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外文翻译--自动生产线.doc

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外文翻译--自动生产线.doc

河南科技学院机电学院1ENGLISHTRANSLATIONMATERIAL1TRANSFERMACHINETHEHIGHESTDEGREEOFAUTOMATIONWITHSPECIALPURPOSE,MULTIFUNCTIONMACHINESISACHIEVEDBYUSINGTRANSFERMACHINESTRANSFERMACHINEAREESSENTIALLYACOMBINATIONOFINDIVIDUALWORKSTATIONSARRANGEDINTHEREQUIREDSEQUENCE,CONNECTEDBYWORKTRANSFERDEVICES,ANDINTEGRATEDWITHINTERLOCKEDCONTROLSWORKPLACESAREAUTOMATICALLYTRANSFERREDBETWEENTHESTATIONS,WHICHAREEQUIPPEDWITHHORIZONTAL,VERTICAL,ORANGULARUNITSTOPERFORMMACHINING,GAGING,WORKPLACEREPOSITIONING,ASSEMBLING,WASHING,OROTHEROPERATIONTHETWOMAJORCLASSESOFTRANSFERMACHINESAREROTARYANDINLINETYPESANIMPORTANTADVANTAGEOFTRANSFERMACHINESISTHATTHEYPERMITTHEMAXIMUMNUMBEROFOPERATIONSTOBEPERFORMEDSIMULTANEOUSLYTHEREISRELATIVELYNOLIMITATIONONTHENUMBEROFWORKPLACESURFACEORPLANESTHATCANBEMACHINED,SINCEDEVICESCANBEINTERPOSEDINTRANSFERMACHINESATPRACTICALLYANYPOINTFORINVERTING,ROTATING,ORORIENTINGTHEWORKPLACE,SOASTOCOMPLETETHEMACHININGOPERATIONSWORKREPOSITIONINGALSOMINIMIZESTHENEEDFORANGULARMACHININGHEADSANDALLOWSOPERATIONSTOBEPERFORMEDINOPTIMUMTIMECOMPLETEPROCESSINGFROMROUGHCASTINGORFORGINGTOFINISHEDPARTSISOFTENPOSSIBLEONEORMOREFINISHEDPARTSAREPRODUCEDONATRANSFERMACHINEWITHEACHINDEXOFTHETRANSFERSYSTEMTHATMOVESTHEPARTSFROMSTATIONSTOSTATIONSPRODUCTIONEFFICIENCIESOFSUCHMACHINESGENERALLYRANGEFROM50FORAMACHINEVARIETYOFDIFFERENTPARTSTO85FORAMACHINEPRODUCINGONEPART,INHIGHPRODUCTION,DEPENDINGUPONTHEWORKPLACEANDHOWTHEMACHINEISOPERATEDMATERIALHANDLINGMETHOD,MAINTENANCEPROCEDURES,ETCALLTYPESOFMACHININGOPERATIONS,SUCHASDRILLING,TAPPING,REAMING,BORING,ANDMILLING,AREECONOMICALLYCOMBINEDONTRANSFERMACHINESLATHETYPEOPERATIONSSUCHASTURNINGANDFACINGAREALSOBEINGPERFORMEDONINLINETRANSFERMACHINE,WITHTHEWORKPLACEBEINGROTATEDINSELECTEDMACHININGSTATIONSTURNINGOPERATIONSAREPERFORMEDINLATHETYPESEGMENTSINWHICHTOOLHOLDERSAREFEDONSLIDESMOUNTEDONTUNNELTYPEBRIDGEUNITSWORKPLACEARELOCATEDONCENTERSANDROTATEDBYCHUCKSATEACHTURNINGSTATIONTURNINGSTATIONSWITHCNCAREAVAILABLEFORUSEONINLINETRANSFERMACHINETHECNCUNITSALLOWTHEMACHINECYCLESTOBEEASILYALTEREDTOACCOMMODATECHANGESINWORKPLACEDESIGNANDCANALSOBEUSEDFORAUTOMATICTOOLADJUSTMENTSMAXIMUMPRODUCTIONECONOMYONTRANSFERLINESISOFTENACHIEVEDBYASSEMBLING河南科技学院机电学院2PARTSTOTHEWORKPLACESDURINGTHEIRMOVEMENTTHROUGHTHEMACHINESUCHITEMSASBUSHINGS,SEALS,WELCHPLUGS,ANDHEATTUBESCANBEASSEMBLEDANDTHENMACHINEORTESTEDDURINGTHETRANSFERMACHININGSEQUENCEAUTOMATICNUTTORQUINGFOLLOWINGTHEAPPLICATIONOFPARTSUBASSEMBLIESCANALSOBECARRIEDOUTGUNDRILLINGORREAMINGONTRANSFERMACHINESISANIDEALAPPLICATIONPROVIDEDTHATPROPERMACHININGUNITSAREEMPLOYEDANDGOODBUSHINGPRACTICESAREFOLLOWEDCONTOURBORINGANDTURNINGOFSPHERICALSEATSANDOTHERSURFACECANBEDONEWITHTRACERCONTROLLEDSINGLEPOINTINSERTS,THUSELIMINATINGTHENEEDFORCOSTLYSPECIALFORMTOOLSINPROCESSGAGINGOFREAMEDORBOREDHOLESANDAUTOMATICTOOLSETTINGAREDONEONTRANSFERMACHINESTOMAINTAINCLOSETOLERANCESLESSCONVENTIONALOPERATIONSSOMETIMESPERFORMEDONTRANSFERMACHINESINCLUDEGRINDING,INDUCTIONHEATINGOFRINGGEARSFORSHRINKFITPRESSINGONFLYWHEELS,INDUCTIONHARDENINGOFVALVESEATS,DEEPROLLINGTOAPPLYCOMPRESSIVEPRELOADS,ANDBURNISHINGTRANSFERMACHINESHAVELONGBEENUSEDINTHEAUTOMOTIVEINDUSTRYFORPRODUCTIONRATESWITHAMINIMUMOFMANUALPARTHANDLINGINADDITIONTODECREASINGLABORREQUIREMENTS,SUCHMACHINESENSURECONSISTENTLYUNIFORM,HIGHQUALITYPARTSATLOWERCOSTTHEYARENOLONGERCONFINEDJUSTTOROUGHMACHININGANDNOWOFTENELIMINATETHENEEDFORSUBSEQUENTOPERATIONSSUCHASGRINDINGANDHONINGMORERECENTLY,THEREHASBEENANINCREASINGDEMANDFORTRANSFERMACHINESTOHANDLELOWERVOLUMESOFSIMILAROREVENDIFFERENTPARTSINSMALLERSIZES,WITHMEANSFORQUICKCHANGEOVERBETWEENPRODUCTIONRUNSBUILTINFLEXIBILITY,THEABILITYTOREARRANGEANDINTERCHANGEMACHINEUNITS,ANDTHEPROVISIONOFIDLESTATIONSINCREASESTHECOSTOFANYTRANSFERMACHINE,BUTSUCHFEATUREAREECONOMICALLYFEASIBLEWHENPRODUCTREDESIGNSARECOMMONMANYSUCHMACHINESARENOWBEINGUSEDINNONAUTOMOTIVEAPPLICATIONSFORLOWERPRODUCTIONREQUIREMENTSSPECIALFEATURENOWAVAILABLETOREDUCETHETIMEREQUIREDFORPARTCHANGEOVERINCLUDESTANDARDIZEDDIMENSIONS,MODULARCONSTRUCTION,INTERCHANGEABLEFIXTURESMOUNTEDONMASTERPALLETSTHATREMAINONTHEMACHINE,INTERCHANGEABLEFIXTURECOMPONENTS,THEABILITYTOLOCKOUTCERTAINSTATIONSFORDIFFERENTPARTSBYMEANSOFSELECTORSWITCHES,ANDPROGRAMMABLECONTROLLERSPRODUCTDESIGNISALSOIMPORTANT,ANDCOMMONTRANSFERANDCLAMPINGSURFACESSHOULDBEPROVIDEDONDIFFERENTPARTSWHENEVERPOSSIBLE2PROGRAMMABLELOGICCONTROLLERSAPROGRAMMABLELOGICCONTROLLERPLCISASOLIDSTATEDEVICEUSEDTOCONTROLMACHINEMOTIONORPROCESSOPERATIONBYMEANSOFASTOREDPROGRAMTHEPLCSENDSOUTPUTCONTROLSIGNALSOUTPUTANDRECEIVEINPUTSIGNALSTHROUGHINPUT/OUTPUTI/ODEVICESAPLCCONTROLSOUTPUTINRESPONSETOSTIMULIATTHEINPUTSACCORDINGTOTHELOGICPRESCRIBEDBYTHESTOREDPROGRAMTHEINPUTSAREMADEUPOFLIMITSWITCHES,PUSHBUTTONS,THUMBWHEELS,SWITCHES,PULSES,ANALOGSIGNAL,ASCIISERIALDATA,ANDBINARYORBCDDATAFROMABSOLUTEPOSITIONENCODERSTHEOUTPUTAREVOLTAGEORCURRENT河南科技学院机电学院3LEVELTODRIVEENDDEVICESSUCHASSOLENOIDS,MOTORSTARTERS,RELAYS,LIGHTS,ANDSOONOTHEROUTPUTDEVICEINCLUDEANALOGDEVICES,DIGITALBCDDISPLAYS,ASCIICOMPATIBLEDEVICES,SERVOVARIABLESPEEDDRIVES,ANDEVENCOMPUTERSPROGRAMMABLECONTROLLERSWEREDEVELOPEDCIRCAIN1968WHENGENERALMOTORSCORPS,ANDOTHERAUTOMOBILEMANUFACTURERSWEREEXPERIMENTINGTOSEEIFTHEREMIGHTBEANALTERNATIVETOSCRAPPINGALLTHEIRHARDWIREDCONTROLPANELOFMACHINETOOLSANDOTHERPRODUCTIONEQUIPMENTDURINGAMODELCHANGEOVERTHISANNUALTRADITIONWASNECESSARYBECAUSEREWRITINGOFTHEPANELSWASMOREEXPENSIVETHANBUYINGNEWONESTHEAUTOMOTIVECOMPANIESAPPROACHEDANUMBEROFCONTROLEQUIPMENTMANUFACTURERSANDASKEDTHEMTODEVELOPACONTROLSYSTEMTHATWOULDHAVEALONGERPRODUCTIVELIFEWITHOUTMAJORREWRITING,BUTWOULDSTILLBEUNDERSTANDABLETOANDREPAIRABLEBYTHEPLANTPERSONNELTHENEWPRODUCTWASNAMEDA“PROGRAMMABLECONTROLLER”THEPROCESSORPARTOFTHEPLCCONTAINSACENTRALPROCESSINGUNITANDMEMORYTHECENTRALPROCESSINGUNITCPUISTHE“TRAFFICDIRECTION”OFTHEPROCESSOR,THEMEMORYSTORESINFORMATIONCOMINGINTOTHEPROCESSORARETHEELECTRICALSIGNALSFROMTHEINPUTDEVICES,ASCONDITIONEDBYTHEINPUTMODULETOVOLTAGELEVELSACCEPTABLETOPROCESSORLOGICTHEPROCESSORSCANSTHESTATEOFI/OANDUPDATESOUTPUTSSTOREDINTHEMEMORYOFTHEPLCFOREXAMPLE,THEPROCESSORMAYBEPROGRAMMEDSOTHATIFANINPUTCONNECTEDTOALIMITSWITCHISTRUELIMITSWITCHCLOSED,THENACORRESPONDINGOUTPUTWIREDTOANOUTPUTMODULEISTOBEENERGIZEDTHISPROCESSORREMEMBERSTHISCOMMANDTHROUGHITSMEMORYANDCOMPARESONEACHSCANTOSEEIFTHATLIMITSWITCHIS,INFACT,CLOSEDIFITISCLOSED,THEPROCESSORENERGIZESTHESOLENOIDBYTURNINGONTHEOUTPUTMODULETHEOUTPUTDEVICE,SUCHASASOLENOIDORMOTORSTARTER,ISWIREDTOANOUTPUTMODULE’STERMINAL,ANDITRECEIVESITSSHIFTSIGNALFROMTHEPROCESSOR,INEFFECT,THEPROCESSORISPERFORMINGALONGANDCOMPLICATEDSERIESOFLOGICDECISIONSTHEPLCPERFORMSSUCHDECISIONSSEQUENTIALLYANDINACCORDINGWITHTHESTOREDPROGRAMSIMILARLY,ANALOGI/OALLOWSTHEPROCESSORTOMAKEDECISIONSBASEDONTHEMAGNITUDEOFASIGNAL,RATHERTHANJUSTIFITISONOROFFFOREXAMPLE,THEPROCESSORMAYBEPROGRAMMEDTOINCREASEORDECREASETHESTEAMFLOWTOABOILERANALOGOUTPUTBASEDONACOMPARISONOFTHEACTUALTEMPERATUREINTHEBOILERANALOGINPUTTHISISOFTENPERFORMEDBYUTILIZINGTHEBUILTINPIDPROPORTIONAL,INTEGRAL,DERIVATIVECAPABILITIESOFTHEPROCESSORBECAUSEAPLCIS“SOFTWAREBASED”,ITSCONTROLLOGICFUNCTIONSCANBECHANGEDBYREPROGRAMMINGITSMEMORYKEYBOARDPROGRAMMINGDEVICESFACILITATEENTRYOFTHEREVISEDPROGRAM,WHICHCANBEDESIGNTOCAUSEANEXISTINGMACHINEORPROCESSTOOPERATEINADIFFERENTSEQUENCEORTODIFFERENTLEVELOF,ORCOMBINATIONSOFSTIMULIHARDWAREMODIFICATIONSARENEEDEDONLYIFADDITIONAL,CHANGED,ORRELOCATEDINPUT/OUTPUTDEVICEAREINVOLVED河南科技学院机电学院43AUTOMATEDASSEMBLYASSEMBLYINTHEMANIFACTURINGPROCESSCONSISTSOFPUTTINGTOGETHERALLTHECOMPONENTPARTSANDSUBASSEMBLIESOFAGIVENPRODUCT,FASTENING,PERFORMINGINSPECTIONSANDFUNCTIONTESTS,LABELING,SEPARATINGGOODASSEMBLYFROMBAD,ANDPACKAGINGANDORPREPARINGTHEMFORFINALUSEASSEMBLYISUNIQUECOMPAREDTOTHEMETHODSOFMANUFACTURINGSUCHASMACHINING,GRINDING,ANDWELDINGINTHATMOSTOFTHESEPROCESSESINVOVLEONLYAFEWDISCIPLINESANDPOSSIBLYONLYONEMOSTOFTHESENONASSEMBLYOPERATIONSCANNOTBEPERFORMEDWEITHOUTTHEAIDOFEQUIPMENT;THUSTHEDEVELOPMENTOFAUTOMATICMETHODSHASBEENNECESSARYRATHERTHANOPTIONALASSEMBLY,ONTHEOTHERHAND,MAYINVOLVEINONEMACHINEMANYOFTHEFASTENINGMETHODS,SUCHASRIVETING,WELDING,SCREWDRIVING,ANDADHESIVEAPPLICATION,ASWELLASAUTOMATICPARTSSELETION,PRODING,GAGING,FUNCTIONALTESTING,LABELING,ANDPACKAGINGTHESTATEOFTHEARTINASSEMBLYOPERATIONSHASNOTREACHEDTHELEVELOFSTANDARDIZATION;MUCHMANUALWORKISSTILLBEINGPERFORMEDINTHISAREAASSEMBLYHASTRADITIONALLYBEENONEOFTHEHIGHESTAREASOFDIRECTLABORCOSTSINSOMECASES,ASSEMBLYACCOUNTSFOR50ORMOREOFMANUFACTURINGCSOSTSANDTYPICALLY20~50HOWEVER,CLOSERCOOPERATIONBETWEENDESIGNANDMANUFACTURINGENGINEERSHASRESULTEDINREDUCINGANDINAFEWCASESELIMINATINGALTOGETHERTHENEEDFORASSEMBLYWHENASSSEMBLYISREQUIRED,IMPROVEDDESIGNORPRODUCTSHASSIMPLIFIEDAUTOMATEDSEMIAUTOMATICORAUTOMATICASSEMBLYCONSIDERATIONSFORAUTOMATEDASSEMBLYBEFOREAUTOMATEDASSEMBLYISADOPTED,SEVERALFACTORSSHOULDBECONSIDERDTHESEINCLUDEPRACTICALITYOFTHEPROCESSFORAUTOMATION,SIMULATIONFORECONOMICCONSIDERATIONSANDJUSTIFICATION,MANAGEMENTINVOLVEMENT,ANDLABORRELATIONSDETERMININGTHEPRACTICALITYOFAUTOMATEDASSEMBLYREQUIREDCAREFULEVALUATIONOFTHEFOLLOWINGATHENUMBEROFPARTSINASSEMBLYBDESIGNOFTHEPARTSWITHRESPECTTOPRODUCIBILITY,ASSEMBILITY,AUTOMATICHANDLING,ANDTESTABILITYMATERIALS,FORMS,DIMENSIONALTOLERANCES,ANDWEIGHTSCQUALITYOFPARTSTOBEASSEMBLEDOUTOFTOLERANCEORDEFECTIVEPARTSCANCAUSEPRODUCTIONLOSSESANDINCREASECOSTSBECAUSEOFSTOPPAGESDAVAILABLITYOFQUALIYIED,TECHNICALLYCOMPETENTPERSONALTOBERESPONSIBLEFOREQUIPMENTOPERATIONETOTALPRODUCTIONANDPRODUCTIONRATEREQUIPMENTSPRODUCTVARIATIONSANDFREQUENCYOFDESIGNCHANGESFJOININGMETHODSREQUIREDGASSEMBLYTIMESANDCOSTSHASSEMBLYLINESORSYSTEMCONFIGURATION,USINGSIMULATION,INCLUDINGMATERIALHANDLING

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