiscellmaybetherobotmanipulator,controller,aworktable,safetyfeatures,oraconveyor.Inaddition,signalsfromoutsidedevicecancommunicatewiththerobot.Themanipulator,whichdoesthephysicalworkoftheroboticsystem,consistsoftwosectionsthemechanicalsectionandtheattachedappendage.Themanipulatoralsohasabasetowhichtheappendagesareattached.Thebaseofthemanipulatorisusuallyfixedtotheflooroftheworkarea.Sometimes,through,thebasemaybemovable.Inthiscase,thebaseisattachedtoeitherarailoratrack,allowingthemanipulatortobemovedfromonelocationtoanother.themanipulatorismainlycomposedofthehandandthemotion.Thehandisusesfortograspholdstheworkpieceortoolthepart,accordingtoisgraspedholdsthethingshape,thesize,theweight,thematerialandtheworkrequesthasmanykindsofstructuralstyles,liketheclamp,therequestholdandtheadsorptionandsoon.Themotion,causesthehandtocompleteeachkindofrotationswinging,themigrationorthecompoundmotionrealizesthestipulationmovement,changesisgraspedholdsthethingpositionandtheposture.Motionsfluctuation,theexpansion,revolvingandsoonindependencemovementway,iscalledmanipulatorsdegreeoffreedom.Inordertocaptureinthespacetheoptionalpositionandthepositionobject,musthave6degreesoffreedom.Thedegreeoffreedomisthekeyparameterwhichthemanipulatordesigns.Thedegreeoffreedomaremore,manipulatorsflexibilityisbigger,theversatilityisbroader,itsstructureisalsomorecomplex.Generallythespecialpurposemanipulatorhas23degreesoffreedom.Theappendageisthearmoftherobot.Itcanbeeitherastraight,movablearmorajointedarmandgivesthemanipulatoritsvariousaxesofmotion.Thejointedarmisalsoknownasanarticulatedarm.Attheendofthearm,awristisconnected.Thewristismadeupofadditionalaxesandawristflange.Thewristflangeallowstherobotusertoconnectdifferenttoolingtothewristfordifferentjobs.Themanipulatorsaxesallowittoperformworkwithinacertainarea.Thisareaiscalledtheworkcelloftherobot,anditssizecorrespondstothesizeofthemanipulator.Astherobotphysicalsizeincreases,thesizeoftheworkcellmustalsoincrease.Themovementofthemanipulatoriscontrolledbyactuators,ordrivesystemcanuseelectric,hydraulic,orpneumaticpower.Theenergydevelopedbythedrivesystemisconveredtomechanicalpowerbyvariousmechanicaldrivesystems.Thedrivesystemsarecoupledthroughmechanicallinkages.Theselinkages,inturn,drivethedifferentaxesoftherobot.Themechanicallinkagesmaybecomposedofchains,geas,andballscrews.Thecontrollerisusedtocontroltherobotmanipulatormovementsaswellastocontrolperipheralcomponentswithintheworkcell.Theusercanprogramthemovementsofthemanipulatorintothecontrollerthroughtheuseofahandheldteachpendant.Thisinformationisstoredinthememoryofthecontrollerforlaterrecall.Thecontrollerisalsorequiredtocommunicatewithperipheralequipmentwithintheworkcell.Forexample,acontrollerhasaninputline.Whenthemachinecycleiscompleted,theinputlineturnson,tellingthecontrollertopositionthemanipulatorsothatitcanpickupthefinishedpart.Then,anewpartispickedupbythemanipulatorandplacedintothemachine.Next,thecontrollersignalsthemachinetostartoperation.Thecontrollercanbemadefrommechanicallyoperateddrumsthatstepthroughasequenceofevents.Thistypeofcontrolleroperateswithsimpleroboticsystem.Thecontrollersfoundonthemajorityofroboticsystemsaremorecomplexdevicesandrepresentstateoftheartelectronics.Thatis,theyaremicroprocessoroperated.Thispowerallowsthecontrollertobeveryflexibleinitsoperation.Thecontrollercansendelectricsignalsovercommunicationlines.Thistwowaycommunicationbetweentherobotmanipulatorandthecontrollermaintainsaconstantupdateofthelocationandtheoperationofthesystem.Thecontrolleralsohasthejobofcommunicatingwiththedifferentplantcomputer.ThecommunicationlinkestablishestherobotaspartofacomputerassistedmanufacturingCAMsystem.Themicroprocessorbasedsystemsoperateinconjunctionwithsolidstatememorydevices.Thesememorydevicesmaybemagneticbubbles,randomaccessmemory,floppydisk,ormagnetictape.Thepowersupplyistheunitthatsuppliespowertothecontrollerandthemanipulator.Twotypesofpoweraredelivedtotheroboticsystem.OnetypeofpoweristheAcpowerforoperationofthecontroller.Theothertypeofpowerisusedfordrivingthevariousaxesofthemanipulator.Forexample,iftherobotmanipulatoriscontrolledbyhydraulicorpneumaticdrives,controlsignalsaresenttothesedevices,causingmotionoftherobot.Industrialrobotsvarywidelyinsize,shape,numberofaxes,degreesoffreedom,anddesignconfiguration.Eachfactorinfluencesthedimensionsoftherobotsworkingenveloporthevolumeofspacewithinwhichitcanmoveandperformitsdesignatedtask.Abroaderclassificationofrobotscanbeendescribedasbelow.FixedandVariableSequenceRobots.Thefixedsequencerobotalsocalledapickandplacerobotisprogrammedforaspecificsequenceofoperqtions.Itsmovementsarefrompointtopoint,andthecycleisrepeatedcontinuously.Thevariablesequencerobotcanbeprogrammedforaspecificsequenceofoperationsbutcanbereprogrammedtoperformanothersequenceofoperation.PlaybackRobot.Anoperatorleadsorwalkstheplaybackrobotanditsendeffectorthroughthedeiredpath.Therobotmemorizesandrecordsthepathandsequenceofmotionsandcanrepeatthemcontinuallywithoutanyfurtheractionorguidancebytheoperator.NumericallyControlledRobot.Thenumericallycantrolledrobotisprogrammedandoperatedmuchlikeanumericallycontrolledmachine.Therobotisservocontrolledbydigitaldata,anditssequenceofmovementscanbechangedwithrelativeease.IntelligentRobot.3Theintelligentrobotiscapableofperformingsomeofthefunctionsandtaskscarriedoutbyhumanbeings.Itisequippedwithavarietyofsensorswithvisualandtactilecapabilities.机器人工业机器人是一种提高制造业生产力的工具,它可以承担那些对人类可能有危险的工作。如安装印刷电路板上的电子元器件。这样,人们九可以从单调的工作中解脱出来。机器人还能拆除炸弹,为伤残人服务,为我们的社会做各种各样的工作。机器人是一个可以重复编程的、多功能的工作机构,可以在各个预编程位置移动零件、材料、工具或其他特殊装置,完成各种不同的工作。预编程位置是指机器人完成工作时必须遵循的路径。在某些预编程位置,机器人会停下来进行一些操作,例如安装零件、喷漆或焊接。这些预编程位置存储在机器人的存储器中以便随时调出进行连续的操作。如果工作要求改变了,这些预编程位置连同其他的编程数据也能随之改变。这些编程特征使得工业机器人与计算机非常类似。机器人系统可以控制工作机器人的工作单元。机器人的工作单元是机器人执行任务时的工作环境,工作单元包括机器人的机械手、控制台、工作台、安全装置机器传动装置。此外,机器人应该能与外界信号进行交流。机械人的机械手完成机器人系统的具体工作,它包括两个部分机械部分和附属部分。附属部分安装在机械手的基座上。机座固定在工作现场的地板上。但有时机座也是可以移动的,在这种情况下,机座安放在轨道上,用于把机械手从一个位置移到另一个位置。机械手主要由手部和运动机构组成。手部是用来抓持工件(或工具)的部件,根据被抓持物件的形状、尺寸、重量、材料和作业要求而有多种结构形式,如夹持型、托持型和吸附型等。运动机构,使手部完成各种转动(摆动)、移动或复合运动来实现规定的动作,改变被抓持物件的位置和姿势。运动机构的升降、伸缩、旋转等独立运动方式,称为机械手的自由度。为了抓取空间中任意位置和方位的物体,需有6个自由度。自由度是机械手设计的关键参数。自由度越多,机械手的灵活性越大,通用性越广,其结构也越复杂。一般专用机械手有2~3个自由度。附属部分是机器人的手臂。它可能是一个直的可以移动的手臂,也可能是一个铰链手臂,为机械手提供多根工作轴。铰接的手臂也就是有关节连接的手臂。手臂的端部连有一个手腕,

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