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外文翻译--应用于电气系统的可编程序控制器.DOC

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外文翻译--应用于电气系统的可编程序控制器.DOC

附录附录1PROGRAMMABLEDESIGNEDFORELECTROPNEUMATICSYSTEMSCONTROLLERTHISPROJECTDEALSWITHTHESTUDYOFELECTROPNEUMATICSYSTEMSANDTHEPROGRAMMABLECONTROLLERTHATPROVIDESANEFFECTIVEANDEASYWAYTOCONTROLTHESEQUENCEOFTHEPNEUMATICACTUATORSMOVEMENTANDTHESTATESOFPNEUMATICSYSTEMTHEPROJECTOFASPECIFICCONTROLLERFORPNEUMATICAPPLICATIONSJOINTHESTUDYOFAUTOMATIONDESIGNANDTHECONTROLPROCESSINGOFPNEUMATICSYSTEMSWITHTHEELECTRONICDESIGNBASEDONMICROCONTROLLERSTOIMPLEMENTTHERESOURCESOFTHECONTROLLER1INTRODUCTIONTHEAUTOMATIONSYSTEMSTHATUSEELECTROPNEUMATICTECHNOLOGYAREFORMEDMAINLYBYTHREEKINDSOFELEMENTSACTUATORSORMOTORS,SENSORSORBUTTONSANDCONTROLELEMENTSLIKEVALVESNOWADAYS,MOSTOFTHECONTROLELEMENTSUSEDTOEXECUTETHELOGICOFTHESYSTEMWERESUBSTITUTEDBYTHEPROGRAMMABLELOGICCONTROLLERPLCSENSORSANDSWITCHESAREPLUGGEDASINPUTSANDTHEDIRECTCONTROLVALVESFORTHEACTUATORSAREPLUGGEDASOUTPUTSANINTERNALPROGRAMEXECUTESALLTHELOGICNECESSARYTOTHESEQUENCEOFTHEMOVEMENTS,SIMULATESOTHERCOMPONENTSLIKECOUNTER,TIMERANDCONTROLTHESTATUSOFTHESYSTEMWITHTHEUSEOFTHEPLC,THEPROJECTWINSAGILITY,BECAUSEITISPOSSIBLETOCREATEANDSIMULATETHESYSTEMASMANYTIMESASNEEDEDTHEREFORE,TIMECANBESAVED,RISKOFMISTAKESREDUCEDANDCOMPLEXITYCANBEINCREASEDUSINGTHESAMEELEMENTSACONVENTIONALPLC,THATISPOSSIBLETOFINDONTHEMARKETFROMMANYCOMPANIES,OFFERSMANYRESOURCESTOCONTROLNOTONLYPNEUMATICSYSTEMS,BUTALLKINDSOFSYSTEMTHATUSESELECTRICALCOMPONENTSTHEPLCCANBEVERYVERSATILEANDROBUSTTOBEAPPLIEDINMANYKINDSAPPLICATIONOFINTHEINDUSTRYOREVENSECURITYSYSTEMANDAUTOMATIONOFBUILDINGSBECAUSEOFTHOSECHARACTERISTICS,INSOMEAPPLICATIONSTHEPLCOFFERSTOMUCHRESOURCESTHATARENOTEVENUSEDTOCONTROLTHESYSTEM,ELECTROPNEUMATICSYSTEMISONEOFTHISKINDOFAPPLICATIONTHEUSEOFPLC,ESPECIALLYFORSMALLSIZESYSTEMS,CANBEVERYEXPENSIVEFORTHEAUTOMATIONPROJECTANALTERNATIVEINTHISCASEISTOCREATEASPECIFICCONTROLLERTHATCANOFFERTHEEXACTLYSIZEANDRESOURCESTHATTHEPROJECTNEEDS3,4THISCANBEMADEUSINGMICROCONTROLLERSASTHEBASEOFTHISCONTROLLERTHECONTROLLER,BASEDONMICROCONTROLLER,CANBEVERYSPECIFICANDADAPTEDTOONLYONEKINDOFMACHINEORITCANWORKASAGENERICCONTROLLERTHATCANBEPROGRAMMEDASAUSUALPLCANDWORKWITHLOGICTHATCANBECHANGEDALLTHESECHARACTERISTICSDEPENDONWHATISNEEDEDANDHOWMUCHEXPERIENCETHEDESIGNERHASWITHDEVELOPINGANELECTRONICCIRCUITANDFIRMWAREFORMICROCONTROLLERBUTTHEMAINADVANTAGEOFDESIGNTHECONTROLLERWITHTHEMICROCONTROLLERISTHATTHEDESIGNERHASTHETOTALKNOWLEDGEOFHISCONTROLLER,WHICHMAKESITPOSSIBLETOCONTROLTHESIZEOFTHECONTROLLER,CHANGETHECOMPLEXITYANDTHEAPPLICATIONOFITITMEANSTHATTHEPROJECTGETSMOREINDEPENDENCEFROMOTHERCOMPANIES,BUTATTHESAMETIMETHERESPONSIBILITYOFTHECONTROLOFTHESYSTEMSTAYSATTHEDESIGNERHANDS2ELECTROPNEUMATICSYSTEMONAUTOMATIONSYSTEMONECANFINDTHREEBASICCOMPONENTSMENTIONEDBEFORE,PLUSALOGICCIRCUITTHATCONTROLSTHESYSTEMANADEQUATETECHNIQUEISNEEDEDTOPROJECTTHELOGICCIRCUITANDINTEGRATEALLTHENECESSARYCOMPONENTSTOEXECUTETHESEQUENCEOFMOVEMENTSPROPERLYFORASIMPLEDIRECTSEQUENCEOFMOVEMENTANINTUITIVEMETHODCANBEUSED1,5,BUTFORINDIRECTORMORECOMPLEXSEQUENCESTHEINTUITIONCANGENERATEAVERYCOMPLICATEDCIRCUITANDSIGNALMISTAKESITISNECESSARYTOUSEANOTHERMETHODTHATCANSAVETIMEOFTHEPROJECT,MAKEACLEANCIRCUIT,CANELIMINATEOCCASIONALSIGNALOVERLAPPINGANDREDUNDANTCIRCUITSTHEPRESENTEDMETHODISCALLEDSTEPBYSTEPORALGORITHMIC1,5,ITISVALIDFORPNEUMATICANDELECTROPNEUMATICSYSTEMSANDITWASUSEDASABASEINTHISWORKTHEMETHODCONSISTSOFDESIGNINGTHESYSTEMSBASEDONSTANDARDCIRCUITSMADEFOREACHCHANGEONTHESTATEOFTHEACTUATORS,THESECHANGESARECALLEDSTEPSTHEFIRSTPARTISTODESIGNTHOSEKINDSOFSTANDARDCIRCUITSFOREACHSTEP,THENEXTTASKISTOLINKTHESTANDARDCIRCUITSANDTHELASTPARTISTOCONNECTTHECONTROLELEMENTSTHATRECEIVESIGNALSFROMSENSORS,SWITCHESANDTHEPREVIOUSMOVEMENTS,ANDGIVETHEAIRORELECTRICITYTOTHESUPPLYLINESOFEACHSTEPINFIGS1AND2THESTANDARDCIRCUITSAREDRAWNFORPNEUMATICANDELECTROPNEUMATICSYSTEM8ITISPOSSIBLETOSEETHERELATIONSWITHTHEPREVIOUSANDTHENEXTSTEPS3THEMETHODAPPLIEDINSIDETHECONTROLLERHERESULTOFTHEMETHODPRESENTEDBEFOREISASEQUENCEOFMOVEMENTSOFTHEACTUATORTHATISWELLDEFINEDBYSTEPSITMEANSTHATEACHCHANGEONTHEPOSITIONOFTHEACTUATORSISANEWSTATEOFTHESYSTEMANDTHETRANSITIONBETWEENSTATESISCALLEDSTEPTHESTANDARDCIRCUITDESCRIBEDBEFOREHELPSTHEDESIGNERTODEFINETHESTATESOFTHESYSTEMSANDTODEFINETHECONDITIONTOEACHCHANGEBETWEENTHESTATESINTHEENDOFTHEDESIGN,THESYSTEMISDEFINEDBYASEQUENCETHATNEVERCHANCESANDSTATESTHATHAVETHEINPUTSANDTHEOUTPUTSWELLDEFINEDTHEINPUTSARETHECONDITIONFORTHETRANSITIONANDTHEOUTPUTSARETHERESULTOFTHETRANSITIONALLTHECONFIGURATIONOFTHOSESTEPSSTAYSINSIDEOFTHEMICROCONTROLLERANDISEXECUTEDTHESAMEWAYITWASDESIGNEDTHESEQUENCESOFSTRINGSAREPROGRAMMEDINSIDETHECONTROLLERWITH5BYTES;EACHSTRINGHASTHECONFIGURATIONOFONESTEPOFTHEPROCESSTHEREARETWOBYTESFORTHEINPUTS,ONEBYTEFORTHEOUTPUTSANDTWOMOREFORTHEOTHERCONFIGURATIONSANDAUXILIARYFUNCTIONSOFTHESTEPAFTERPROGRAMMING,THISSEQUENCEOFSTRINGSISSAVEDINSIDEOFANONVOLATILEMEMORYOFTHEMICROCONTROLLER,SOTHEYCANBEREADANDEXECUTEDTHECONTROLLERTASKISNOTTOWORKINTHESAMEWAYASACONVENTIONALPLC,BUTTHEPURPOSEOFITISTOBEANEXAMPLEOFAVERSATILECONTROLLERTHATISDESIGNFORANSPECIFICAREAACONVENTIONALPLCPROCESSTHECONTROLOFTHESYSTEMUSINGACYCLEWHEREITMAKESANIMAGEOFTHEINPUTS,EXECUTEALLTHECONDITIONSDEFINEDBYTHECONFIGURATIONPROGRAMMEDINSIDE,ANDTHENUPDATETHESTATEOFTHEOUTPUTSTHISCONTROLLERWORKSINADIFFERENTWAY,WHEREITREADTHECONFIGURATIONOFTHESTEP,WAITTHECONDITIONOFINPUTSTOBESATISFIED,THENUPDATETHESTATEORTHEOUTPUTSANDAFTERTHATJUMPTOTHENEXTSTEPANDSTARTTHEPROCESSAGAINITCANGENERATESOMELIMITATIONS,ASTHEFACTTHATTHISCONTROLLERCANNOTEXECUTE,INSIDETHEPROGRAM,MOVEMENTSTHATMUSTBEREPEATEDFORSOMETIME,BUTTHISPROBLEMCANBESOLVEDWITHSOMEEXTERNALLOGICCOMPONENTSANOTHERLIMITATIONISTHATTHECONTROLLERCANNOTBEAPPLIEDONSYSTEMSTHATHAVENOSEQUENCETHESELIMITATIONSAREACHARACTERISTICOFTHESYSTEMTHATMUSTBEANALYZEDFOREACHAPPLICATION4CHARACTERISTICSOFTHECONTROLLERTHECONTROLLERISBASEDONTHEMICROCHIPMICROCONTROLLERPIC16F8776,7WITH40PINS,ANDITHASALLTHERESOURCESNEEDEDFORTHISPROJECTITHASENOUGHPINSFORALLTHECOMPONENTS,SERIALCOMMUNICATIONIMPLEMENTEDINCIRCUIT,EEPROMMEMORYTOSAVEALLTHECONFIGURATIONOFTHESYSTEMANDTHESEQUENCEOFSTEPSFORTHEEXECUTIONOFTHEMAINPROGRAMITOFFERSCOMPLETERESOURCESASTIMERSANDINTERRUPTIONSTHELISTOFRESOURCESOFTHECONTROLLERWASCREATEDTOEXPLOREALLTHECAPACITYOFTHEMICROCONTROLLERTOMAKEITASCOMPLETEASPOSSIBLEDURINGTHESTEP,THEPROGRAMCHOOSESHOWTOUSETHERESOURCESREADINGTHECONFIGURATIONSTRINGOFTHESTEPTHISSTRINGHASTWOBYTESFORDIGITALINPUTS,ONEUSEDASAMASKANDTHEOTHERONEUSEDASAVALUEEXPECTEDONEBYTEISUSEDTOCONFIGURETHEOUTPUTSVALUEONEBYTESMOREISUSEDFORTHEINTERNALTIMER,THEANALOGINPUTORTIMEOUTTHEEEPROMMEMORYINSIDEIS256BYTESLENGTHTHATISENOUGHTOSAVETHESTRINGOFTHESTEPS,WITHTHISCHARACTERISTICITISPOSSIBLETOSAVEBETWEEN48STEPS(TABLE1)THECONTROLLERFIG3HASALSOADISPLAYANDSOMEBUTTONSTHATAREUSEDWITHANINTERACTIVEMENUTOPROGRAMTHESEQUENCEOFSTEPSANDOTHERCONFIGURATIONS41INTERACTIONCOMPONENTSFORTHEREALAPPLICATIONTHECONTROLLERMUSTHAVESOMEELEMENTSTOINTERACTWITHTHEFINALUSERANDTOOFFERACOMPLETEMONITORINGOFTHESYSTEMRESOURCESTHATAREAVAILABLETOTHEDESIGNERWHILECREATINGTHELOGICCONTROLOFTHEPNEUMATICSYSTEMFIG3INTERACTIVEMODEOFWORK;FUNCTIONAVAILABLEONTHEMAINPROGRAMFORDIDACTICPURPOSES,THEUSERGIVESTHESIGNALTOEXECUTETHESTEPLCDDISPLAY,WHICHSHOWSTHESTATUSOFTHESYSTEM,VALUESOFINPUTS,OUTPUTS,TIMERANDSTATISTICSOFTHESEQUENCEEXECUTIONBEEPTOGIVEIMPORTANTALERTS,STOP,STARTANDEMERGENCYLEDSTOSHOWPOWERONANDOTHERSTOSHOWTHESTATEOFINPUTSANDOUTPUTS42SECURITYTOMAKETHEFINALAPPLICATIONWORKSPROPERTY,ACORRECTCONFIGURATIONTOEXECUTETHESTEPSINTHERIGHTWAYISNEEDED,BUTMORETHENTHATITMUSTOFFERSOLUTIONSINCASEOFBADFUNCTIONINGORPROBLEMSINTHEEXECUTIONOFTHESEQUENCETHECONTROLLEROFFERSTHEPOSSIBILITYTOCONFIGURETWOINTERNALVIRTUALCIRCUITSTHATWORKINPARALLELTOTHEPRINCIPALTHESETWOCIRCUITSCANBEUSEDASEMERGENCYORRESETBUTTONSANDCANRETURNTHESYSTEMTOACERTAINSTATEATANYTIME2THEREARETWOINPUTSTHATWORKWITHINTERRUPTIONTOGETANIMMEDIATEACCESSTOTHESEFUNCTIONSITISPOSSIBLETOCONFIGURETHEPOSITION,THEBUTTONSANDTHEVALUEOFTIMEOUTOFTHESYSTEM43USERINTERFACETHESEQUENCEOFSTRINGSCANBEPROGRAMMEDUSINGTHEINTERFACEELEMENTSOFTHECONTROLLERACOMPUTERINTERFACECANALSOBEUSEDTOGENERATETHEUSERPROGRAMEASILYWITHAGOODDOCUMENTATIONTHEFINALUSERCANUSETHEINTERFACETOCONFIGURETHESTRINGSOFBYTESTHATDEFINETHESTEPSOFTHESEQUENCEBUTITISPOSSIBLETOCREATEAPROGRAMWITHVISUALRESOURCESTHATWORKSASATRANSLATORTOTHEUSER,ITCHANGESHISWORKTOTHEVALUESTHATTHECONTROLLERUNDERSTANDSTOIMPLEMENTTHECOMMUNICATIONBETWEENTHECOMPUTERINTERFACEANDTHECONTROLLERASIMPLEPROTOCOLWITHCHECKSUMANDNUMBEROFBYTESISTHEMINIMUMREQUIREMENTSTOGUARANTEETHEINTEGRITYOFTHEDATA44FIRMWARETHEMAINLOOPWORKSBYREADINGTHESTRINGSOFTHESTEPSFROMTHEEEPROMMEMORYTHATHASALLTHEINFORMATIONABOUTTHESTEPSINEACHSTEP,THESTATUSOFTHESYSTEMISSAVEDONTHEMEMORYANDITISSHOWNONTHEDISPLAYTOODEPENDINGOFTHEUSERCONFIGURATION,ITCANUSETHEINTERRUPTIONTOWORKWITHTHEEMERGENCYCIRCUITORTIMEOUTTOKEEPTHESYSTEMSAFETYINFIG4,ABLOCKDIAGRAMOFMICROCONTROLLERMAINPROGRAMISPRESENTED5EXAMPLEOFELECTROPNEUMATICSYSTEMTHESYSTEMISNOTAREPRESENTATIONOFASPECIFICMACHINE,BUTITISMADEWITHSOMECOMMONMOVEMENTSANDCOMPONENTSFOUNDINAREALONETHESYSTEMISCOMPOSEDOFFOURACTUATORSTHEACTUATORSA,BANDCAREDOUBLEACTINGANDDSINGLEACTINGACTUATORAADVANCESANDSTAYSINSPECIFIEDPOSITIONTILLTHEENDOFTHECYCLE,ITCOULDWORKFIXINGANOBJECTTOTHENEXTACTIONFOREXAMPLEFIG5,ITISTHEFIRSTSTEPWHENAREACHESTHEENDPOSITION,ACTUATORCSTARTSHISWORKTOGETHERWITHB,MAKINGASMANYCYCLESASPOSSIBLEDURINGTHEADVANCINGOFBITDEPENDSONHOWFASTACTUATORBISADVANCING;THESPEEDISREGULATEDBYAFLOWINGCONTROLVALVEITWASTHESECONDSTEPBANDCAREEXAMPLESOFACTUATORSWORKINGTOGETHER,WHILEBPUSHESANOBJECTSLOWLY,CREPEATSITSWORKFORSOMETIMEWHENBREACHESTHEFINALPOSITION,CSTOPSIMMEDIATELYITSCYCLEANDCOMESBACKTOTHEINITIALPOSITIONTHEACTUATORDISASINGLEACTINGONEWITHSPRINGRETURNANDWORKSTOGETHERWITHTHEBACKOFC,ITISTHETHIRDSTEPDWORKSMAKINGVERYFASTFORWARDANDBACKWARDMOVEMENT,JUSTONETIMEITSBACKWARDMOVEMENTISTHEFOURTHSTEPDCOULDBEATOOLTOMAKEAHOLEONTHEOBJECTWHENDREACHESTHEINITIALPOSITION,AANDBRETURNTOO,ITISTHEFIFTHSTEP

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