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外文翻译--机器人技术简介.doc

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外文翻译--机器人技术简介.doc

IntroductiontoroboticstechnologyInthemanufacturingfield,robotdevelopmenthasfocusedonengineeringroboticarmsthatperformmanufacturingprocesses.Inthespaceindustry,roboticsfocusesonhighlyspecialized,oneofkindplanetaryrovers.Unlikeahighlyautomatedmanufacturingplant,aplanetaryroveroperatingonthedarksideofthemoonwithoutradiocommunicationmightrunintounexpectedsituations.Ataminimum,aplanetaryrovermusthavesomesourceofsensoryinput,somewayofinterpretingthatinput,andawayofmodifyingitsactionstorespondtoachangingworld.Furthermore,theneedtosenseandadapttoapartiallyunknownenvironmentrequiresintelligenceinotherwords,artificialintelligence.MechanicalplatformsthehardwarebaseArobotconsistsoftwomainpartstherobotbodyandsomeformofartificialintelligenceAIsystem.Manydifferentbodypartscanbecalledarobot.Articulatedarmsareusedinweldingandpaintinggantryandconveyorsystemsmovepartsinfactoriesandgiantroboticmachinesmoveearthdeepinsidemines.Oneofthemostinterestingaspectsofrobotsingeneralistheirbehavior,whichrequiresaformofintelligence.Thesimplestbehaviorofarobotislocomotion.Typically,wheelsareusedastheunderlyingmechanismtomakearobotmovefromonepointtothenext.Andsomeforcesuchaselectricityisrequiredtomakethewheelsturnundercommand.MotorsAvarietyofelectricmotorsprovidepowertorobots,allowingthemtomovematerial,parts,tools,orspecializeddeviceswithvariousprogrammedmotions.Theefficiencyratingofamotordescribeshowmuchoftheelectricityconsumedisconvertedtomechanicalenergy.Letstakealookatsomeofthemechanicaldevicesthatarecurrentlybeingusedinmodernroboticstechnology.DrivingmechanismsGearsandchainsGearsandchainsaremechanicalplatformsthatprovideastrongandaccuratewaytotransmitrotarymotionfromoneplacetoanother,possiblychangingitalongtheway.Thespeedchangebetweentwogearsdependsuponthenumberofteethoneachgear.Whenapoweredgeargoesthroughafullrotation,itpullsthechainbythenumberofteethonthatgear.PulleysandbeltsPulleysandbelts,twoothertypesofmechanicalplatformsusedinrobots,workthesamewayasgearsandchains.Pulleysarewheelswithagroovearoundtheedge,andbeltsaretherubberloopsthatfitinthatgroove.GearboxesAgearboxoperatesonthesameprinciplesasthegearandchain,withoutthechain.Gearboxesrequireclosertolerances,sinceinsteadofusingalargeloosechaintotransferforceandadjustformisalignments,thegearsmeshdirectlywitheachother.Examplesofgearboxescanbefoundonthetransmissioninacar,thetimingmechanisminagrandfatherclock,andthepaperfeedofyourprinter.PowersuppliesPowersuppliesaregenerallyprovidedbytwotypesofbattery.Primarybatteriesareusedonceandthendiscardedsecondarybatteriesoperatefromamostlyreversiblechemicalreactionandcanberechargedseveraltimes.Primarybatterieshavehigherdensityandalowerselfdischargerate.Secondaryrechargeablebatterieshavelessenergythanprimarybatteries,butcanberechargeduptoathousandtimesdependingontheirchemistryandenvironment.Typicallythefirstuseofarechargeablebatterygives4hoursofcontinuousoperationinanapplicationorrobot.SensorsRobotsreactaccordingtoabasictemporalmeasurement,requiringdifferentkindsofsensors.Inmostsystemsasenseoftimeisbuiltinthroughthecircuitsandprogramming.Forthistobeproductiveinpractice,arobothastohaveperceptualhardwareandsoftware,whichupdatesquickly.Regardlessofsensorhardwareorsoftware,sensingandsensorscanbethoughtofasinteractingwithexternaleventsinotherwords,theoutsideworld.Thesensormeasuressomeattributeoftheworld.Thetermtransducerisoftenusedinterchangeablywithsensor.Atransduceristhemechanism,orelement,ofthesensorthattransformstheenergyassociatedwithwhatisbeingmeasuredintoanotherformofenergy.Asensorreceivesenergyandtransmitsasignaltoadisplayorcomputer.Sensorsusetransducerstochangetheinputsignalsound,light,pressure,temperature,etc.intoananalogordigitalformcapableofbeingusedbyarobot.MicrocontrollersystemsMicrocontrollersMCUsareintelligentelectronicdevicesusedinsiderobots.Theydeliverfunctionssimilartothoseperformedbyamicroprocessorcentralprocessingunit,orCPUinsideapersonalcomputer.MCUsareslowerandcanaddresslessmemorythanCPUs,butaredesignedforrealworldcontrolproblems.OneofthemajordifferencesbetweenCPUsandMCUsisthenumberofexternalcomponentsneededtooperatethem.MCUscanoftenrunwithzeroexternalparts,andtypicallyneedonlyanexternalcrystaloroscillator.UtilitiesandtoolsROBOOPAroboticsobjectorientedpackageinCThispackageisanobjectorientedtoolboxinCforroboticssimulation.TechnicalreferencesanddownloadsareprovidedintheResources.CORBAArealtimecommunicationsandobjectrequestbrokersoftwarepackageforembeddingdistributedsoftwareagents.EachindependentpieceofsoftwareregistersitselfanditscapabilitiestotheORB,bymeansofanIDLInterfaceDefinitionLanguage.VisittheirWebsiteseeResourcesfortechnicalinformation,downloads,anddocumentationforCORBA.TANGO/TACOThissoftwaremightbeusefulforcontrollingaroboticssystemwithmultipledevicesandtools.TANGOisanobjectorientedcontrolsystembasedonCORBA.DeviceserverscanbewritteninCorJava.TACOisobjectorientedbecauseittreatsallphysicalandlogicalcontrolpointsinacontrolsystemasobjectsinadistributedenvironment.Allactionsareimplementedinclasses.Newclassescanbeconstructedoutofexistingclassesinahierarchicalmanner,therebyensuringahighlevelofsoftwarereuse.ClassescanbewritteninC,inCusingamethodologycalledObjectsinC,inPythonorinLabViewusingtheGprogramminglanguage.ControllersTaskControlArchitectureTheTaskControlArchitectureTCAsimplifiesbuildingtasklevelcontrolsystemsformobilerobots.Tasklevelreferstotheintegrationandcoordinationofperception,planning,and

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