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外文翻译--杂志的材料加工技术 英文版.doc

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外文翻译--杂志的材料加工技术 英文版.doc

JournalofMaterialsProcessingTechnology169200514TechnicalnoteThedevelopmentof3DmodelsthroughrapidprototypingconceptsD.M.C.Santosa,A.E.M.Pertencea,H.B.Camposa,P.R.Cetlinb,∗aDepartmentofMechanicalEngineering,UFMG,CidadeUniversitária,Pampulha,31270901,B.Horizonte,MG,BrazilbDepartmentofMetallurgicalandMaterialsEngineering,UFMG,RuaEspiritoSanto35,30160030,B.Horizonte,MG,BrazilReceived6November2003receivedinrevisedform6January2004accepted8June2004AbstractThreedimensionalmodelsarebeingincreasinglyusedasprototypesinvariousareasofmanufacturing,researchandeducation.Theyareespeciallyusefulintheevaluationofelementstypicalofmechanicaldesign,butarealsoimportantinarchitecture,medicine,arts,etc.Thesemodelscanbedevelopedusingvariousmethods,suchasmassmodeling,surfaceplanification,andrapidprototypingRPwithremovaloradditionofmaterialbasedonaCAD/CAMplatform.Thislatterapproachwasemployedinthepresentpaper.Complexsolidsareformedthroughtheassociationofelementarysolidssuchasspheres,prisms,cylinders,torus,etc.,andthenrapidprototypingisappliedinvolvingaslicingprocess.AvirtualmodelbasedonaCADplatformallowsthedeterminationofpathsforeachslicedlevel.Thesearetranslatedintonumericalcontrolcodes,andfedtoamillingprocessofablank,allowingthemanufacturingofa3Dmodel.©2005ElsevierB.V.Allrightsreserved.Keywords3DmodelsElementarysolidsRapidprototyping1.IntroductionMechanicalpartsrepresentanimportantfractionofvariousproductswidelyusedinoursociety.Fiercecompetitiondemandsapermanentincreaseinproductivityandfasterresponsetochangingtechnicalandcommercialdemandsonsuchparts.Thishasledtowidespreaduseofautomaticdesignprocedures,basedoneithertraditionalmechanicsoronnumericalmethodssuchasfiniteelementanalysisFEA,inordertoevaluatestressandstrainlevels.Suchanalysesdemandaninitial3Dmodelingofthepartunderconsideration.Anincreasedinterestin3Dmodelsofmechanicalpartsisalsoobserved.Theseserveasprototypes,allowingtheanalysisoftheinterferencewithotherparts,ofthekinematicbehavioroftheproductandofthemanufacturingprocessestobeemployedintheproductionofthepart.Theconceptualizationandpreparationofsuchmodelsisofspecialimportanceintheeducationandresearchinmechanicalengineering.Itallowsafarbetter3Dvisualizationofparts,leadingtoenhancedgeometricinterpretationand∗Correspondingauthor.Emailaddresspcetlindemet.ufmg.brP.R.Cetlin.09240136/seefrontmatter©2005ElsevierB.V.Allrightsreserved.doi10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2004.06.035spatialanalysisofmechanicalparts.Thisisofparticularimportanceintheareasofmechanicaldesignandmanufacturingprocesses1,2.Thesemodelscanbedevelopedusingvariousmethods,suchasmassmodeling,surfaceplanification,andrapidprototypingRPwithremovaloradditionofmaterialbasedonaCAD/CAMplatform.Thislatterapproachwasemployedinthepresentpaper.ComplexsolidsareformedthroughtheBooleanassociationinvolvingaddition,subtractionandintersectionofelementarysolidssuchasspheres,prisms,cylinders,torus,etc.,andthenrapidprototypingisappliedinvolvingaslicingprocess.AvirtualmodelbasedonaCADplatformallowsthedeterminationofpathsforeachslicedlevel.Thesearetranslatedintonumericalcontrolcodes,andfedtoamillingprocessofablank,allowingthemanufacturingofa3Dmodel.Figs.1and2illustratetheaboveprocedure.2.The3DFormprogramThe3DFormisacomputerprogramforthegenerationof3Dmodels,originallydevelopedattheFederalUniversityofMinasGerais,inBrazil.Itusestheassociationofelemen2D.M.C.Santosetal./JournalofMaterialsProcessingTechnology169200514Fig.1.Theassociationofelementarysolidsinordertoobtaina3Dmodel.tarysolidsinordertoobtaincomplexshapes.The3DFormworksasaClientprogram,controllingthegenerationoftheelementarysolids,andmanagesSlaveprogramssuchasaCADplatformofferingaprogramminginterfaceforexternaluseofitscommands35.The3DFormemployedtheVisualBasic®sixlanguageinordertocontrolanAutoCAD®2000platform.ItsmainfeaturesarethefollowingControlofthegenerationofelementarysolidsspheres,prisms,cones,cylinders,etc.inaCADplatform,atdesiredpositionsandwiththerequireddimensions.ApplicationofBooleanoperationsofaddition,subtractionandintersectionoftheabovementionedsolids,allowingtheconstructionof3Dmechanicalparts.Allowsthepermanenteditionvisualizationandprinting,fromvariousobservationviewpoints,ofthe3Dmechanicalpartsunderanalysis.SlicingofthepartsmodeledintheCADplatform,atanydesiredpositionandslicinginterval,leadingtoRPprocedures.Capturing,treatingandstoringofthegeometricdatageneratedintheslicingprocess,foreachcuttingplaneinthemechanicalpart.DevelopmentofCNCcodefilesforapredefinedequipment,allowingthecreationofanautomaticsequenceforthemachiningofthecontoursofeachcuttingplaneandthephysicalmanufacturingofthemechanicalpart.Thegraphicalinterfaceofthe3DFormprogrampresentedinFig.3coversthecreationofcomplexsolidsbasedontheassociationofelementarysolids.Avisualizationtreeallowsthepermanenttrackingofthecreationhistoryoftheobject.Thistreecanbesavedinafile,eitherforacompletedFig.2.Slicingprocessleadingtomillingpaths.Fig.3.Mainscreenofthe3DFormprogram.orpartiallyconstructedpart.Theinterfaceisuserfriendlyandthecommandsareeasilyaccessible.Themainscreenofthe3DFormprogramisshowninFig.3,andcanbedividedintofiveareaswithpredefinedfunctionsTheregionofthemaincommandsisintheupperpartofthescreen.Itcontainsthecommandsforobjectcreation,forBooleanoperations,forthegenerationofGcodes,etc.Theregionintheupperleftregionofthescreendisplaystheinstantaneouscreationsequenceofthepart,allowingacleartrackingofallthestepsfollowedbytheuser.Theregionintheupperrightregionofthescreendisplaysthevisualizationcommands,involvingthedefinitionofpreferentialviewsandofthecolorsofthecreatedsolids.Theregioninthelowerleftofthescreenallowstheintroductionofthedataforthecreationoftheelementarysolids.Thisdataispermanentlysavedandcanbeaccessedatanymoment.The3Ddrawingcanbeviewedtherightlowerregionofthescreen.Thefollowingoptionscanbeusedorbitalpositioning,zoom,shading,panandbackgroundcolorblackorwhite.Itisalsopossibletodisplaythelimitsoftheselectedobject,asshowninFig.4.Fig.4.Visualizationofthelimitsofanobject.D.M.C.Santosetal./JournalofMaterialsProcessingTechnology1692005143Aspecialsystemfortheopening,savingandrecoveryofthedrawingwascreated,inordertofacilitatestoppingandrestartingoftheprojectatanytime.Savinginvolvestwotypesoffilesonecoversalloperationstepsuptothesavingmoment,whereastheotherincludesthelastdrawingversion.3.RapidprototypingthroughmaterialremovalThemanufacturingprocessemployedinthepresentRPworkinvolvedmaterialremovalthroughmachininginasmallscaleCNCmillingmachineEMCOPCMILL50.AccordingtoErbe6,suchRPstartswiththeslicingofavirtualmodelpresentlyfullyperformedby3DFormfollowedbythecreationofmachiningpathsforaCNCmachine.Thesewereexecutedinthemillingmachine,resultinginaprototype7,8.Thenumberofslicesischosenbasedonthedesiredcuttingdepthinthemachiningprocess.The3DFormprogramgeneratestheGcodesfortheCNCmachiningofeachslice.Thesearethengroupedincodeblocksandsomecomplementarycodesareadded.Theseinvolveinstructionssuchaschangesoftheoriginoftheequipmenttotheoriginofthemodel,definitionofthetooltypesandofmachiningparameters,changesintoolsandinblankposition,etc.Beforefinalmanufacturingoftheprototype,itisnecessarytomakesomesimulationsandtests,inordertoverifypossibleproblemsinthecodes,eventualincompatibilitiesbetweenthesecodesandthosefortheequipment,orsomeothererrors.Fig.5illustratesthesimulationofa3DmodelandFig.6showsthecorrespondingmodelmachinedintheCNCmillingmachineEMCOPCMILL50.Fig.5.Simulationofa3Dmodel.Fig.6.PhysicalmodelobtainedinthesmallscaleCNCmillingmachineEMCOPCMILL50.4.ConclusionsThedevelopmentof3DmodelsusingRPthroughmaterialremovalisveryinteresting,especiallyforthemanufacturingofsmallpartsandinmechanicalengineeringteaching.ThematerialremovaltechniqueforRPprovedquiteversatile,allowingthemachiningofthinsectionsandcomplexshapes.Forteachingpurposes,variousprototypesweremachinedinNylonandinAluminum,andreplacedthetraditionaltechnicalandisometricisometricaldrawings.Theeducationalresultssurpassedbyfarpreviousresultsbasedonthetraditionalapproach,especiallyfromthepointofviewofgeometricinterpretationcapacity,aimingatmachinedesignandmanufacturingprocessesevaluation.AcknowledgementsTheauthorsgratefullyacknowledgefinancialsupportfromFundaçãodeAmparoàPesquisadeMinasGeraisFAPEMIG,ProgramadeNúcleosdeExcelência,MCTPRONEX,ConselhoNacionaldeDesenvolvimentoCientíficoeTecnológicoCNPq,FinanciadoradeEstudoseProjetosFINEP,CoordenaçãodeAperfeiçoamentodePessoaldeNívelSuperiorCAPESandServiçoNacionaldeAprendizadodaIndustria,CentrodeFormaçãoProfissionalEuvaldoLodiSENAI/MG.References1H.Gardner,FramesofMindTheTheoryofMultipleIntelligences,10thanniversaryed.,1993.2A.C.L.,Nunes,W.S.eRamos,PropostaMetodológicaComplementarAuxiliarBaseadanosAtuaisProcessosdeMultimídiaaplicadosaoEnsinodeDesenho,EspecificamenteGeometriaDescritivaeDesenhoTécnico,CongressoBrasileirodeEnsinodeEngenharia,Brazil,1998.3M.Halvorson,MicrosoftVisualBasic5,StepbyStep,Microsoft,1997.4G.Omura,MasteringAutoCAD®14,premiuned.,Sybex,1999.4D.M.C.Santosetal./JournalofMaterialsProcessingTechnology1692005145D.J.Foley,ComputerGraphicsPrinciplesandPractice,AddisonWesley,1990.6H.H.Erbe,E.eSepulveda,LaTecnologiadePrototiposRápidosysusAportesalDesarrollodeProductos,CongresoIberoamericanodeIngenieríaMecánica,1999.7A.A.Ruiz,I.F.eCruz,SistemaCAD/CAMParamétrico,CongresoIberoamericanodeIngenieríaMecánica,1999.8P.AgMaho,NumericalControlNC,IFAOInformationsSystemGmbH,1991.

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