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外文翻译--常用的结构体系 原件.pdf

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外文翻译--常用的结构体系 原件.pdf

COMMONLYCOMMONLYUSEDUSEDSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSYSTEMSSYSTEMSWITHLOADSMEASUREDINTENSOFTHOUSANDSKIPS,THEREISLITTLEROOMINTHEDESIGNOFHIGHRISEBUILDINGSFOREXCESSIVELYCOMPLEXTHOUGHTSINDEED,THEBETTERHIGHRISEBUILDINGSCARRYTHEUNIVERSALTRAITSOFSIMPLICITYOFTHOUGHTANDCLARITYOFEXPRESSIONITDOESNOTFOLLOWTHATTHEREISNOROOMFORGRANDTHOUGHTSINDEED,ITISWITHSUCHGRANDTHOUGHTSTHATTHENEWFAMILYOFHIGHRISEBUILDINGSHASEVOLVEDPERHAPSMOREIMPORTANT,THENEWCONCEPTSOFBUTAFEWYEARSAGOHAVEBECOMECOMMONPLACEINTODAY’STECHNOLOGYOMITTINGSOMECONCEPTSTHATARERELATEDSTRICTLYTOTHEMATERIALSOFCONSTRUCTION,THEMOSTCOMMONLYUSEDSTRUCTURALSYSTEMSUSEDINHIGHRISEBUILDINGSCANBECATEGORIZEDASFOLLOWSMOMENTRESISTINGFRAMESBRACEDFRAMES,INCLUDINGECCENTRICALLYBRACEDFRAMESSHEARWALLS,INCLUDINGSTEELPLATESHEARWALLSTUBEINTUBESTRUCTURESTUBEINTUBESTRUCTURESCOREINTERACTIVESTRUCTURESCELLULARORBUNDLEDTUBESYSTEMSPARTICULARLYWITHTHERECENTTRENDTOWARDMORECOMPLEXFORMS,BUTINRESPONSEALSOTOTHENEEDFORINCREASEDSTIFFNESSTORESISTTHEFORCESFROMWINDANDEARTHQUAKE,MOSTHIGHRISEBUILDINGSHAVESTRUCTURALSYSTEMSBUILTUPOFCOMBINATIONSOFFRAMES,BRACEDBENTS,SHEARWALLS,ANDRELATEDSYSTEMSFURTHER,FORTHETALLERBUILDINGS,THEMAJORITIESARECOMPOSEDOFINTERACTIVEELEMENTSINTHREEDIMENSIONALARRAYSTHEMETHODOFCOMBININGTHESEELEMENTSISTHEVERYESSENCEOFTHEDESIGNPROCESSFORHIGHRISEBUILDINGSTHESECOMBINATIONSNEEDEVOLVEINRESPONSETOENVIRONMENTAL,FUNCTIONAL,ANDCOSTCONSIDERATIONSSOASTOPROVIDEEFFICIENTSTRUCTURESTHATPROVOKETHEARCHITECTURALDEVELOPMENTTONEWHEIGHTSTHISISNOTTOSAYTHATIMAGINATIVESTRUCTURALDESIGNCANCREATEGREATARCHITECTURETOTHECONTRARY,MANYEXAMPLESOFFINEARCHITECTUREHAVEBEENCREATEDWITHONLYMODERATESUPPORTFROMTHESTRUCTURALENGINEER,WHILEONLYFINESTRUCTURE,NOTGREATARCHITECTURE,CANBEDEVELOPEDWITHOUTTHEGENIUSANDTHELEADERSHIPOFATALENTEDARCHITECTINANYEVENT,THEBESTOFBOTHISNEEDEDTOFORMULATEATRULYEXTRAORDINARYDESIGNOFAHIGHRISEBUILDINGWHILECOMPREHENSIVEDISCUSSIONSOFTHESESEVENSYSTEMSAREGENERALLYAVAILABLEINTHELITERATURE,FURTHERDISCUSSIONISWARRANTEDHERETHEESSENCEOFTHEDESIGNPROCESSISDISTRIBUTEDTHROUGHOUTTHEDISCUSSIONTHEPROJECTISONESPECIAL,THISMEANTANENGINEERMUSTACCEPTTHECOLLEGEEDUCATIONINTHEVERYMANYGOVERNMENTSINCLUDESISEMPLOYEDTHEPERMISSIONPROCEDUREFRONT,REQUESTSOFENGINEERINGGRADUATESTOBEEMPLOYEDMUSTTHROUGHE,ISEMPLOYEDLIKEATTORNEYMUSTTHEQUALIFICATIONSTESTBEATTORNEYBECAUSEWHENSOLVESTHESEPROBLEMS,INVOLVESTOTHE,THEREFOREINTHEPRESENTNEARLYALLENGINEERINGALLINCLUDESTHECOMPUTERPROGRAMMINGCERTAINLY,CANBEQUICKERTHANTHEHUMANITY,ACCURATELYSOLVESTHECOMPUTATIONSASPECTPROBLEMBUT,ONLYIFTHECOMPUTERCLEARANDTHEACCURATEINSTRUCTIONORTHEINFORMATION,INSISTHEPROCEDURE,OTHERWISETHECOMPUTERWILLBEUSELESSALTHOUGHTHEENGINEERINGCOURSECURRICULUMEMPHASISPOINTALWAYSTECHNOLOGYCLASSSUBJECT,THECURRENTTENDENCYREQUESTSTOTAKEASANELECTIVETHESOCIALSCIENCESANDTHEDISCIPLINECURRICULUMTHEENGINEERINGANDTHESOCIALAREMOREANDMORECLOSE,THUSHASTHEFULLREASONTOMOREENGINEERSWORK,ISDIFFERENT,THEIMPORTANTWAYWHICHWITHBYISAFFECTINGTHESOCIETYENGINEERALSONEEDSTOGRASPTHERICHLANGUAGE,INORDERORDERLINESSISCLEARMOREOVERHASTHEPERSUASIVEPOWERMANYSITUATIONSTHEREPORTINORDERTOPUBLISHITSPAPERALSOTONEEDINDETAILITSDISCOVERYTHEENGINEERINGCOURSESTUDENTFINALLYTWOYEARSWANTSTOTHESPECIALIZEDDOMAINTHESPECIALIZEDSUBJECTASSUBJECTANDGEODESY,SORHYDRAULICSINENGINEERINGCOURSESTUDENTUNIVERSITYSTAGELASTBEFORE,HASBEENEXTREMELYACTIVETOTHEPROJECTACTIVITYINRECENTYEARS,VERYMANYANDTHEGOVERNMENTAPPARATUSFORATTRACTTHEENGINEERSSTOCOMPETEINNOWTHESCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGYSOCIETY,THEPROCESSSKILLTRAININGTALENTEDEXTREMELYISSCARCEFOREXAMPLE,YOUNGENGINEERPOSSIBLYCANCHOOSETHEASCENTHYGIENICENGINEERING,BECAUSETHEPEOPLEHAVECREATEDTHEEMPLOYMENTOPPORTUNITYTOTHEENVIRONMENTATTENTION,PERHAPSENTERAROADBUILDINGCONSTRUCTIONENTERPRISE,ORTHEYWILLINGINARESEARCHWATERRESOURCESGOVERNMENTINBRIEF,MAYCHOOSETHEOTRULYVERYMANYWUNIVERSITYSTAGEOBTAINSHEISPOSSIBLYAPPOINTEDATTHEBEGINNINGOFTHEWORKTOWITHGROUPOFENGINEERS,OBTAINSINOFFICEENGINEERTOBEALLOWEDTOEXAMINETHEABILITYWHICHANDTHEPRACTICEUNIFIESCIVILENGINEERINGISPOSSIBLYENGAGEDINTHEWORKHASTHEDESIGN,THECONSTRUCTCONTROL,THESERVICE,EVENISTHEMANAGEMENTTHESEDIFFERENTTYPESWORK,TOTHE,THEEMPHASISPOINT,THEKNOWLEDGEANDTHEREQUESTAREVARIOUSTHESCIENTIFICRESEARCHISTHESCIENCEANDTHEPROJECTPRACTICESIMPORTANTASPECTARESEARCHERUSUALLYIS,HEWANTSWITHOTHERSCIENTISTS,ENGINEERTOWORKTOGETHERPUBLICOFFICETOTHELABORATORYSTHEGOVERNMENTORTHENEWSTRUCTURALMATERIALDEVELOPMENTANDEXPERIMENTCIVILENGINEERINGDOMAINVERYMANYSENIORENGINEERSAREENGAGEDINWORKJUSTLIKEWESAW,CIVILENGINEERINGSWORKINVOLVESKINDSOFTYPESTHESTRUCTURE,THEREFORESPEAKINGOFANTHESPECIALTYINSOMEKINDOFSTRUCTUREISONLYONEKINDOFWHENARCHITECTURALDESIGN,ENGINEERUSUALLYISDESIGNCOMPANYORCONSTRUCTSENTERPRISESDIKE,THEBRIDGE,USUALLYHIREENGINEERFORTHEAQUEOUSSYSTEMPROJECTPROJECTS,UNDERINISRESPONSIBLEFORTHEENTIREENGINEERLEADSTHEJOINTOPERATIONALSOCANHAVESOMEENGINEERSAMONGVERYMANYSITUATIONSTOINVOLVE,INADIKEPROJECT,ELECTRICPOWERENGINEERANDCANPARTICIPATEINTHEPOWERSTATIONTHEDESIGNANDITSSETUPMOREOVER,CIVILENGINEERINGALSOCANAPPOINTTOWORKFOROTHERFOREXAMPLE,WHENIMPLEMENTATIONSPACEPROGRAM,NEEDSTOPARTICIPATEINSUCHASTHELAUNCHINGPADANDTHEMAGAZINESUCHSTRUCTUREDESIGNANDTHECONSTRUCTIONTHENEARLYALLENGINEERINGPROJECTCONSTRUCTIONPROCESSVERYISWHENCONSTRUCTIONMUSTFORMULATETHEWORKPLAN,THEEQUIPMENTANDTHEMATERIAL,THUSREDUCESTHEPROJECTFARASPOSSIBLETHESAFETYFACTORALSOMUSTCONSIDER,BECAUSEPROCESSISEXTREMELYDANGEROUS,THEREFORENEEDSVERYENGINEERINGTOBEENGAGEDINTHECONSTRUCTIONSTAGETHEWORKINCONSIDERINGTHISSYSTEM,ISIMPORTANTTOUNDERSTANDCLEARLYTHEDIFFERENCEBETWEENTHESHEARANDTHEFLEXURALCOMPONENTSOFDEFLECTION,THETERMSBEINGTAKENFROMBEAMANALOGYINAFRAMEDTUBE,THESHEARCOMPONENTOFDEFLECTIONISASSOCIATEDWITHTHEBENDINGDEFORMATIONOFCOLUMNSANDGIRDERSIE,THEWEBSOFTHEFRAMEDTUBEWHILETHEFLEXURALCOMPONENTISASSOCIATEDWITHTHEAXIALSHORTENINGANDLENGTHENINGOFCOLUMNSIE,THEFLANGESOFTHEFRAMEDTUBEINABRACEDTUBE,THESHEARCOMPONENTOFDEFLECTIONISASSOCIATEDWITHTHEAXIALDEFORMATIONOFDIAGONALSWHILETHEFLEXURALCOMPONENTOFDEFLECTIONISASSOCIATEDWITHTHEAXIALSHORTENINGANDLENGTHENINGOFCOLUMNSFOLLOWINGBEAMANALOGY,IFPLANESURFACESREMAINPLANEIE,THEFLOORSLABS,THENAXIALSTRESSESINTHECOLUMNSOFTHEOUTERTUBE,BEINGFARTHERFORMTHENEUTRALAXIS,WILLBESUBSTANTIALLYLARGERTHANTHEAXIALSTRESSESINTHEINNERTUBEHOWEVER,INTHETUBEINTUBEDESIGN,WHENOPTIMIZED,THEAXIALSTRESSESINTHEINNERRINGOFCOLUMNSMAYBEASHIGH,OREVENHIGHER,THANTHEAXIALSTRESSESINTHEOUTERRINGTHISSEEMINGANOMALYISASSOCIATEDWITHDIFFERENCESINTHESHEARINGCOMPONENTOFSTIFFNESSBETWEENTHETWOSYSTEMSTHISISEASIESTTOUNDERSTANDWHERETHEINNERTUBEISCONCEIVEDASABRACEDIE,SHEARSTIFFTUBEWHILETHEOUTERTUBEISCONCEIVEDASAFRAMEDIE,SHEARFLEXIBLETUBECOREINTERACTIVESTRUCTURESAREASPECIALCASEOFATUBEINTUBEWHEREINTHETWOTUBESARECOUPLEDTOGETHERWITHSOMEFORMOFTHREEDIMENSIONALSPACEFRAMEINDEED,THESYSTEMISUSEDOFTENWHEREINTHESHEARSTIFFNESSOFTHEOUTERTUBEISZEROTHEUNITEDSTATESSTEELBUILDING,PITTSBURGH,ILLUSTRATESTHESYSTEMVERYWELLHERE,THEINNERTUBEISABRACEDFRAME,THEOUTERTUBEHASNOSHEARSTIFFNESS,ANDTHETWOSYSTEMSARECOUPLEDIFTHEYWERECONSIDEREDASSYSTEMSPASSINGINASTRAIGHTLINEFROMTHE“HAT”STRUCTURENOTETHATTHEEXTERIORCOLUMNSWOULDBEIMPROPERLYMODELEDIFTHEYWERECONSIDEREDASSYSTEMSPASSINGINASTRAIGHTLINEFROMTHE“HAT”TOTHEFOUNDATIONS;THESECOLUMNSAREPERHAPS15STIFFERASTHEYFOLLOWTHEELASTICCURVEOFTHEBRACEDCORENOTEALSOTHATTHEAXIALFORCESASSOCIATEDWITHTHELATERALFORCESINTHEINNERCOLUMNSCHANGEFROMTENSIONTOCOMPRESSIONOVERTHEHEIGHTOFTHETUBE,WITHTHEINFLECTIONPOINTATABOUT5/8OFTHEHEIGHTOFTHETUBETHEOUTERCOLUMNS,OFCOURSE,CARRYTHESAMEAXIALFORCEUNDERLATERALLOADFORTHEFULLHEIGHTOFTHECOLUMNSBECAUSETHECOLUMNSBECAUSETHESHEARSTIFFNESSOFTHESYSTEMISCLOSETOZERO

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