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外文翻译--微处理器.doc

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外文翻译--微处理器.doc

MICROPROCESSORSAMICROPROCESSORISACOMPUTATIONENGINETHATISFABRICATEDONASINGLECHIPTHEFIRSTMICROPROCESSORWASTHEINTEL4004,INTRODUCEDIN1971THE4004WASNOTVERYPOWERFUL–ALLITCOULDDOWASADDANDSUBTRACT,ANDITCOULDONLYDOTHAT4BITSATATIMEBUTITWASAMAZINGTHATEVERYTHINGWASONONECHIPPRIORTOTHE4004,ENGINEERSBUILTCOMPUTERSEITHERFROMCOLLECTIONSOFCHIPSORFROMDISCRETECOMPONENTSTHE4004POWEREDONEOFTHEFIRSTPORTABLEELECTRONICCALCULATORSTHEFIRSTMICROPROCESSORTOMAKEITINTOAHOMECOMPUTERWASTHEINTEL8080,ACOMPLETE8BITCOMPUTERONTHECHIP,INTRODUCEDIN1974THEFIRSTMICROPROCESSORTOMAKEAREALSPLASHINTHEMARKETWASTHEINTEL8088,INTRODUCEDIN1979ANDINCORPORATEDINTOTHEIBMPCTHEPCMARKETMOVEDFROMTHE8088TOTHE80286TOTHE80386TOTHE80486TOTHEPENTIUMTOTHEPENTIUMIITOTHEPENTIUMIIITOTHEPENTIUM4ALLOFTHESEMICROPROCESSORSAREMADEBYINTELANDALLOFTHEMAREIMPROVEMENTSONTHEBASICDESIGNOFTHE8088THEPENTIUM4CANEXECUTEANYPIECEOFCODETHATRANONTHEORIGINAL8088,BUTITDOESITABOUT5,000TIMESFASTERTHEFOLLOWINGTABLESHOWSTHEDIFFERENCESBETWEENTHEDIFFERENTPROCESSORSTHATINTELHASINTRODUCEDOVERTHEYEARSTABLE12NAMEDATETRANSISTORSMICRON1CLOCKSPEEDDATAWIDTH2MIPS3808019746,00062MHZ8BITS0648088197929,00035MHZ16BITS8BITBUS033802861982134,000156MHZ16BITS1803861985275,0001516MHZ32BITS58048619891,200,000125MHZ32BITS20PENTIUM19933,100,0000860MHZ32BITS64BITBUS100PENTIUMII19977,500,000035233MHZ32BITS64BITBUS300PENTIUMIII19999,500,000025450MHZ32BITS64BITBUS510PENTIUM4200042,000,00001815GHZ32BITS64BITBUS1,700FROMTHISTABLEYOUCANSEETHAT,INGENERAL,THEREISARELATIONSHIPBETWEENCLOCKSPEEDANDMIPSTHEMAXIMUMCLOCKSPEEDISAFUNCTIONOFTHEMANUFACTURINGPROCESSANDDELAYSWITHINTHECHIPTHEREISALSOARELATIONSHIPBETWEENTHENUMBEROFTRANSISTORSANDMIPSFOREXAMPLE,THE8088CLOCKEDAT5MHZBUTONLYEXECUTEDAT033MIPSABOUTONEINSTRUCTIONPER15CLOCKCYCLESMODERNPROCESSORSCANOFTENEXECUTEATARATEOFTWOINSTRUCTIONSPERCLOCKCYCLETHATIMPROVEMENTISDIRECTLYRELATEDTOTHENUMBEROFTRANSISTORSONTHECHIPINSIDEAMICROPROCESSORAMICROPROCESSOREXECUTESACOLLECTIONOFMACHINEINSTRUCTIONSTHATTELLTHEPROCESSORWHATTODOBASEDONTHEINSTRUCTION,AMICROPROCESSORDOESTHREEBASICTHINGS1USINGITSALUARITHMETIC/LOGICUNIT,AMICROPROCESSORCANPERFORMMATHEMATICALOPERATIONSLIKEADDITION,SUBTRACTION,MULTIPLICATIONANDDIVISIONMODERNMICROPROCESSORSCONTAINCOMPLETEFLOATINGPOINTPROCESSORSTHATCANPERFORMEXTREMELYSOPHISTICATEDOPERATIONSONLARGEFLOATINGPOINTNUMBERS2AMICROPROCESSORCANMOVEDATAFROMONEMEMORYLOCATIONTOANOTHER3AMICROPROCESSORCANMAKEDECISIONSANDJUMPTOANEWSETOFINSTRUCTIONSBASEDONTHOSEDECISIONSTHESEMAYBEVERYSOPHISTICATEDTHINGSTHATAMICROPROCESSORDOES,BUTTHOSEAREITSTHREEBASICACTIVITIESTHEFOLLOWINGDIAGRAMSHOWSANEXTREMELYSIMPLEMICROPROCESSORCAPABLEOFDOINGTHOSETHREETHINGSTHISMICROPROCESSORHASANADDRESSBUSTHATSENDSANADDRESSTOMEMORY,ADATABUSTHATCANSENDDATATOMEMORYORRECEIVEDATAFROMMEMORY,ANRDREADANDWRWRITELINETOTELLTHEMEMORYWHETHERITWANTSTOSETORGETTHEADDRESSEDLOCATION,ACLOCKLINETHATLETSACLOCKPULSESEQUENCETHEPROCESSORANDARESET4LINETHATRESETSTHEPROGRAMCOUNTERTOZEROORWHATEVERANDRESTARTSEXECUTIONANDLET’SASSUMETHATBOTHTHEADDRESSANDDATABUSESARE8BITSWIDEHEREHEREARETHECOMPONENTSOFTHISSIMPLEMICROPROCESSORFIGURE11FIGURE111REGISTERSA,BANDCARESIMPLYLATCHESMADEOUTOFFLIP–FLOPS2THEADDRESSLATCHISJUSTLIKEREGISTERSA,BANDC3THEPROGRAMCOUNTERISALATCHWITHTHEEXTRAABILITYTOINCREMENTBY1WHENTOLDTODOSO,ANDALSOTORESETTOZEROWHENTOLDTODOSO4THEALUCOULDBEASSIMPLEASAN8BITADDER,ORITMIGHTBEABLETOADD,SUBTRACT,MULTIPLYANDDIVIDE8–BITVALUESLET’SASSUMETHELATTERHERE5THETESTREGISTERISASPECIALLATCHTHATCANHOLDVALUESFROMCOMPARISONSPERFORMEDINTHEALUANALUCANNORMALLYCOMPARETWONUMBERSANDDETERMINEIFTHEYAREEQUAL,IFONEISGREATERTHANTHEOTHER,ETCTHETESTREGISTERCANALSONORMALLYHOLDACARRYBITFROMTHELASTSTAGEOFTHEADDERITSTORESTHESEVALUESINFLIPFLOPSANDTHENTHEINSTRUCTIONDECODERCANUSETHEVALUESTOMAKEDECISIONS6THEREARESIXBOXESMARKED“3STATE”INTHEDIAGRAMTHESEARETRISTATEBUFFERS5ATRISTATEBUFFERCANPASSA1,A0ORITCANESSENTIALLY

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