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外文翻译--用胶体石墨掺合水泥或者作为水泥表面涂层来防护电磁干扰.doc

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外文翻译--用胶体石墨掺合水泥或者作为水泥表面涂层来防护电磁干扰.doc

第1页附录附录一外文翻译原文FROMCEMENTANDCONCRETERESEARCH,VOLUME33,ISSUE11,NOVEMBER2003,PAGES17371740COLLOIDALGRAPHITEASANADMIXTUREINCEMENTANDASACOATINGONCEMENTFORELECTROMAGNETICINTERFERENCESHIELDINGJINGYAOCAOANDDDLCHUNGCOMPOSITEMATERIALSRESEARCHLABORATORY,UNIVERSITYATBUFFALO,STATEUNIVERSITYOFNEWYORK,BUFFALO,NY142604400,USARECEIVED12DECEMBER2002;ACCEPTED14APRIL2003;AVAILABLEONLINE28MAY2003ABSTRACTAWATERBASEDCOLLOIDOFSUBMICRONGRAPHITEPARTICLESISANEFFECTIVEADMIXTUREFORENHANCINGTHEEMISHIELDINGEFFECTIVENESSOFCEMENTPASTE,THOUGHITISINEFFECTIVEFORLOWERINGTHEELECTRICALRESISTIVITYASANADMIXTURE,ITISMOREEFFECTIVEFORSHIELDINGTHAN15ΜMDIAMETERDISCONTINUOUSCARBONFIBERS,THOUGHITISLESSEFFECTIVETHAN01ΜMDIAMETERDISCONTINUOUSCARBONFILAMENTSASHIELDINGEFFECTIVENESSOF22DBAT1GHZISREACHEDBYCEMENTPASTEATASOLIDGRAPHITECONTENTOF092VOL,COMPAREDTOAVALUEOF11DBFORACOATINGMADEFROMTHEGRAPHITECOLLOIDANDAVALUEOF14DBFORGRAPHITECOLLOIDCOATEDCEMENTPASTEWITHOUTADMIXTUREKEYWORDSELECTRICALPROPERTIES;ADMIXTURE;CEMENTPASTE1INTRODUCTION第2页EMISHIELDING14ISINCRITICALDEMANDDUETOTHEINTERFERENCEOFWIRELESSPARTICULARLYRADIOFREQUENCYDEVICESWITHDIGITALDEVICESANDTHEINCREASINGSENSITIVITYANDIMPORTANCEOFELECTRONICDEVICESSHIELDINGISPARTICULARLYNEEDEDFORUNDERGROUNDVAULTSCONTAININGPOWERTRANSFORMERSANDOTHERELECTRONICSTHATARERELEVANTTOELECTRICPOWERANDTELECOMMUNICATIONITISALSONEEDEDFORDETERRINGELECTROMAGNETICFORMSOFSPYINGPOLYMER–MATRIXCOMPOSITESCONTAININGELECTRICALLYCONDUCTIVEFILLERSAREWIDELYUSEDFORTHESHIELDINGOFELECTRONICSINCONTRASTTOATYPICALPOLYMERMATRIX,WHICHISELECTRICALLYINSULATING,THECEMENTMATRIXISSLIGHTLYCONDUCTIVETHEREFORE,THEUSEOFACEMENTMATRIXALLOWSSOMEDEGREEOFELECTRICALCONNECTIVITYAMONGTHECONDUCTIVEFILLERUNITS,EVENWHENTHEFILLERVOLUMEFRACTIONISBELOWTHEPERCOLATIONTHRESHOLDASELECTRICALCONNECTIVITYHELPSSHIELDING,THECEMENTMATRIXISATTRACTIVEFORTHEDEVELOPMENTOFCOMPOSITEMATERIALSFORSHIELDINGELECTRICALLYCONDUCTIVEADMIXTURESINTHEFORMOFDISCONTINUOUSFIBERS58HAVEBEENPREVIOUSLYUSEDINCEMENTFORPROVIDINGEMISHIELDINGALTHOUGHTHEFIBERSAREEFFECTIVE,THEYAREEXPENSIVEAND,INCONTRASTTOPARTICLES,HAVETHETENDENCYTOCLINGTOGETHERCOLLOIDALGRAPHITEISFINEGRAPHITEPOWDERSUSPENDEDINALIQUIDCARRIERSUCHASWATERANDALCOHOL,USUALLYTOGETHERWITHASMALLAMOUNTOFAPOLYMERICBINDERASMALLPARTICLESIZEOFTHEPOWDERISNECESSARYFORFORMATIONOFASTABLEANDWORKABLECOLLOIDAFTERAPPLICATIONOFCOLLOIDALGRAPHITEONASURFACEBYPAINTINGORRELATEDMETHODS,THELIQUIDCARRIEREVAPORATES,THUSALLOWINGTHEGRAPHITEPARTICLESTOBEESSENTIALLYINDIRECTCONTACTTHERESULTINGCOATINGISUSEDFORSHIELDINGINTELEVISIONSCOPES,INADDITIONTOBEINGUSEDASALUBRICANTHOWEVER,COLLOIDALGRAPHITEHASNOTBEENUSEDONORINCEMENTBASEDMATERIALSFURTHERMORE,THEREHASBEENNOREPORTONTHEEMISHIELDINGEFFECTIVENESSOFCOLLOIDALGRAPHITE,EXCEPTFORLIMITEDINFORMATIONINACOMMERCIALSALESDOCUMENT10THECOSTOFGRAPHITEPOWDERINCREASESWITHDECREASINGPARTICLESIZEHOWEVER,DUETOTHESKINEFFECT,THEEFFECTIVENESSOFGRAPHITEPOWDERATAGIVENVOLUMEFRACTIONFORSHIELDINGISEXPECTEDTOINCREASEWITHDECREASINGPARTICLESIZEINSPITEOFTHERELATIVELYHIGHCOSTOFFINEGRAPHITEPOWDER,THECOSTISSTILLLOWCOMPAREDTOTHATOFCARBONFIBERSORSUBMICRONDIAMETERCARBONFILAMENTSINTHISPAPER,THETERM“FILAMENTS”REFERSTOTHOSEOFDIAMETERLESSTHAN1ΜM,WHEREASTHETERM“FIBERS”REFERSTOTHOSEOFDIAMETERATLEAST1ΜMTHISPAPERADDRESSESTHEUSEOFGRAPHITECOLLOIDASANADMIXTUREINCEMENTANDASACOATINGONCEMENTFORPROVIDINGSHIELDINGFORTHESAKEOFCOMPARISON,THISPAPERALSOADDRESSESTHESHIELDINGEFFECTIVENESSOFACOLLOIDALGRAPHITECOATINGONMYLAR,WHICHISKNOWNFORITSELECTROMAGNETICTRANSPARENCYPREVIOUSDEVELOPMENTOFCONCRETEFOREMISHIELDINGDIDNOT第3页INVOLVECOLLOIDS,BUTONLYDRYSOLIDADMIXTURESSUCHAS15ΜMDIAMETERCARBONFIBERS9,01ΜMDIAMETERCARBONFILAMENTS6,AND8ΜMDIAMETERSTAINLESSSTEELFIBERS8COLLOIDSAREATTRACTIVEDUETOTHESUBMICRONPARTICLESINTHEMANDTHEGOODDISPERSIONOFTHESEPARTICLES,ASATTAINEDBYTHEUSEOFSURFACTANTSASMALLPARTICLESIZEISADVANTAGEOUSFOREMISHIELDINGDUETOTHESKINEFFECTANDTHEINCREASEDTENDENCYFORPERCOLATIONFURTHERMORE,COLLOIDSAREATTRACTIVEFORTHECEMENTMIXINGPROCESSDUETOTHEIRHIGHFLUIDITYINADDITION,COLLOIDSCANBEUSEDASACOATINGMATERIAL,WHICHCANBEAPPLIEDTOEXISTINGSTRUCTURESBECAUSEELECTRICALRESISTIVITYISABASICQUANTITYTHATDESCRIBESTHEELECTRICALCONDUCTIONBEHAVIOR,THISPAPERINCLUDESMEASUREMENTOFELECTRICALRESISTIVITY2EXPERIMENTALMETHODSTHECEMENTUSEDWASPORTLANDCEMENTTYPEIFROMLAFARGESOUTHFIELD,MITHEWATER–CEMENTRATIOWAS035AWATERREDUCINGAGENTASODIUMSALTOFACONDENSEDNAPHTHALENESULFONICACID,TAMOLSN,ROHMANDHAAS,PHILADELPHIA,PAWASUSEDINTHEAMOUNTOF100BYMASSOFCEMENTFORALLSPECIMENSNOAGGREGATEWASUSED,WHETHERFINEORCOARSETHECOLLOIDALGRAPHITEUSEDINTHISWORKWASA9LB/GALLON1G/CM3DISPERSIONOF22WTGRAPHITEPARTICLESOFAVERAGESIZE07–08ΜMINDEIONIZEDWATERGRAFOHYDROGRAFAM2FROMFUCHSLUBRICANT,EMLENTON,PATHEDISPERSIONCONTAINSASTARCHTYPEBINDERTHEDENSITYOFSOLIDGRAPHITEIS226G/CM3FORSHIELDINGTESTING,THEATTENUATIONSUPONREFLECTIONANDTRANSMISSIONWEREMEASUREDUSINGTHECOAXIALCABLEMETHODTHETRANSMISSIONLINEMETHODFIG1THESETUPCONSISTEDOFANELGALISRAELSET19ASHIELDINGEFFECTIVENESSTESTERWITHITSINPUTANDOUTPUTCONNECTEDTOAHEWLETTPACKARDHP8510ANETWORKANALYZER10ANHPAPC7CALIBRATIONKITWASUSEDTOCALIBRATETHESYSTEMTHEFREQUENCYWASUPTO15GHZ,ASLIMITEDBYTHESPECIMENDIMENSIONSTHESPECIMENPLACEDINTHECENTERPLANEOFTHETESTERWITHTHEINPUTANDOUTPUTOFTHETESTERONTHETWOSIDESOFTHESPECIMENWASINTHEFORMOFANANNULARRINGOFOUTERDIAMETER97MMANDINNERDIAMETER29MMSILVERPAINTWASAPPLIEDATBOTHINNERANDOUTEREDGESOFEACHSPECIMENANDNEARTHEEDGESTOMAKEELECTRICALCONTACTWITHTHEINNERANDOUTERCONDUCTORSOFTHETESTER11第4页FIG1EMISHIELDINGEFFECTIVENESSTESTINGSETUPINTHEUSEOFTHECOLLOIDASANADMIXTURE,THEWATERINTHECOLLOIDWASCONSIDEREDINTHEWATER–CEMENTRATIOMENTIONEDEARLIERTHECOLLOIDWASUSEDASANADMIXTUREINPROPORTIONSCORRESPONDINGTOTHEGRAPHITESOLIDAMOUNTINGTO050AND100BYMASSOFCEMENTCORRESPONDINGTO046AND092VOL,RESPECTIVELYINTHEUSEOFTHECOLLOIDASACOATING,THECOLLOIDWASAPPLIEDMANUALLYONONESIDEOFASPECIMENOFCEMENTPASTEWITHOUTADMIXTURE,INTHEFORMOFANANNULARRINGOFDIMENSIONSMENTIONEDABOVEANDONONESIDEOFAMYLARSHEET60ΜMTHICK,WHICHHADBEENCUTTOBEANANNULARRINGOFDIMENSIONSMENTIONEDEARLIERAFTERDRYINGINAIRFORATLEAST2H,SILVERPAINTWASAPPLIED,ASMENTIONEDEARLIERTHECOATINGTHICKNESSWAS03–04MMAFTERDRYINGFORBOTHTYPESOFSUBSTRATE,ASMEASUREDBYUSINGAMICROMETERBEFOREANDAFTERCOATINGTHEDCRESISTIVITYWASMEASUREDUSINGTHEKEITHLEY2001MULTIMETERANDTHEFOURPROBEMETHODINTHISMETHOD,FOURELECTRICALCONTACTSWEREAPPLIEDBYSILVERPAINTATFOURPLANESPERPENDICULARTOTHELENGTHOFTHESPECIMEN751515MMTHEFOURPLANESWERESYMMETRICALAROUNDTHEMIDPOINTALONGTHELENGTHOFTHESPECIMEN,SUCHTHATTHEOUTERCONTACTSFORPASSINGCURRENTWERE65MMAPARTANDTHEINNERCONTACTSFORMEASURINGTHEVOLTAGEINRELATIONTORESISTIVITYDETERMINATIONWERE55MMAPART3RESULTSANDDISCUSSION31GRAPHITECOLLOIDASANADMIXTURETABLE1SHOWSTHATTHEEMISHIELDINGEFFECTIVENESSSAMEASTHEATTENUATIONUPONTRANSMISSIONINCREASESSIGNIFICANTLYWITHINCREASINGGRAPHITECONTENT,WHEREASTHEATTENUATIONUPONREFLECTIONDECREASESSLIGHTLYTHISMEANSTHATTHEGRAPHITEENHANCESTHESHIELDINGEFFECTIVENESSMAINLYBYINCREASINGTHEREFLECTIVITY

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