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外文翻译--延长搅拌机.doc

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外文翻译--延长搅拌机.doc

英文原文HAVE2007IEEEInternationalWorkshoponHapticAudioVisualEnvironmentsandtheirApplicationsOttawa,Canada1214October2007ExtendingBlenderDevelopmentofaHapticAuthoringToolSheldonAndrews,MohamadEid2,AtifAlamri2,andAbdulmotalebElSaddik2MultimediaCommunicationsResearchLaboratoryMCRLabSchoolofInformationTechnologyandEngineeringUniversityofOttawaOttawa,Ontario,KIN6N5,CanadasandrO71site.uottawa.ca,2teid,atifWabedmcrlab.uottawa.CaAbstractInthispaper,wepresentourworktoextendawellknown3DgraphicmodelerBlendertosupporthapticmodelingandrendering.TheextensiontoolisnamedHAMLATHapticApplicationMarkupLanguageAuthoringTool.WedescribethemodificationsandadditionstotheBlendersourcecodewhichhavebeenusedtocreateHAMLATFurthermore,wepresentanddiscussthedesigndecisionsusedwhendevelopingHAMLAT,andalsoanimplementationroadmapwhichdescribesthechangestotheBlendersourcecode.Finally,weconcludewithdiscussionofourfuturedevelopmentandresearchavenues.KeywordsHaptics,HAML,GraphicModelers,Blender,VirtualEnvironments.I.INTRODUCTIONA.MotivationTheincreasingadoptionofhapticmodalityinhumancomputerinteractionparadigmshasledtoahugedemandfornewtoolsthathelpnoviceuserstoauthorandedithapticapplications.Currently,thehapticapplicationdevelopmentprocessisatimeconsumingexperiencethatrequiresprogrammingexpertise.ThecomplexityofhapticapplicationsdevelopmentrisesfromthefactthatthehapticapplicationcomponentssuchasthehapticAPI,thedevice,thehapticrenderingalgorithms,etc.needtointeractwiththegraphiccomponentsinordertoachievesynchronicity.Additionally,thereisalackofapplicationportabilityastheapplicationistightlycoupledtoaspecificdevicethatnecessitatestheuseofitscorrespondingAPI.Therefore,deviceandAPIheterogeneityleadtothefragmentationanddisorientationofbothresearchersanddevelopers.Inviewofalltheseconsiderations,thereisaclearneedforanauthoringtoolthatcanbuildhapticapplicationswhilehidingprogrammingdetailsfromtheapplicationmodelersuchasAPI,device,orvirtualmodel.ThispaperdescribesthetechnicaldevelopmentoftheHapticApplicationMarkupLanguageAuthoringToolHAMLAT.ItisintendedtoexplainthedesigndecisionsusedfordevelopingHAMLATandalsoprovidesanimplementationroadmap,describingthesourcecodeoftheproject.B.BlenderHAMLATisbasedontheBlender1softwaresuite,whichisanopensource3Dmodelingpackagewitharichfeatureset.Ithasasophisticateduserinterfacewhichisnotedforitsefficiencyandflexibility,aswellasitssupportsformultiplefileformats,physicsengine,modemcomputergraphicrenderingandmanyotherfeatures.BecauseofBlendersopenarchitectureandsupportivecommunitybase,itwasselectedastheplatformofchoicefordevelopmentofHAMLAT.TheopensourcenatureofBlendermeansHAMLATcaneasilyleverageitsexistingfunctionalityandfocusonintegratinghapticfeatureswhichmakeitacompletehaptovisualmodelingtool,sincedevelopinga3DmodelingplatformfromscratchrequiresconsiderabledevelopmenttimeandexpertiseinordertoreachtheleveloffunctionalityofBlender.Also,wecantakeadvantageoffutureimprovementstoBlenderbymergingchangesfromitssourcecodeintotheHAMLATsourcetree.HAMLATbuildsonexistingBlendercomponents,suchastheuserinterfaceandeditingtools,byaddingnewcomponentswhichfocusontherepresentation,modification,andrenderingofhapticpropertiesofobjectsina3Dscene.ByusingBlenderasthebasisforHAMLAT,wehopetodevelopa3DhapticmodelingtoolwhichhasthematurityandfeaturesofBlendercombinedwiththenoveltyofhapticrendering.Atthetimeofwriting,HAMLATisbasedonBlenderversion2.43sourcecode.C.ProjectGoalsAspreviouslystated,theoverallgoalfortheHAMLATprojectistoproduceapolishedsoftwareapplicationwhichcombinesthefeaturesofamodemgraphicmodelingtoolwithhapticrenderingtechniques.HAMLAThasthelookandfeelofa3Dgraphicalmodelingpackage,butwiththeadditionoffeaturessuchashapticrenderingandhapticpropertydescriptors.Thisallowsartists,modelers,anddeveloperstogeneraterealistic3Dhaptovisualvirtualenvironments.AhighlevelblockdiagramofHAMLATisshowninFigure1.Itillustratestheflowofdatainthehapticmodeling.HAMLATassiststhemodeler,orapplicationdeveloper,inbuildinghaptovisualapplicationswhichmaybestoredinadatabaseforlaterretrievalbyanotherhapticapplication.Byhaptovisualapplicationwerefertoanysoftwarewhichdisplaysa3Dscenebothvisuallyandhapticallytoauserinavirtualsetting.AnXMLfileformat,calledHAML2,isusedtodescribethe3Dscenesandstorethehaptovisualenvironmentsbuiltbyamodelerforlaterplaybacktoanenduser.Traditionally,buildinghaptovisualenvironmentshasrequiredastrongtechnicalandprogrammingbackground.Thetaskofhapticallyrenderinga3Dsceneistedioussincehapticpropertiesmustbeassignedtoindividualobjectsinthesceneandcurrentlytherearefewhighleveltoolsforaccomplishingthistask.HAMLATbridgesthisgapbyintegratingintotheHAMLframeworkanddeliveringacompletesolutionfordevelopmentofhaptovisualapplicationsrequiringnoprogrammingknowledge.TheremainderofthepaperisorganizedasfollowsinSection2,wepresenttheproposedarchitectureextensionsanddiscussdesignconstraints.Section3describestheimplementationdetailsandhowhapticpropertiesareaddedandrenderedwithintheBlenderframework.InSection4wediscussrelatedissuesandfutureworkavenues.II.SYSTEMOVERVIEWANDARCHITECTURETheBlenderdesignphilosophyisbasedonthreemaintasksdatastorage,editing,andvisualization.Accordingtothelegacydocumentation3,itfollowsadatavisualizeeditdevelopmentcycleforthe3Dmodelingpipeline.A3DsceneisrepresentedusingdatastructureswithintheBlenderarchitecture.Themodelerviewsthescene,makeschangesusingtheeditinginterfacewhichdirectlymodifiestheunderlyingdatastructures,andthenthecyclerepeats.Tobetterunderstandthisdevelopmentcycle,considertherepresentationofa3DobjectinBlender.A3Dobjectmayberepresentedbyanarrayofverticeswhichhavebeenorganizedasapolygonalmesh.Usersmaychoosetooperateonanysubsetofthisdataset.Editingtasksmayincludeoperationstorotate,scale,andtranslatethevertices,orperhapsaremeshingalgorithmtocleanupredundantverticesandtransformfromaquadtoatriangletopology.Thedataisvisualizedusingagraphical3Drendererwhichiscapableofdisplayingtheobjectasawireframeorasashaded,solidsurface.Thevisualizationisnecessaryinordertoseetheeffectsofeditingonthedata.Inanutshell,thisexampledefinesthedesignphilosophybehindBlendersarchitecture.InBlender,dataisorganizedasaseriesoflistsandbasedatatypesarecombinedwithlinksbetweenitemsineachlist,creatingcomplexscenesfromsimplestructures.Thisallowsdataelementsineachlisttobereused,thusreducingtheoverallstoragerequirements.Forexample,ameshmaybelinkedbymultiplesceneobjects,butthepositionandorientationmaychangeforeachobjectandthetopologyofthemeshremainsthesame.AdiagramillustratingtheorganizationofdatastructuresandreuseofsceneelementsisshowninFigure2.Asceneobjectlinkstothreeobjects,eachofwhichlinktotwopolygonalmeshes.Themeshesalsoshareacommonmaterialproperty.Theentiresceneisrenderedononeofseveralscreens,whichvisualizesthescene.WeadopttheBlenderdesignapproachforourauthoringtool.Thedatastructureswhichareusedtorepresentobjectsina3Dscenehavebeenaugmentedtoincludefieldsforhapticpropertiese.g.,stiffness,dampinguserinterfacecomponentse.g.,buttonpanelswhichallowthemodelertochangeobjectpropertieshavealsobeenupdatedtoincludesupportformodifyingthehapticpropertiesofanobject.Additionally,aninteractivehaptovisualrendererhasbeenimplementedtodisplaythe3Dscenegraphicallyandhaptically,providingthemodelerorartistwithimmediatefeedbackaboutthechangestheymaketothescene.inthecurrentversionoftheHAMLAT.themodificationstotheBlenderframeworkincludedatastructuresforrepresentinghapticproperties,aneditinginterfaceformodifyinghapticproperties,anexternalrendererfordisplayingandpreviewinghapticallyenabledscenes,scriptswhichallowscenestobeimported/exportedintheHAMLfileformat.AclassdiagramoutliningthechangestotheBlenderrameworkisshowninFigure3.ComponentswhichareertinenttoHAMLATareshadedingray.HAMLATbuildsonexistingBlendersubsystemsbyextendingthemorhapticmodelingpurposes.Datastructuresforrepresentingobjectgeometryandgraphicalrenderingareaugmentedtoincludefieldwhichencompassthetactilepropertiesnecessaryforhapticrendering.ToallowtheusertomodifyhapticpropertiesGUIComponentsareintegratedaspartoftheBlendereditingpanels.TheoperationstriggeredbythesecomponentsoperatedirectlyonthedatastructuresusedforrepresentinghaticcuesandmaybeconsideredpartoftheeditingstepoftheBlenderdesigncycle.Similarlytothebuiltingraphicalrenderer,HAMLATusesacustomrendlererfordisplaying3Dsscenesgrphcalandhaptcall,anisineednoftheBlenderrenderer.Thiscomponentisdevelopedindependentlysincehapticalandgraphicalrenderingmustbeperformedsimultaneouslyandsynchronously.Asimulationloopisusedtoupdatehapticrenderingforcesataratewhichmaintainsstabilityandquality.Adetaileddiscussionoftheimplementationoftheseclassesandtheirconnectivityisgiveninthenextsection.IIIIMLIEMENTATIONADataStructureA.1MeshDataType

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