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外文翻译--末端执行器技术.doc

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外文翻译--末端执行器技术.doc

附录外文文献及翻译作者ARVIDSSON译名阿维德森国籍瑞典原文出处FOREIGNPATENTDOCUMENTS国外专利文献THETECHNOLOGYOFENDEFFECTORTHEENDEFFECTORISATYPEOFMECHANTRONICSEQUIPMENTWHICHSYNTHESIZESTHELASTRESEARCHACHIEVEMENTOFENGINEANDPRECISIONENGINE,MICROELECTRONICSANDCOMPUTER,AUTOMATIONCONTROLANDDRIVE,SENSORANDMESSAGEDISPOSEANDARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCEANDSOONWITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFECONOMICANDTHEDEMANDFORAUTOMATIONCONTROL,ROBOTTECHNOLOGYISDEVELOPEDQUICKLYANDALLTYPESOFTHEROBOTSPRODUCTSARECOMEINTOBEINGTHEPRACTICALITYUSEOFROBOTPRODUCTSNOTONLYSOLVESTHEPROBLEMSWHICHAREDIFFICULTTOOPERATEFORHUMANBEING,BUTALSOADVANCESTHEINDUSTRIALAUTOMATIONPROGRAMATPRESENT,THERESEARCHANDDEVELOPMENTOFROBOTINVOLVESSEVERALKINDSOFTECHNOLOGYANDTHEROBOTSYSTEMCONFIGURATIONISSOCOMPLEXTHATTHECOSTATLARGEISHIGHWHICHTOACERTAINEXTENTLIMITTHEROBOTABROADUSETODEVELOPMENTECONOMICPRACTICALITYANDHIGHRELIABILITYROBOTSYSTEMWILLBEVALUETOROBOTSOCIALAPPLICATIONANDECONOMYDEVELOPMENTWITHTHERAPIDPROGRESSWITHTHECONTROLECONOMYANDEXPANDINGOFTHEMODERNCITIES,THELETOFSEWAGEISINCREASINGQUICKLYWITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFMODERNTECHNOLOGYANDTHEENHANCEMENTOFCONSCIOUSNESSABOUTENVIRONMENTRESERVE,MOREANDMOREPEOPLEREALIZEDTHEIMPORTANCEANDURGENTOFSEWAGEDISPOSALACTIVEBACTERIAMETHODISANEFFECTIVETECHNIQUEFORSEWAGEDISPOSAL,THELACUNARISPLASTICISANEFFECTIVEBASEMENTFORACTIVEBACTERIAADHESIONFORSEWAGEDISPOSALTHEABUNDANCEREQUIREMENTFORLACUNARISPLASTICMAKESITISACONSEQUENTFORTHEPLASTICPRODUCINGWITHAUTOMATIONANDHIGHPRODUCTIVITYTHEREFORE,ITISVERYNECESSARYTODESIGNAMANIPULATORTHATCANAUTOMATICALLYFULFILLTHEPLASTICHOLDINGWITHTHEANALYSISOFTHEPROBLEMSINTHEDESIGNOFTHEPLASTICHOLDINGMANIPULATORANDSYNTHESIZINGTHEROBOTRESEARCHANDDEVELOPMENTCONDITIONINRECENTYEARS,AECONOMICSCHEMEISCONCLUDEDONTHEBASISOFTHEANALYSISOFMECHANICALCONFIGURATION,TRANSFORMSYSTEM,DRIVEDEVICEANDCONTROLSYSTEMANDGUIDEDBYTHEIDEAOFTHECHARACTERISTICANDCOMPLEXOFMECHANICALCONFIGURATION,ELECTRONIC,SOFTWAREANDHARDWAREINTHISARTICLE,THEMECHANICALCONFIGURATIONCOMBINESTHECHARACTEROFDIRECTIONCOORDINATEANDTHEARTHROSISCOORDINATEWHICHCANIMPROVETHESTABILITYANDOPERATIONFLEXIBILITYOFTHESYSTEMTHEMAINFUNCTIONOFTHETRANSMISSIONMECHANISMISTOTRANSMITPOWERTOIMPLEMENTDEPARTMENTANDCOMPLETETHENECESSARYMOVEMENTINTHISTRANSMISSIONSTRUCTURE,THESCREWTRANSMISSIONMECHANISMTRANSMITSTHEROTARYMOTIONINTOLINEARMOTIONWORMGEARCANGIVEVARYTRANSMISSIONRATIOBOTHOFTHETRANSMISSIONMECHANISMSHAVEACHARACTERISTICOFCOMPACTSTRUCTURETHEDESIGNOFDRIVESYSTEMOFTENISLIMITEDBYTHEENVIRONMENTCONDITIONANDTHEFACTOROFCOSTANDTECHNICALLEVERTHESTEPMOTORCANRECEIVEDIGITALSIGNALDIRECTLYANDHASTHEABILITYTORESPONSEOUTERENVIRONMENTIMMEDIATELYANDHASNOACCUMULATIONERROR,WHICHOFTENISUSEDINDRIVINGSYSTEMINTHISDRIVINGSYSTEM,OPENLOOPCONTROLSYSTEMISCOMPOSEDOFSTEPPINGMOTOR,WHICHCANSATISFYTHEDEMANDNOTONLYFORCONTROLPRECISIONBUTALSOFORTHETARGETOFECONOMICANDPRACTICALITYONTHISBASIS,THEANALYSISOFSTEPPINGMOTORINPOWERCALCULATINGANDSTYLESELECTINGISALSOGIVENTHEANALYSISOFKINEMATICSANDDYNAMICSFOROBJECTHOLDINGMANIPULATORISGIVENINCOMPLETINGTHEDESIGNOFMECHANICALSTRUCTUREANDDRIVESYSTEMKINEMATICSANALYSISISTHEBASISOFPATHPROGRAMMINGANDTRACKCONTROLTHEPOSITIVEANDREVERSEANALYSISOFMANIPULATORGIVESTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENMANIPULATORSPACEANDDRIVESPACEINPOSITIONANDSPEEDTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENMANIPULATOR’STIPPOSITIONANDARTHROSISANGLESISCONCLUDEDBYCOORDINATETRANSFORMMETHODTHEGEOMETRYMETHODISUSEDINSOLVINGINVERSEKINEMATICSPROBLEMANDTHERESULTWILLPROVIDETHEORYEVIDENCEFORCONTROLSYSTEMTHEF0UNCTIONOFDYNAMICSISTOGETTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENTHEMOVEMENTANDFORCEANDTHETARGETISTOSATISFYTHEDEMANDOFREALTIMECONTROLINTHISCHAMFER,NEWTONEURIPIDESMETHODISUSEDINANALYSISDYNAMICPROBLEMOF七HECLEANINGROBOTANDTHEARTHROSISFORCEANDTORQUEAREGIVENWHICHPROVIDETHEFOUNDATIONFORSTEPMOTORSELECTINGANDSTRUCTUREDYNAMICOPTIMALTINGCONTROLSYSTEMISTHEKEYANDCOREPARTOFTHEOBJECTHOLDINGMANIPULATORSYSTEMDESIGNWHICHWILLDIRECTEFFECTTHERELIABILITYANDPRACTICALITYOFTHEROBOTSYSTEMINTHEDIVISIONOFCONFIGURATIONANDCONTROLFUNCTIONANDALSOWILLEFFECTORLIMITTHEDEVELOPMENTCOSTANDCYCLEWITHTHEDEMANDOFTHEPCL839CARD,THEPCCOMPUTERWHICHHASATIGHTSTRUCTUREANDISEASYTOBEEXTENDEDISUSEDASTHEPRINCIPALCOMPUTERCELLANDTAKESTHEFUNCTIONOFSYSTEMINITIALIZATION,DATAOPERATIONANDDISPOSE,STEPMOTORDRIVEANDERRORDIAGNOSEANDSOONATTHESAMETIME,THECONFIGURATIONSTRUCTUREFEATURES,TASKPRINCIPLESANDTHEPOSITIONFUNCTIONWITHHIGHPRECISIONOFTHECONTROLCARDPCL839AREANALYZEDHARDWAREISTHEMATTERFOUNDATIONOFTHECONTROLSYSTEMANDTHESOFTWAREISTHESPIRITOFTHECONTROLSYSTEMTHETARGETOFTHESOFTWAREISTOCOMBINEALLTHEPARTSINOPTIMIZINGSTYLEANDTOIMPROVETHEEFFICIENCYANDRELIABILITYOFTHECONTROLSYSTEMTHESOFTWAREDESIGNOFTHEOBJECTHOLDINGMANIPULATORCONTROLSYSTEMISDIVIDEDINTOSEVERALBLOCKSSUCHASSYSTEMINITIALIZATIONBLOCK,DATAPROCESSBLOCKANDERRORSTATIONDETECTANDDISPOSEMODELANDSOONPCL839CARDCANSOLVETHECOMMUNICATIONBETWEENTHEMAINCOMPUTERANDTHECONTROLCELLSANDTAKETHEMEASUREOFREDUCINGTHEINFLUENCEOFTHEOUTERSIGNALTOTHECONTROLSYSTEMTHESTARTANDSTOPFREQUENCYOFTHESTEPMOTORISFARLOWERTHANTHEMAXIMUMRUNNINGFREQUENCYINORDERTOIMPROVETHEEFFICIENCYOFTHESTEPMOTOR,THEINCREASEANDDECREASEOFTHESPEEDISMUSTCONSIDEREDWHENTHESTEPMOTORRUNNINGINHIGHSPEEDANDSTARTORSTOPWITHGREATACCELERATIONTHEINCREASEANDDECREASEOFTHEMOTOR’SSPEEDCANBECONTROLLEDBYTHEPULSEFREQUENCYSENTTOTHESTEPMOTORDRIVEWITHARATIONALMETHODTHISCANBEIMPLEMENTEDEITHERBYHARDWAREORBYSOFTWAREASTEPMOTORSHIFTCONTROLMETHODISPROPOSED,WHICHISSIMPLETOCALCULATE,EASYTOREALIZEANDTHETHEORYMEANSISSTRAIGHTFORWARDTHEMOTORSACCELERATIONCANFITTHETORQUEFREQUENCYCURVEPROPERLYWITHTHISMETHODANDTHEAMOUNTOFCALCULATIONLOADISLESSTHANTHELINEARACCELERATIONSHIFTCONTROLMETHODANDTHEMETHODWHICHISBASEDONTHEEXPONENTIALRULETOCHANGESPEEDTHEMETHODISTESTEDBYEXPERIMENTIN1997,THEJAPANCAREERDEVELOPMENTNASDAEMISSIONTECHNOLOGYEXPERIMENTSATELLITEETSVIITHEETESTSATELLITE,ISTHEEARLIESTDEMONSTRATIONOFONORBITCAPTURETECHNOLOGYINDEPENDENTVERIFICATIONSPACEROBOTSYSTEM,ASSHOWNINFIGURE4INTHEETSVIITRACKINGONAXIAOLIANGASTAROFMECHANICALARMASETOFNASDAISDEVELOPED,THELENGTHOFTHE2MFORSIXDEGREESOFFREEDOMERAOFMECHANICALARMROBOTARMETSVII,ITCONTAINSSINGLEDEGREEOFFREEDOM,ATTHEENDOFTHEACTUATORISUSEDTOCAPTURETHESTANDARDINTERFACEUNITCANBEREPLACED,THREEENDACTUATORIS120INTHESUPPORTPLATFORMONTHEPERIPHERY,ANOTHERSETOFTONGCHANSHENGISDEVELOPEDANDADVANCEDROBOTICMANIPULATORSARHHAND,ONARHBY5DOFOFMECHANICALARMANDWITHTHREETHUMBANDFOREFINGERANDMIDDLEFINGER,OFMULTISENSORENDACTUATORS,THREEDEXTEROUSHANDFINGERSTHROUGHSPORTSORGANIZATIONOFEACHJOINT,BECAUSEONLYONEPAIROFROTATIONOFDEXTEROUSFINGERSWITHBETTERSEX,THEREFORE,MOREDEXTEROUSHANDREFERSTOTHEMOVEMENTOFROTATION;DEPUTYADOPTMANYMEANSOFDEXTEROUSHANDINHANDCANINCREASETHECONSTRAINT,THEGRABOBJECTSANDOPERATIONOFTHEADAPTABILITYAREQUITEGOOD,WHILECONSIDERINGTHEDRIVINGCOMPONENTSAREADOPTED,THELAYOUTOFTHEPALM,DEXTEROUSHANDSTRUCTUREOFCONCRETESTRUCTUREDEPENDSONTHEPALMOFTHEMOTORANDTRANSMISSIONOFTHEFORMMOSTCURRENTDEXTEROUSHANDUSINGELECTRICDRIVE,HYDRAULICPRESSUREDRIVEANDTHEWAYTHATONLYAFEWDEXTEROUSHANDBYTHESHAPEMEMORYALLOYSMADRIVE,PIEZOELECTRICDRIVENANDSCALABILITYPOLYMERDRIVENEWDRIVETECHNOLOGYDUETOTHEELECTRICDRIVEMODEHASCONVENIENTCONTROL,LOWCOST,MATURETECHNOLOGY,THEADVANTAGESOFDESIGNASTHEDCSERVOMOTORDRIVINGCOMPONENTSTRANSMISSIONSYSTEMISMOREDEXTEROUSHANDREFERSTOTHESTRUCTUREDESIGNFOLLOWTHECORDTRANSMISSIONWAYTODRIVEPRINCIPLEANDPEOPLEREALIZETHEMOVEMENTANDFORCEOFLONGDISTANCETRANSMISSION,CANSATISFYTHEREQUIREMENTSFINGERSTHISDESIGNUSESAROPEANDPULLEY,THETRANSMISSIONWAYOFEACHFINGERJOINTSLONGDISTANCEDRIVINGTHREEANDSIXSOFTCABLETHREEMULTISENSORENDEFFECTORCONTAININGFIVEKINDSOFSENSORS,INCLUDINGACAMERA,THREECLOSESENSOR,ASOFTSENSOR,ASOFTSENSORANDAFORCE/TORQUESENSOR,HASHIGHRELIABILITYANDINDEPENDENTABILITYHANDCANFINISHFUEL,REPLACEBATTERIES,TIGHTENTHESCREWSFLOATINGOBJECTS,ANDLOOSENETCPRECISEGRABANDOPERATIONALTASKSETSVIIONORBITDEMONSTRATIONOFTWOIMPORTANTDURINGTHEEXPERIMENT,THETWOFLOATINGOBJECTTHROUGHTHETESTCAPTUREMANIPULATORENDACTUATORSTOCAPTUREINORDERTOCOMPLETETHEOBJECTOFDIFFERENTOPERATION,ETSVIIENDACTUATORDESIGNEDTHREEGPFGRAPPLEWITHTORQUEFIXTUREINTERFACETHESTANDARDINTERFACEGPFSINTERFACE,FORMOSTOFTHELOAD,INCLUDINGORUVOLITIONALELECTRICINTERFACEOFGPFMGPFMITI,MAINLYFORTHEMECHANICALARMINTERFACEWITHTHREEMEANSOFCOMPLETECONNECTION,DEXTEROUSHANDOPERATIONUSEDFORNALTRUSSSTRUCTUREOFTHEOPERATIONOFGPFNGPFNALINTERFACEARHHANDISONEHALFOFSEMIDEXTEROUSDEXTERITYHANDCLAWS,THREEDEGREES,BYMIXINGFINGERSANDFLEXIBLEREFERSTOTHESURFACEBYMIXINGFINGERINCLUDESADCMOTORDRIVESTHETRANSLATIONOFTWOFINGERSANDSTEPPINGMOTORDRIVENBYTHEROTATIONOFTHEFINGERS,BASICTARGETFUNCTIONGRABFLEXIBLEREFERSTOARECONFIGURABLEFORMBYTHEHAND,INTHESIMILARSTRUCTURESURFACETOINSTALLAFINGERTIGHTNEEDLESPRINGPRESSUREGROUPS,THENEEDLECONTENTOBJECTSARRAYSWITHSURFACEROLLINGARRAY,STRONGABILITYTOADAPTTOTHEOBJECTSHAPEOFOBJECTS,ANDTHECONSTRAINTISCLOSED,PREVENTFROMSLIDINGINTOSPACEOBJECTSATLAST,THERESEARCHCONTENTANDTHEACHIEVEMENTARESUMUPANDTHEPROBLEMSANDSHORTAGESINMAINTHECONTENTAREALSOLISTEDTHEDEVELOPMENTANDAPPLICATIONOFROBOTINTHEFUTUREISEXPECTED末端执行器技术末端执行器是典型的机电一体化装置,它综合运用了机械与精密机械、微电子与计算机、自动控制与驱动、传感器与信息处理以及人工智能等多学科的最新研究成果,随着经济的发展和各行各业对自动化程度要求的提高,机器人技术得到了迅速发展,出现了各种各样的机器人产品。机器人产品的实用化,既解决了许多单靠人力难以解决的实际问题,又促进了工业自动化的进程。目前,由于机器人的研制和开发涉及多方面的技术,系统结构复杂,开发和研制的成本普遍较高,在

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