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外文翻译--数字模拟冲击试验机的多液压缸电动液压的系统和控制器设计.doc

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外文翻译--数字模拟冲击试验机的多液压缸电动液压的系统和控制器设计.doc

附录英文原文NUMERICALMODELINGOFMULTICYLINDERELECTROHYDRAULICSYSTEMANDCONTROLLERDESIGNFORSHOCKTESTMACHINEABSTRACTAHIGHFIDELITYDYNAMICMODELOFAHIGHENERGYHYDRAULICALLYACTUATEDSHOCKTESTMACHINEFORHEAVYWEIGHTDEVICESISPRESENTEDTOSATISFYTHENEWLYBUILTSHOCKRESISTANCESTANDARDANDSIMULATETHEACTUA1UNDERWATEREXPLOSIONENVIRONMENTSINLABORATORYASWEL1ASINCREASETHETESTINGCAPABILITYOFSHOCKTESTMACHINE.INORDERTOPRODUCETHEREQUIREDNEGATIVESHOCKPULSEINTHEGIVENTIMEDURATION.FOURHYDRAULICACTUATORSAREUTILIZED.THEMODELISTHENUSEDTOFORMULATEANADVANCEDFEEDFORWARDCONTROLLERFORTHESYSTEMTOPRODUCETHEREQUIREDNEGATIVEWAVEFORMANDTOADDRESSTHEMOTIONSYNCHRONIZATIONOFTHEFOURCYLINDERS.THEMODE1PROVIDESASAFEANDEASILYCONTROLLABLEWAYTOPERFORMA“VIRTUA1TESTING”BEFORESTARTINGPOTENTIALLYDESTRUCTIVETESTSONSPECIMENANDTOPREDICTPERFORMANCEOFTHESYSTEM.SIMULATIONRESULTSHAVEDEMONSTRATEDTHEEFFECTIVENESSOFTHECONTROLLERKEYWORDSSHOCKTESTMACHINENEGATIVESHOCKPULSEACTUATORREDUNDANCYFEEDFORWARDCONTROLLERVIRTUA1TESTING0INTRODUCTIONTHEEFFECTSOFUNDERWATEREXPLOSIONSUNDEXONSHIPHULLSANDEQUIPMENTHAVEBEENSTUDIEDSINCETHEL800SLU.NONCONTACTUNDERWATEREXPLOSIONSAGAINSTSURFACESHIPS,I.E.BYMINES,ORMISSILESMAYCAUSEEXTENSIVEEQUIPMENTDAMAGEANDRENDERSHIPSINOPERATIVEEVENTHOUGHHULLDAMAGEISNOTCRITICA1.THUSSHOCKTESTMUSTBECARRIEDOUTONEVERYCRITICALDEVICEOREQUIPMENTONSUBMARINEANDSURFACESHIPTOCONFIRMTHATITWILLSTILLFUNCTION.ORINSEVERCASESWILLSURVIVE,AFTERTHEOCCURRENCEOFTHESHOCKCONDITIONSWHICHITCANBEEXPECTEDTOENCOUNTERDURINGITSSERVICE.THEMOSTEFFECTIVEANDDIRECTWAYTOCHECKOUTTHEANTISHOCKCAPABILITYOFDEVICESISTOTESTTHEMONAVESSELSUBJECTEDTOUNDERWATEREXPLOSION.TESTSCONDUCTEDUSINGLIVEEXPLOSIVESHAVEINHERENTLIMITATIONSINCLUDINGENVIRONMENTALIMPACT,SIGNIFICANTCOST,MEASURINGRESULTSINTHEFIELDANDAVAILABLEQUANTITYOFTESTS.ATPRESENT,THECOMMONLYUSEDMETHODTOASSESSWARSHIPEQUIPMENT’SSHOCKRESISTANCECAPABILITYISTOCONDUCTTESTONASHOCKTESTMACHINEINACONTROLLABLEWAY.THEUNDEXENVIRONMENTISVERYCOMPLEX.COMPOSEDOFA“KICK”FROMTHEINCIDENTSHOCKWAVEFOLLOWEDBYTHEEFFECTSOFCAVITATIONS,BUBBLEPULSE,ANDSTRUCTURALWHIPPING.THEBUBBLEPULSEOSCILLATESATAFREQUENCYVERYCLOSETOTHEFIRSTBENDINGMODEOFTHESHIP.ITWILLBEEVENMOREDESTRUCTIVETHANTHEINCIDENTPRESSUREWAVEWHENTHEBUBBLEMIGRATESNEARENOUGHTOTHESHIPTOEXCITETHISMODEHOWEVER,THETRADITIONALSHOCKMACHINES.1IKELIGHTWEIGHTSHOCKMACHINELWSMANDMEDIUMWEIGHTSHOCKMACHINEMWSM,CANNOTSIMULATESHOCKENVIRONMENTFORTHEBUBBLEPULSESINDUCEDBYUNDEX.ANDTHESHOCKENVIRONMENTSIMULATEDBYTRADITIONALMACHINESISLARGELYDIFFERENTFROMTHEACTUALUNDEXPHYSICALENVIRONMENT.ACCORDINGTOTHENEWLYDESIGNSPECIFICATIONSOFMIL.S.90LD.THEINPUTFORSHOCKTESTSHOULDBESHOCKRESPONSESPECTRASRS1,INSTEADOFASINGLETIME.HISTORY.ACCELERATIONWAVEFORMSUCHASHALFSINE.TRIANGULARSAWTOOTHPULSE.BESIDES.THESHOCKINPUTINTHEDESIGNSPECIFICATIONSOFBV043/85ISADOUBLETRANSIENTSHOCKPULSE.I.E.APOSITIVEACCELERATIONPULSEANEGATIVEONEINTHEORYTHESRSCANBETRANSFORMEDINTOTIMEDOMAINANDITISEQUIVALENTTOADOUBLE.WAVEFORIL1.THEREFORE.SHOCKMACHINESTHATWILLBEBUILTSHOULDADAPTTOTHEREQUIREMENTOFTHELATESTSHOCKCRITERIONTOSIMULATETHEACTUALUNDEXENVIRONMENTASMUCHASPOSSIBLE.THEAIMOFSHOCKTESTINGISTOIMPARTPRECISEREPLICATIONSOFHIGH.ENERGYTRANSIENTSHOCKPULSEINTOTESTSPECIMENS.THETESTSPECIMENSAREVALUABLEANDUNIQUE,ANDNEEDTOBETESTEDTOEXACTSHOCKLEVELSWITHSPECIFICENTERSPECTRATOOMUCHCANDAMAGETHESPECIMEN,TOOLITTLELEAVESQUESTIONSABOUTTHESPECIMENROBUSTNESS.OWINGTOTHETESTSEVERITY,ITISTHENESSENTIALTHATTHETESTSHOULDBECONTROLLABLE.CLASSICCONTROLMETHODS,SUCHASPOLEPLACEMENT.HAVEBEENINVESTIGATEDFORSHOCKCONTROL,BUTWITHLIMITEDSUCCESS.THEMAINREASONISTHATTHEDURATIONOFSHOCKTESTISVERYSHORT.BYTHETIMETHESYSTEMCANDETECTANERRORBETWEENCOMMANDSANDTHEACTUALOUTPUTS.ITISALREADYTOOLATETORESPONDADEQUATELY.THISPAPERFORMULATESAHIGHFIDELITYNUMERICALDYNAMICMODELFORADAMPINGSYSTEM.WHICHISAPARTOFTHEWHOLESHOCKMACHINEUSEDTOPRODUCETHEREQUIREDNEGATIVESHOCKPULSEINTHETESTINGPROCESS.COMPONENTSOFTHESYSTEMMODELAREUSEDTOFORMELATEANADVANCEDFEEDFORWARDCONTROLLER.THEACTUATORREDUNDANCYISSUEISALSOCONSIDEREDDURINGTHECONTROLLERDESIGN.THEMODELANDCONTROLLERPROVIDEASAFEANDEASILYCONTROLLABLEWAYTOPERFORMA’VIRTUALTESTING”BEFORESTARTINGPOTENTIALLYDESTRUCTIVETESTSONTHESPECIMENANDTOPREDICTTHEPERFORMANCEOFTHESYSTEM.FURTHERORE.INORDERTOSOLVETHEUNCERTAINTYPROBLEMOFTHETESTSPECIMENDYNAMICSFORFEEDFORWARDINVERSEMODELCONTROL,ANEWINITIALTUNINGTECHNIQUEISPROPOSEDFOROURSPECIALCASES.THEORGANIZATIONOFTHISPA1ERISASFOLLOWSINSECTIONL,ADESCRIPTIONOFTHEDAMPINGSYSTEMANDITSDYNAMICMODELISPRESENTED.VARIOUSFEATURESOFTHEMODELAREDISCUSSED,INCLUDINGTHESETTLEMENTOFACTUATORSREDUNDANT.INSECTION2.THECONTROLSTRATEGIESAREPROPOSED.THESIMULATIONRESULTSAREPRESENTEDINSECTION3.FINALLY,THECONCLUSIONSECTIONFOLLOWS.1PROBLEMFORMULATIONANDDYNAMICMODELTHESTRUCTUREOFTHEDAMPINGSYSTEMISSHOWNINFIG.1ANDITSFUNCTIONISTOPRODUCETHEREQUIREDNEGATIVESHOCKPULSEDURINGSHOCKTESTINGPROCESS.THEDURATIONOFTHESHOCKWAVETRANSIENTSISUNDER0.1S.WITHDESIREDACCELERATIONSUPTO25~50GFORMEGIVENTESTSPECIMENALLTHESEPARAMETERSCANBEADJUSTEDACCORDINGTODIFFERENTTESTINGCONDITIONS.THETESTINGCAPACITYOFMESHOCKMACHINEISUNDER5000KGINCLUDINGFIXTURE.THETESTSPECIMENISFIXEDONMETESTSTANDMOVINGVERTICALLYATMEGIVENSPEED,WHICHISPRODUCEDBYTHESHOCKSYSTEMINMEPOSITIVESHOCKPULSEGENERATINGPROCESS.WHENTHEMAXIMUMSPEEDISACHIEVED,THEDAMPINGSYSTEMBEGINSTOFORCEITTOSTOPINTHEGIVENTIMETHEMAINDIFFICULTYINDESIGNINGTHEDAMPINGSYSTEMLIESINTHATTHESYSTEMSHOULDPRODUCETHEREQUIREDFORCESINTHEGIVENTIMETOSARISTHEWAVEFORMREQUIREMENT.FORTHISPURPOSE,FOURCOMPLEXANDSOPHISTICATEDHYDRAULICACTUATORSAREDESIGNEDTOEXERTTHEDAMPINGFORCES.THEACTUATORSARECONNECTEDWITHTHETESTSTANDTHROUGHSPHERICALHINGESANDTHEFOURRAMTYPECYLINDERSAREARRANGEDINASYMMETRICALMANNER.DETAILSOFTHECONTACTINGPOINTSBETWEENTESTSTANDANDCYLINDERSCANBESEENINFIG.2.THEPOINTSONTHETESTSTANDTHATCONTACTTHECYLINDERSVARYWITHTHEROTATIONOFTHETESTSTAND.ITSMOTIONDEPENDSONTHEROTATIONANGLEAND.INREALITYTHEROTATIONANGLEISVERYSMALL,THISMOTIONCANBEIGNOREDANDWEJUSTFOCUSONTHEVERTICALDISPLACE.MENDANDTHEROTATIONALONGTHEROLLAXISRANDTHEPITCHAXISP.EACHCYLINDERISCONTROLLEDBYFOURTHREE.STAGESERVOVALVES.THEHIGHTRANSIENTENERGYISSUPPLIEDBYASERIESOFACCUMULATORSSEEFIG.311SYSTEMMODELINGINWHATFOLLOWING.MATHEMATICALMODELOFTHECOMPONENTSINTHENEGATIVEPULSESYSTEMWILLBEBUILTINDETAIL.111TESTSPECIMENFIG.1SHOWSTHEFORCESACTINGONTHEHYDRAULICCYLINDERSANDFIG.4ISTHETOPVIEWOFTHESYSTEMTOINDICATETHELOCATIONOFTHESPECIMEN.SPHERICALCONTACTSURFACESAREASSUMEDBETWEENTHECYLINDERSANDTHETESTSTAND.THETESTSTANDINCLUDINGTESTSPECIMENCANROTATEFREELYAROUNDTHEROLLAXISRANDTHEPITCHAXISP.THEROL1AXISRISDEFINEDTOBEPERPENDICULARTOTHE1INECONNECTINGCYLINDER1ANDCYLINDER2ANDTHEPITCHAXISPISDEFINEDTOBEPARALLELTOTHELINECONNECTINGCYLINDER1ANDCYLINDER2.ACCORDINGTONEWTON’SSECONDLAWANDTHETHEOREMOFANGULARMOMENTURN,THEFOLLOWINGEQUATIONSCANBEOBTAINEDTOREPRESENTTHEMOTIONOFTHESPECIMENWHEREMMSMT,MSANDMTREPRESENTMASSOFTHETESTSPECIMENANDTHETESTSTAND,RESPECTIVELY.REPRESENTSTHEREACTIONFORCEACTINGONCYLINDERI1,2,3,4;GISTHEGRAVITATIONALCONSTANT;IIAND12ARETHEMOMENTAM1FORWITHRESPECTTOTHEROTATIONALAXISRANDP;JANDJVREPRESENTTHEROTATIONALMOMENTOFINERTIAOFTHELOAD

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