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外文翻译--船舶焊接.doc

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外文翻译--船舶焊接.doc

WELDINGISTOENSURETHATTHESHIPOFTHESHIPANDTHESTRENGTHOFTHEKEYTHISPAPERDESCRIBESTHESHIPINTHEWELDINGOFSEVERALCOMMONREASONSFORTHESHORTCOMINGSANDPROPOSEPREVENTIVEMEASURESWELDINGISTOENSURETHATTHESHIPOFTHESHIPANDTHESTRENGTHOFTHEKEYISTOENSURETHATTHEKEYTOTHEQUALITYOFTHESHIP,ISTOENSURETHESAFETYOFSHIPSNAVIGATINGANDOPERATINGANIMPORTANTCONDITIONFORIFTHEREISAWELDINGDEFECT,ITMAYCAUSESTRUCTURALFAULTS,LEAKAGE,OREVENCAUSETHESHIPSANKACCORDINGTOTHESHIPBRITTLEFRACTUREACCIDENTINVESTIGATIONSHOWEDTHAT40PERCENTOFBRITTLEFRACTUREFROMTHEACCIDENTWASTHEBEGINNINGOFTHEWELDDEFECTSSHIPSINTHETOWNSHIPINSHIPBUILDING,SHIPTHEWELDINGQUALITYISPARTICULARLYPROMINENTINTHEINSPECTIONOFSHIPSINTHEPROCESSOFWELDINGTHETESTISPARTICULARLYIMPORTANTTHEREFORE,SHOULDTHEEARLYDETECTIONOFDEFECTS,THEWELDINGDEFECTSRESTRICTEDTOACERTAINEXTENT,TOENSURENAVIGATIONALSAFETYMANYTYPESOFSHIPWELDINGDEFECTS,ACCORDINGTOTHEIRDIFFERENTPOSITIONS,THEDEFECTSCANBEDIVIDEDINTOEXTERNALANDINTERNALDEFECTSDEFECTSHAVEPORES,SLAG,WELDINGCRACKS,LACKOFPENETRATION,NOTFUSION,WELDANDSHAPEOFDIMENSIONARENOTMET,THEBITINGEDGE,OFWELDING,SUCHASARCPITFIRSTSTOMATALPORESTOMATALPOREMEANSTHATTHEWELDING,BUBBLEBATHINTHESOLIDIFICATIONOFTHEFAILEDESCAPETHEHOLEFORMEDTHEMAINREASONTHEREHAVESTOMATAGROOVEEDGEOFDIRTY,WATER,OILANDXIUJI;ELECTRODEORNOTPROVISIONSOFCURINGFLUX,SOLDERORRUSTCORESKINDEGENERATION,SUCHASSPALLINGINADDITION,LOWHYDROGENWELDINGELECTRODE,THEARCISTOOLONG,WELDINGTOOFAST;SUBMERGEDARCWELDINGVOLTAGETOOHIGH,AREEASILYGENERATEDINTHEPROCESSOFWELDINGSTOMATABECAUSETHEPRESENCEOFPOROSITYSOTHATTHESEAMOFEFFECTIVECROSSSECTIONDECREASED,TOOLARGEPORESWILLREDUCETHESTRENGTHOFWELDS,THEDESTRUCTIONOFTHEWELDMETALDENSITYPREVENTIONISTOHAVEASTOMACHOOSETHERIGHTWELDINGCURRENTANDWELDINGSPEEDANDGROOVEEDGETOCLEANUPWATER,OILANDXIUJISTRICTLYINACCORDANCEWITHTHEREGULATIONSCUSTODY,CLEARINGANDCURINGWELDINGMATERIALSNOTTOUSEDEGENERATEELECTRODE,WHENTHESKINDEGENERATIONDRUGDISCOVERYELECTRODE,SPALLINGORWELDINGCORECORROSION,SHOULDSTRICTLYCONTROLTHEUSEOFSAW,SHOULDUSETHEAPPROPRIATEWELDINGPROCESSPARAMETERS,PARTICULARLYTHEPLATEAUTOMATICWELDING,WELDINGSPEEDSHOULDBEASSMALLASPOSSIBLEMORESENDCENT,SLAGSLAGISTHERESIDUEOFTHEWELDSLAGWELDSLAGWILLALSOREDUCETHEINTENSITYANDDENSITYASLAGISTHEMAINREASONFORWELDAEROBICCUTTINGEDGEOFGASORCARBONARCSHAVERRESIDUALSLAG;GROOVEANGLEORWELDINGCURRENTISTOOSMALL,TOOFASTORWELDINGACIDINTHEUSEOFELECTRODE,THECURRENTISTOOSMALLORBECAUSEOFIMPROPERTRANSPORTOFAPASTERESIDUETOUSEALKALINEELECTRODE,THEARCISTOOLONGORBECAUSEOFINCORRECTPOLARITYWILLCAUSETHESLAGASAWBACKCOVER,FROMWELDINGWIRECENTER,BUTALSOEASYTOSLAGFORMATIONPREVENTIONSLAGPRODUCEDTHEMEASURESARESELECTTHERIGHTGROOVESIZE,TOCLEANUPGROOVEEDGE,CHOOSETHERIGHTWELDINGCURRENTANDWELDINGSPEED,ANDTRANSPORTOFTHESWINGSHOULDBEAPPROPRIATEMULTIWELDING,SHOULDBECAREFULLYOBSERVEDGROOVEONBOTHSIDESOFMELTING,EACHLAYERMUSTBEWELDEDTOCLEANUPWELDINGSLAGBACKCOVERWELDINGSLAGSHOULDBETHOROUGHLYREMOVED,SAWATTENTIONSHOULDBEPAIDTOPREVENTTHESOLDERSIDETHIRD,BITE–WELDLEFTEDGEOFTHEDEPRESSION,KNOWNASTHEBITINGEDGEABITINGEDGEBECAUSETHEWELDINGCURRENTISTOOLARGE,YUNOFTHESPEEDANDARCWELDINGRODSTRETCHEDTOOLONGORINAPPROPRIATEANGLESAWWELDINGSPEEDTOOFASTORWELDERORBITCAUSESOFINEQUALITY,WILLCAUSETHEMELTINGOFWELDINGTOACERTAINDEPTH,ANDFILLEDWITHMETALALSOFAILEDTOFILLTHERESULTINGBITINGEDGEREDUCETHEBITINGEDGEOFTHEBASEMETALJOINTCROSSSECTIONOFWORK,THEREBYRESULTINGINTHEBITINGEDGEOFSTRESSCONCENTRATION,ITWASIMPORTANTTOTHESTRUCTUREORSTRUCTUREOFTHEDYNAMICLOAD,ISGENERALLYNOTALLOWEDTOBITEWHILETHERE,ORTOBITEDEPTHLIMITBITEPREVENTIONAPPROACHISCHOOSETHERIGHTOFTHEWELDINGCURRENTANDTRANSPORTPRACTICES,THEATTENTIONOFCONTROLATANYTIMEARCWELDINGRODANGLEANDLENGTH;SAWPROCESSPARAMETERSTOBEAPPROPRIATE,WITHSPECIALATTENTIONTOWELDINGSPEEDSHOULDNOTBETOOHIGH,WELDINGMACHINETOTRACKFORMATIONFOURTH,LACKOFPENETRATION,NOFUSIONWELDING,THEJOINTSWERENOTFULLYROOTPENETRATIONOFTHEPHENOMENON,KNOWNASTHELACKOFPENETRATIONINTHEWELDINGPIECESOFMETALANDWELDSEAMORAPARTIALLAYEROFPENETRATIONPHENOMENON,KNOWNASFUSIONDIDNOTLACKOFPENETRATIONORFUSIONISAMORESERIOUSFLAW,SINCELACKOFPENETRATIONORFUSION,WELDWILLAPPEARINTERMITTENTORMUTATION,WELDSTRENGTHGREATLYREDUCED,OREVENCAUSECRACKSTHEREFORE,INTHEHULLOFTHEIMPORTANTPARTSOFTHESTRUCTUREDOESNOTALLOWEXISTENCEOFLACKOFPENETRATION,THESITUATIONISNOTFUSIONLACKOFPENETRATIONANDFUSIONISNOTTHECAUSEOFTHEWELDINGASSEMBLYSPACEORSLOPEARGUMENTOFSMALL,BLUNTTHICK,TOOMUCHELECTRODEDIAMETER,THECURRENTISTOOSMALL,TOOFASTANDTOOLONGARC,ANDSOONWELDMENTGROOVESURFACEOXIDEFILM,OIL,ANDSODIDNOTREMOVECLEAN,ORWHENITFLOWSINTHEWELDINGOFMETALSLAGHINDERTHETRANSPORTOFTHEFUSIONORIMPROPERPRACTICES,THEARCINTHEGROOVEWHILEPARTIALANDOTHERREASONS,WILLNOTCAUSETHEEDGEFUSIONPREVENTTHELACKOFPENETRATIONORFUSIONAPPROACHISTHERIGHTSIZESELECTEDGROOVE,AREASONABLECHOICEOFWELDINGCURRENTANDSPEED,GROOVEANDTHESURFACEOFSKINTOREMOVEOILPOLLUTIONCLEAN;BACKCOVERWELDINGROOTSTHOROUGHLY,ANDTRANSPORTOFTHESWINGSHOULDBEAPPROPRIATE,PAYCLOSEATTENTIONTOSLOPEIFUSIONONBOTHSIDESOFTHESITUATIONFIFTH,WELDINGCRACKSWELDINGCRACKISAVERYSERIOUSSHORTCOMINGSMOREFROMTHEDESTRUCTIONOFTHECRACKS,INTHEPROCESSOFWELDINGTOTAKEALLNECESSARYMEASURESTOPREVENTTHEEMERGENCEOFCRACKINTHEWELDINGUSEDVARIOUSMETHODSTOCHECKFORCRACKSFOUNDACRACK,SHOULDBEREMOVED,ANDTHENTOREPAIRWELDINGCRACKAHOTCRACK,CRACKCOLDWELDMETALFROMLIQUIDTOSOLIDINTHECRYSTALLIZATIONPROCESSKNOWNASTHECRACKOFCRACK,ITSCHARACTERISTICISTHATIMMEDIATELYAFTERTHEWELDING,ANDMOREINTHECENTERSEAMALONGTHESEAMLENGTHOFTHEDISTRIBUTIONHEATCRACKSTHESURFACETHROUGHOUTMOSTOFTHEGAP,SHOWINGOFCOLOR,SLIGHTLYCRACKTHEENDOFROUNDAHOTCRACKINTHEWELDPOOLBECAUSETHEREARELOWMELTINGPOINTIMPURITIESSUCHASFES,ETCASARESULTOFTHESEIMPURITIESLOWMELTINGPOINT,CRYSTALSOLIDIFIEDTHELATEST,AFTERTHESOLIDIFICATIONOFPLASTICANDINTENSITYISVERYLOWBECAUSETHIS,INTHESTRUCTUREOFBINDINGSTRESSENOUGHTHEOUTSIDEWORLDANDTHESOLIDIFICATIONOFTHEWELDMETALCONTRACTION,THEPOOLOFLOWMELTINGPOINTOFTHESEIMPURITIESINTHESOLIDIFICATIONPROCESSWASSTARTED,ORSHORTLYAFTERBEINGOPENEDCOAGULATION,RESULTINGINCRACKSBETWEENTHECRYSTALWELDINGELECTRODE,ANDPIECESOFSULPHUR,COPPERANDOTHERIMPURITIESINALONGTIME,BUTALSOEASYTOPRODUCETHERMALCRACKSPREVENTHOTCRACKTHEMEASURESAREASFOLLOWS1TOSTRICTLYCONTROLTHEWELDINGPROCESSPARAMETERS,SLOWDOWNTHECOOLINGRATE,TOINCREASEWELDSHAPEFACTOR,ASFARASPOSSIBLE,USINGSMALLCURRENTMULTICHANNELMULTIWELDING,INORDERTOAVOIDWELDCRACKSCENTREANDTHEOTHERISSERIOUSLYTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFAPOINTOFORDER,SELECTAREASONABLEWELDINGPROCESS,WELDINGTOREDUCESTRESSWELDMETALINTHECOOLINGPROCESSORCOOLING,THEBASEMETALORINTHEBASEMETALANDWELDTHEJUNCTIONOFTHEFUSIONLINEKNOWNASTHECOLDCRACKCRACKSUCHCRACKSARELIKELYTOARISEIMMEDIATELYAFTERTHEWELDINGISALSOPOSSIBLEINAFEWHOURSAFTERWELDING,AFEWDAYSOREVENLONGERBEFORETHERECOLDCRACKTHEMAINREASONFOR1THEROLEOFHEATCYCLE,THEHEATAFFECTEDZONEGENERATEDHARDENEDORGANIZATIONS,2AWELDINTHEEXCESSIVEPROLIFERATIONOFHYDROGEN,ANDHASACONCENTRATIONOFTHECONDITIONS3JOINTBEARBINDINGAGREATERSTRESSPREVENTTHECOLDCRACKMEASURESARE1CHOICEOFLOWHYDROGENELECTRODE,INTHEWELDTOREDUCETHESPREADOFTHECONTENTOFHYDROGEN,2STRICTLYABIDEBYTHEWELDINGMATERIALSELECTRODE,FLUXCUSTODY,BAKING,USETHESYSTEM,GUARDAGAINSTEXPOSEDTOMOISTURE,3CAREFULLYCLEANINGUPSLOPEIEDGEOFTHEOILPOLLUTION,WATERANDXIUJI,TOREDUCETHESOURCESOFHYDROGEN,4ACCORDINGTOMATERIALGRADESOFCARBONEQUIVALENT,COMPONENTTHICKNESS,THEENVIRONMENT,SUCHASWELDING,AREASONABLECHOICEOFTHEWELDINGPROCESSPARAMETERSANDENERGYLINES,SUCHASWELDINGBEFOREPREHEATING,SOLDERAFTERTHECOLDEASE,TAKINGMULTICHANNELMULTIWELDING,ACERTAINLEVELOFCONTROLTEMPERATURE,5AFTERTHEHEATEMERGENCYTREATMENTTODEHYDROGENASE,TOELIMINATETHESTRESSANDTEMPERHARDENEDORGANIZATIONS,TOIMPROVEJOINTTOUGHNESS;6THEREASONABLEUSEOFWELDINGPROCEDURES,THEUSEOFSUBRETREATLAW,SUCHASWELDING,ANDWELDINGTOREDUCESTRESSSIXTH,OTHERFLAWSWELDINGISALSOCOMMONTOANUMBEROFWELDING,ARCWELDINGPITANDONTHEEXTERNALDIMENSIONSANDSHAPEOFTHEDEFECTAWELDINGOFTHEMAINREASONSISTHEUNEVENDISTRIBUTIONOFTRANSPORT,RESULTINGPOOLTEMPERATUREISTOOHIGH,THELIQUIDMETALSOLIDIFIEDSLOWLYFALLING,THUSFORMEDONTHESURFACEOFTHEWELDMETALANEURYSMLI,YANGWELDING,THEUSEOFTOOMUCHCURRENTANDARCWELDING,BUTALSOLIKELYTOBEOFWELDINGHANGGENERATEDARCISPUTOUTTHEREASONSFORTHEARCOFTIMEISTOOSHORT,ORWELDINGSUDDENLYINTERRUPTEDORWHENTHECURRENTWELDINGPLATETOOMUCH,ANDSOONWELDINGSEAMSURFACEAPPEARANCEOFINFLUENCE,ANDEASYTOCREATEFOLDERSSURFACEJAVA;ARCPITSANDCRACKSAREOFTENACCOMPANIEDPORES,SERIOUSLYWEAKENEDWELDINGSTRENGTHPREVENTWELDINGOFTHEMAINMEASURESTOSTRICTLYCONTROLTHEPOOLTEMPERATURE,LI,YANGWELDING,WELDINGCURRENTRATIOSHOULDBE1015PERCENTOFSMALLWELDING,THEUSEOFALKALINEELECTRODE,SHOULDBEUSEDSHORTARCWELDING,ANDMAINTAINUNIFORMITYOFTRANSPORTHANGPREVENTARCISTHEMAINMEASURESINHANDTOARCWELDING,WELDINGRODSHOULDSTAYFORASHORTPERIODOFTIMEORFORSEVERALOFTHERINGSHIPPEDSOMESHORTCOMINGSOFTHEEXISTENCEOFTHESAFETYOFSHIPSNAVIGATINGISVERYDANGEROUS,ONCEDISCOVEREDDEFECTSSHOULDBEPROMPTLYAMENDEDTHEPOROSITYOFTHEAMENDMENTS,PARTICULARLYFORINTERNALPORES,TOCONFIRMLOCATION,APPLICATIONOFWINDSPADEORCARBONARCSHAVERCLEARALLTHEPOROSITYDEFICIENCIESANDTOACORRESPONDINGGROOVE,AND

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