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外文翻译--网络的诞生.doc

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外文翻译--网络的诞生.doc

BirthoftheNetTheInternethashadarelativelybrief,butexplosivehistorysofar.Itgrewoutofanexperimentbeguninthe1960sbytheU.S.DepartmentofDefense.TheDoDwantedtocreateacomputernetworkthatwouldcontinuetofunctionintheeventofadisaster,suchasanuclearwar.Ifpartofthenetworkweredamagedordestroyed,therestofthesystemstillhadtowork.ThatnetworkwasARPANET,whichlinkedU.S.scientificandacademicresearchers.ItwastheforerunneroftodaysInternet.In1985,theNationalScienceFoundationNSFcreatedNSFNET,aseriesofnetworksforresearchandeducationcommunication.BasedonARPANETprotocols,theNSFNETcreatedanationalbackboneservice,providedfreetoanyU.S.researchandeducationalinstitution.Atthesametime,regionalnetworkswerecreatedtolinkindividualinstitutionswiththenationalbackboneservice.NSFNETgrewrapidlyaspeoplediscovereditspotential,andasnewsoftwareapplicationswerecreatedtomakeaccesseasier.CorporationssuchasSprintandMCIbegantobuildtheirownnetworks,whichtheylinkedtoNSFNET.AscommercialfirmsandotherregionalnetworkprovidershavetakenovertheoperationofthemajorInternetarteries,NSFhaswithdrawnfromthebackbonebusiness.NSFalsocoordinatedaservicecalledInterNIC,whichregisteredalladdressesontheInternetsothatdatacouldberoutedtotherightsystem.ThisservicehasnowbeentakenoverbyNetworkSolutions,Inc.,incooperationwithNSF.HowtheWebWorksTheWorldWideWeb,thegraphicalportionoftheInternet,isthemostpopularpartoftheInternetbyfar.OnceyouspendtimeontheWeb,youwillbegintofeellikethereisnolimittowhatyoucandiscover.TheWeballowsrichanddiversecommunicationbydisplayingtext,graphics,animation,photos,soundandvideo.SojustwhatisthismiraculouscreationTheWebphysicallyconsistsofyourpersonalcomputer,webbrowsersoftware,aconnectiontoanInternetserviceprovider,computerscalledserversthathostdigitaldataandroutersandswitchestodirecttheflowofinformation.TheWebisknownasaclientserversystem.Yourcomputeristheclienttheremotecomputersthatstoreelectronicfilesaretheservers.HereshowitworksLetssayyouwanttopayavisittothetheLouvremuseumwebsite.FirstyouentertheaddressorURLofthewebsiteinyourwebbrowsermoreaboutthisshortly.ThenyourbrowserrequeststhewebpagefromthewebserverthathoststheLouvressite.TheLouvresserversendsthedataovertheInternettoyourcomputer.Yourwebbrowserinterpretsthedata,displayingitonyourcomputerscreen.TheLouvreswebsitealsohaslinkstothesitesofothermuseums,suchastheVaticanMuseum.Whenyouclickyourmouseonalink,youaccessthewebserverfortheVaticanMuseum.ThegluethatholdstheWebtogetheriscalledhypertextandhyperlinks.ThisfeatureallowelectronicfilesontheWebtobelinkedsoyoucaneasilyjumpbetweenthem.OntheWeb,younavigatethroughpagesofinformationbasedonwhatinterestsyouatthatparticularmoment,commonlyknownasbrowsingorsurfingtheNet.ToaccesstheWebyouneedwebbrowsersoftware,suchasNetscapeNavigatororMicrosoftInternetExplorer.HowdoesyourwebbrowserdistinguishbetweenwebpagesandotherfilesontheInternetWebpagesarewritteninacomputerlanguagecalledHypertextMarkupLanguageorHTML.SomeWebHistoryTheWorldWideWebWWWwasoriginallydevelopedin1990atCERN,theEuropeanLaboratoryforParticlePhysics.ItisnowmanagedbyTheWorldWideWebConsortium,alsoknownastheWorldWideWebInitiative.TheWWWConsortiumisfundedbyalargenumberofcorporatemembers,includingATT,AdobeSystems,Inc.,MicrosoftCorporationandSunMicrosystems,Inc.ItspurposeistopromotethegrowthoftheWebbydevelopingtechnicalspecificationsandreferencesoftwarethatwillbefreelyavailabletoeveryone.TheConsortiumisrunbyMITwithINRIATheFrenchNationalInstituteforResearchinComputerScienceactingasEuropeanhost,incollaborationwithCERN.TheNationalCenterforSupercomputingApplicationsNCSAattheUniversityofIllinoisatUrbanaChampaign,wasinstrumentalinthedevelopmentofearlygraphicalsoftwareutilizingtheWorldWideWebfeaturescreatedbyCERN.NCSAfocusesonimprovingtheproductivityofresearchersbyprovidingsoftwareforscientificmodeling,analysis,andvisualization.TheWorldWideWebwasanobviouswaytofulfillthatmission.NCSAMosaic,oneoftheearliestwebbrowsers,wasdistributedfreetothepublic.ItleddirectlytothephenomenalgrowthoftheWorldWideWeb.UnderstandingWebAddressesYoucanthinkoftheWorldWideWebasanetworkofelectronicfilesstoredoncomputersallaroundtheworld.Hypertextlinkstheseresourcestogether.UniformResourceLocatorsorURLsaretheaddressesusedtolocatethesefiles.TheinformationcontainedinaURLgivesyoutheabilitytojumpfromonewebpagetoanotherwithjustaclickofyourmouse.WhenyoutypeaURLintoyourbrowserorclickonahypertextlink,yourbrowserissendingarequesttoaremotecomputertodownloadafile.WhatdoesatypicalURLlooklikeHerearesomeexampleshttp//english.chinaschool.net/Thehomepageforstudyenglish.ftp//rtfm.mit.edu/pub/AdirectoryoffilesatMITavailablefordownloading.newsrec.gardens.rosesAnewsgrouponrosegardening.ThefirstpartofaURLbeforethetwoslashestellsyouthetypeofresourceormethodofaccessatthataddress.ForexamplehttpahypertextdocumentordirectorygopheragopherdocumentormenuftpafileavailablefordownloadingoradirectoryofsuchfilesnewsanewsgrouptelnetacomputersystemthatyoucanlogintoovertheInternetWAISadatabaseordocumentinaWideAreaInformationSearchdatabasefileafilelocatedonalocaldriveyourharddriveThesecondpartistypicallytheaddressofthecomputerwherethedataorserviceislocated.Additionalpartsmayspecifythenamesoffiles,theporttoconnectto,orthetexttosearchforinadatabase.YoucanentertheURLofasitebytypingitintotheLocationbarofyourwebbrowser,justunderthetoolbar.MostbrowsersrecordURLsthatyouwanttouseagain,byaddingthemtoaspecialmenu.InNetscapeNavigator,itscalledBookmarks.InMicrosoftExplorer,itscalledFavorites.OnceyouaddaURLtoyourlist,youcanreturntothatwebpagesimplybyclickingonthenameinyourlist,insteadofretypingtheentireURL.MostoftheURLsyouwillbeusingstartwithhttpwhichstandsforHypertextTransferProtocol.httpisthemethodbywhichHTMLfilesaretransferredovertheWeb.HerearesomeotherimportantthingstoknowaboutURLsAURLusuallyhasnospaces.AURLalwaysusesforwardslashes//.IfyouenteraURLincorrectly,yourbrowserwillnotbeabletolocatethesiteorresourceyouwant.Shouldyougetanerrormessageorthewrongsite,makesureyoutypedtheaddresscorrectly.YoucanfindtheURLbehindanylinkbypassingyourmousecursoroverthelink.ThepointerwillturnintoahandandtheURLwillappearinthebrowsersstatusbar,usuallylocatedatthebottomofyourscreen.DomainNamesWhenyouthinkoftheInternet,youprobablythinkof.com.JustwhatdothosethreelettersattheendofaWorldWideWebaddressmeanEverycomputerthathostsdataontheInternethasauniquenumericaladdress.Forexample,thenumericaladdressfortheWhiteHouseis198.137.240.100.Butsincefewpeoplewanttorememberlongstringsofnumbers,theDomainNameSystemDNSwasdeveloped.DNS,acriticalpartoftheInternetstechnicalinfrastructure,correlatesanumericaladdresstoaword.ToaccesstheWhiteHousewebsite,youcouldtypeitsnumberintotheaddressboxofyourwebbrowser.Butmostpeopleprefertousewww.whitehouse.gov.Inthiscase,thedomainnameiswhitehouse.gov.Ingeneral,thethreeletterdomainnamesuffixisknownasagenerictopleveldomainanddescribesthetypeoforganization.Inthelastfewyears,thelineshavesomewhatblurredbetweenthesecategories..combusinesscommercial.edueducational.orgnonprofit.milmilitary.netnetworkprovider.govgovernmentAdomainnamealwayshastwoormorepartsseparatedbydotsandtypicallyconsistsofsomeformofanorganizationsnameandthethreelettersuffix.Forexample,thedomainnameforIBMisibm.comtheUnitedNationsisun.org.Ifadomainnameisavailable,andprovideditdoesnotinfringeonanexistingtrademark,anyonecanregisterthenamefor35ayearthroughNetworkSolutions,Inc.,whichisauthorizedtoregister.com,.netand.orgdomains.Youcanusetheboxbelowtoseeifanameisaavailable.Dontbesurprisedifthe.comnameyouwantisalreadytaken,however.Oftheover8milliondomainnames,85are.comdomains.ICANN,theInternetCorporationforAssignedNamesandNumbers,managestheDomainNameSystem.Asofthiswriting,thereareplanstoaddadditionaltopleveldomains,suchas.weband.store.Whenthatwillactuallyhappenisanybodysguess.Tocheckfor,orregisteradomainname,typeitintothesearchbox.Itshouldtakethisformmyname.comInadditiontothegenerictopleveldomains,244nationaltopleveldomainswereestablishedforcountriesandterritories,forexample.auAustralia.caCanada.frFrance.deGermany.ukUnitedKingdomForUS275pername,youcanalsoregisteraninternationaldomainnamewithNetNames.Beawarethatsomecountrieshaverestrictionsforregisteringnames.Ifyouplantoregisteryourowndomainname,whetheritsa.comornot,keepthesetipsinmindTheshorterthename,thebetter.Butitshouldreflectyourfamilyname,interestorbusiness.Thenameshouldbeeasytoremember.Itshouldbeeasytotypewithoutmakingmistakes.Remember,theInternetisglobal.Ideally,adomainnamewillreadinalanguageotherthanEnglish.

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