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外文翻译--微处理器.doc

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外文翻译--微处理器.doc

MicroprocessorsAmicroprocessorisacomputationenginethatisfabricatedonasinglechip.ThefirstmicroprocessorwastheIntel4004,introducedin1971.The4004wasnotverypowerful–allitcoulddowasaddandsubtract,anditcouldonlydothat4bitsatatime.Butitwasamazingthateverythingwasononechip.Priortothe4004,engineersbuiltcomputerseitherfromcollectionsofchipsorfromdiscretecomponents.The4004poweredoneofthefirstportableelectroniccalculators.ThefirstmicroprocessortomakeitintoahomecomputerwastheIntel8080,acomplete8bitcomputeronthechip,introducedin1974.ThefirstmicroprocessortomakearealsplashinthemarketwastheIntel8088,introducedin1979andincorporatedintotheIBMPC.ThePCmarketmovedfromthe8088tothe80286tothe80386tothe80486tothePentiumtothePentiumIItothePentiumIIItothePentium4.AllofthesemicroprocessorsaremadebyIntelandallofthemareimprovementsonthebasicdesignofthe8088.ThePentium4canexecuteanypieceofcodethatranontheoriginal8088,butitdoesitabout5,000timesfasterThefollowingtableshowsthedifferencesbetweenthedifferentprocessorsthatIntelhasintroducedovertheyears.Table1.2NameDateTransistorsMicron1ClockspeedDatawidth2MIPS3808019746,00062MHz8bits0.648088197929,00035MHz16bits8bitbus0.33802861982134,0001.56MHz16bits1803861985275,0001.516MHz32bits58048619891,200,000125MHz32bits20Pentium19933,100,0000.860MHz32bits64bitbus100PentiumII19977,500,0000.35233MHz32bits64bitbus300PentiumIII19999,500,0000.25450MHz32bits64bitbus510Pentium4200042,000,0000.181.5GHz32bits64bitbus1,700Fromthistableyoucanseethat,ingeneral,thereisarelationshipbetweenclockspeedandMIPS.Themaximumclockspeedisafunctionofthemanufacturingprocessanddelayswithinthechip.ThereisalsoarelationshipbetweenthenumberoftransistorsandMIPS.Forexample,the8088clockedat5MHzbutonlyexecutedat0.33MIPSaboutoneinstructionper15clockcycles.Modernprocessorscanoftenexecuteatarateoftwoinstructionsperclockcycle.Thatimprovementisdirectlyrelatedtothenumberoftransistorsonthechip.InsideaMicroprocessorAmicroprocessorexecutesacollectionofmachineinstructionsthattelltheprocessorwhattodo.Basedontheinstruction,amicroprocessordoesthreebasicthings1.UsingitsALUArithmetic/LogicUnit,amicroprocessorcanperformmathematicaloperationslikeaddition,subtraction,multiplicationanddivision.ModernMicroprocessorscontaincompletefloatingpointprocessorsthatcanperformextremelysophisticatedoperationsonlargefloatingpointnumbers.2.Amicroprocessorcanmovedatafromonememorylocationtoanother.3.Amicroprocessorcanmakedecisionsandjumptoanewsetofinstructionsbasedonthosedecisions.Thesemaybeverysophisticatedthingsthatamicroprocessordoes,butthoseareitsthreebasicactivities.ThefollowingdiagramshowsanextremelysimplemicroprocessorcapableofdoingthosethreethingsThismicroprocessorhasanaddressbusthatsendsanaddresstomemory,adatabusthatcansenddatatomemoryorreceivedatafrommemory,anRDreadandWRwritelinetotellthememorywhetheritwantstosetorgettheaddressedlocation,aclocklinethatletsaclockpulsesequencetheprocessorandareset4linethatresetstheprogramcountertozeroorwhateverandrestartsexecution.Andletsassumethatboththeaddressanddatabusesare8bitswidehere.HerearethecomponentsofthissimplemicroprocessorFigure1.1Figure1.11.RegistersA,BandCaresimplylatchesmadeoutofflip–flops.2.TheaddresslatchisjustlikeregistersA,BandC.3.Theprogramcounterisalatchwiththeextraabilitytoincrementby1whentoldtodoso,andalsotoresettozerowhentoldtodoso.4.TheALUcouldbeassimpleasan8bitadder,oritmightbeabletoadd,subtract,multiplyanddivide8–bitvalues.Letsassumethelatterhere.5.ThetestregisterisaspeciallatchthatcanholdvaluesfromcomparisonsperformedintheALU.AnALUcannormallycomparetwonumbersanddetermineiftheyareequal,ifoneisgreaterthantheother,etc.Thetestregistercanalsonormallyholdacarrybitfromthelaststageoftheadder.Itstoresthesevaluesinflipflopsandthentheinstructiondecodercanusethevaluestomakedecisions.6.Therearesixboxesmarked3Stateinthediagram.Thesearetristatebuffers5.Atristatebuffercanpassa1,a0oritcanessentially

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