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外文翻译--设计.doc

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外文翻译--设计.doc

附录11THENATUREOFDESIGNWESTARTWITHABASICASSUMPTIONABOUTDESIGN.DESIGNISAPURPOSEFULACTIVITY.WEHAVEINMINDSOMEIDEAOFADESIREDSTATE.DESIGNINVOLVESACONSCIOUSEFFORT.TOARRIVE.ATASTATEOFAFFAIRSINWHICHCERTAINCHARACTERISTICSAREEVIDENT.THEREALIZATIONTHATASHARPENEDPIECEOFWOODPICKEDUPFROMTHEGROUNDCANBEUSEDTOPENETRATEOTHEROBJECTSDOESNOTCONSTITUTEANACTOFDESIGN.THEREALIZATIONTHATIFABLUNTPIECEOFWOODISSHARPENEDITCANBEUSEDTOPENETRATEOTHEROBJECTS,HOWEVERCONSTITUTESARUDIMENTARYDESIGNACT.THELATTERPROCESSISESSENTIALLYPURPOSEFUL,WHILETHEFORMERISOPPORTUNISTIC.DESIGNISALSOTHEPROCESSOFORIGINATINGSYSTEMSANDPREDICTINGHOWTHESESYSTEMSWILLFULFILLOBJECTIVES.WHENWEDESIGNWEHAVEANENDINMIND,BUTTHISENDDOESNOTCONSTITUTETHEFINALARTIFACT.THEDESIGNISMERELYADESCRIPTIONOFTHEARTIFACTFROMWHICHPREDICTIONSOFPERFORMANCECANBEMADE.ADESIGNISTHEREFOREANABSTRACTION,PROVIDINGADESCRIPTIONOFANARTIFACTTHECANBEINTERPRETEDBYSOMEOTHERAGENTFORPURPOSESOFMANUFACTUREORCONSTRUCTION1.INTRODUCTIONTOKNOWLEDGEBASEDDESIGNADESIGNCANTHEREFORECONSISTOFASETOFINSTRUCTIONSORSOMEOTHERABSTRACTIONSUITABLEF0,INTERPRETATIONANDREALIZATIONASAPHYSICALARTIFACT.MORESPECIFICALLY,DESIGNHASBEENUSEFULLYDESCRIBEDASAGOALDIRECTEDACTIVITYTHATINVOLVESTHEMAKINGOFDECISIONSARCHER1969.WECANTRANSLATETHISDEFINITIONINTOTHEPROCESSOFPRODUCINGASETOFDESCRIPTIONSOFANLATETHISDEFINITIONINTOTHEPROCESSOFPRODUCINGASETOFDESCRIPTIONSOFANARTIFACTTHATSATISFYASETOFGIVENPERFORMANCEREQUIREMENTSANDCONSTRAINTS.DESIGNBEGINSWITHTHEREALIZATIONOFNEEDDISSATISFACTIONWITHEXISTINGCONDITIONSANDAREALIZATIONTHATSOMECOURSEOFACTIONMUSTBETAKEN.AGOALISSET,THEPURPOSEOFWHICHISTOATTAINASTATEOFSATISFACTIONINRESPONSETOTHENEED,ANDTHEABILITYTOSETGOALSANDPLANFORTHEIRATTAINMENTISAPOWERFULANDESSENTIALHUMANCAPABILITY.WECANEVENSTRIVEFORGOALSTHATCANNOTBEREALIZED,SUCHASTHEPOTOFGOLDATTHERAINBOW’SEND.EVENGRANTINGTHISASSUMPTIONABOUTTHEPRIMACYOFGOALSINDESIGN,WEAREATONLYTHEEDGEOFUNDERSTANDINGWHATDESIGNIS.FORASTART,WEOFTENFINDITSPECIFYTHENATUREOFTHEDESIREDSTATE.GOALSTHEMSELVESARETHEPRODUCTSOFPROCESSESTHATARELITTLEUNDERSTOOD.ASTRONGDETERMINANTOFTHEGOALSWESETISOURSYSTEMOFVALUESTHEFRAMEWORKSFOROURMODELSOFREALITY,OURAPPRECIATIONOFWHATISWORTHSTRIVINGFOR.THESEVARYFROMCULTURETOCULTUREANDBETWEENINDIVIDUALS.ANDINDIVIDUALSARENOTAVERSETOCHANGINGTHEIRVALUESYSTEMSTOSUITCHANGESINSITUATION.EVENWITHINAPARTICULARCULTUREANDGIVENAPARTICULARGOALWITHWHICHMOSTWOULDAGREESUCHASTHE‘PUBLICGOOD’’ITISUNLIKELYTHATEVERYONEWOULDINTERPRETTHATGOALINQUITETHESAMEWAY.DIFFERENTDESIGNERSWOULDSETDIFFERENTOBJECTIVES.GIVENANAGREEMENTONOBJECTIVES,FEWERWOULDAGREEONTHEWAYTOREACHTHESEOBJECTIVES.FURTHERMORE,GOALSAPPEARTOBEAPRODUCTOFWHATISPOSSIBLE.GOALSRARELYBEHAVEASAUTONOMOUSENTITIES,EACHOFWHICHCANBEREALIZEDINDEPENDENTLY.GOALSINTERACT.WEOFTENCANNOTKNOWWHATISPOSSIBLEUNTILWEHAVEUNDERTAKENSOMEKINDOFEXPLORATION.DESIGNSOMETIMESAPPEARSASANACTIVITYOFEXPLORATION,INWHICHPARTIALRESPONSESLEADTOTHEREDEFINITIONOFGOALSBILL1987.DESIGNALSOAPPEARSTOBEILLSTRUCTUREDINTHESENSETHATTHEREISNOSTRAIGHTFORWARDPROCESSTOBEFOLLOWED.ADESIGNERMAYSTARTWITHGOALSANDWORKTOWARDTHEDESIGNOFOBJECTSTHATWILLSATISFYTHESEGOALS。ORMAYBEGINWITHTHEOBJECTSANDCHECKWHETHERTHEPROPERTIESOFTHESEOBJECTSMATCHTHOSEOFTHEREQUIREMENTS。THISMAYINVOLVEA“TOPDOWN”APPROACH,A”BOTTOMUP”APPROACH,OFACOMBINATIONOFAPPROACHES.TOSOLVEAPROBLEMOFANYSIZEANDCOMPLEXITY,MANYAPPROACHESWILLBEATTEMPTED,PERHAPSINPARALLEL.THEREALSOAPPEARSTOBENOFIXEDSTARTINGPOINT.ADESIGNERMAYFOLLOWACERTAINLINEORMAYATTACKTHEPROBLEMATDIFFERENTPOINTS.OFCOURSE,GOALSARENOTTHEONLYMEANSOFDECIDINGONTHEFORMOFANARTIFACT.DESIGNSOFTENAPPEARTOBEARESPONSETOSOMEINVISIBLESYSTEMOFCONVENTIONSASMUCHASTOSTATEDOBJECTIVES.SOMECONVENTIONS,OFTENREFERREDTOASSTYLE,MAYBEPECULIARTOINDIVIDUALDESIGNERS,SAVINGTHEMFROMAGREATDEALOFREINVENTION.BUTDESIGNSTYLEISINEVIDENCEASMUCHINTHEWAYCOMPONENTSAREFITTEDTOGETHERINTHEOUTSIDEFORMOFTHEBODYOFTHECAR.WEMUSTUNDERSTANDHOWTOACCOUNTFOR.THISPHENOMENONINCOMPUTERAIDEDDESIGN.1.2MODELSOFDESIGNHOWWEADDRESSTHENATUREOFDESIGNINCOMPUTERAIDEDDESIGNDEPENDSONTHEMODELSWEEMPLOYTODESCRIBEDESIGN.INTHISSECTIONWECONSIDERTHEROLEOFMODELS,ALSOREVIEWINGSOMEINFLUENTIALMODELSTHATASSISTINBRINGINGDESIGNANDCOMPUTERSYSTEMSTOGETHER.PROBLEMSARISEINATTEMPTINGTOFORMALIZEDESIGN.COMPAREDWITHMANYOTHERDISCIPLINES,OURUNDERSTANDINGOFDESIGNISATAFLEDGINGSTAGE.INTHISBOOKTHESCIENCESOFTHEARTIFICIAL,SIMON1969ARGUEDTHATSUCHATHINGASTHE‘SCIENCEOFDESIGN”ISPOSSIBLE,IFNOTYETREALIZED.IFWEACCEPTTHATSOMEDAYWEWILLBEABLETOTALKINTERMSOFWELLESTABLISHEDTHEORIESANDPRACTICES,THENWEMUSTALSOCONCEDETHATTHESTUDYOFDESIGNISCURRENTLYATA‘PRESCIENCE”PHASE.THISISTHETERMINOLOGYOFKUHN1970,WHOARGUESTHATASCIENCEMUSTPASSTHROUGHSEVERALPHASESBEFOREITCONSTITUTESAFORMALDISCIPLINE.MATURESCIENCEISTHATSTATEOFADISCIPLINEINWHICHTHEREISACOHERENTTRADITIONOFSCIENTIFICRESEARCHANDPRACTICE,EMBODYINGLAW,THEORY,APPLICATION,ANDINSTRUMENTATION.IFWESEEKTHISKINDOFMATURITY,WECANTAKECONSOLATIONFROMTHEPATTERNSETBYOTHERDISCIPLINESTHATHAVEBLOSSOMEDINTOFULLFLEDGEDSCIENCES.THEREARETWOMAJORAPPROACHESTOINCREASINGUNDERSTANDINGINAPARTICULARDISCIPLINECASESTUDIESANDMODELS.THECASESTUDYAPPROACHWASPREVALENTINSUCHFOUNDLINGSUBJECTSASEARLYPSYCHOLOGY,PRIORTOTHEESTABLISHMENTOFANYAPPROPRIATEEXPERIMENTALMETHODCASESTUDIESAREPARTICULARLYPREVALENTINDISCUSSIONSOFARCHITECTURALANDENGINEERINGDESIGN.SOMEDESIGNPHENOMENON,SUCHASTHEDESIGNOFAPARTICULARBUILDING,ISOBSERVEDANDANALYZED,PERHAPSINANATTEMPTTOEXTRACTGENERALPRINCIPLES.INTHEABSENCEOFACLEARTHEORYOFWHATISGOINGON,THEREISAHEAVYRELIANCEONINTERPRETATION.THISAPPROACHISALSOPREVALENTINCOMPUTERAIDEDDESIGNRESEARCH,WHEREITISCOMMONFIRSTTODEVISEACOMPUTERAPPLICATIONONTHEBASISOFUNCERTAINPRINCIPLES,ANDTHENASSESSTHEVALUEOFTHEOPERATIONINRETROSPECT.THESECONDAPPROACHISARELIANCEONMODELS.HEREWECONSIDERMODELSASLIMITEDABSTRACTIONSOFPARTICULARPHENOMENA,LESSAMBITIOUSTHANTHEORIES.WHEREASTHEORIESATTEMPTTOEXPLAINOBSERVEDPHENOMENAANDPREDICTBEHAVIORSTHATARESOMEHOWCONNECTING,MODELSARECONTENTWITHEXPLANATIONANDPREDICTIONWITHINASUBSETOFCONNECTED.INPHYSICSTHEREEXISTAWAVEMODELANDAPARTICLEMODELFORTHEBEHAVIOROFLIGHT.ONITSOWN,NEITHERMODELGIVESAWHOLLYSATISFACTORYEXPLANATIONOFTHEBEHAVIOROFLIGHT.INDESIGN,THEREFORE,WEMUSTBECONTENTWITHMODELTHATACCOUNTFOR‘DESIGNBEHAVIOR.’’THEYENABLEUSTOEXPLAINANDPREDICTCERTAINPHENOMENA,BUTWEMAYHAVETOPOSITMORETHANONEMODELANDTHESEMODELSMAYAPPEARCONTRADICTORY.,INTHISBOOKBOTHAPPROACHESTHEUSEOFCASESTUDIESANDTHEEXPLORATIONOFDESIGNMODELSAREINEVIDENCE,THOUGHWEFAVORTHELATTER.ONEOFTHEPROBLEMSWITHTHECURRENTSTATEOFDESIGNUNDERSTANDING,OFCOURSE,ISTHATWEARENOTEVENSUREIFWEAREONTHEROADTOAMATURESCIENCE.WECANNOTKNOWFORCERTAINUNTILWEGETTHERE.SOMESAYTHATWECANNOTINHERITTHECREDIBILITYOFSCIENCEBYCLAIMINGTHATOURSTUDYISAPRESCIENCE.INTHISCASEWECANARGUEFORMODELSOFDESIGNONLYFROMAPRAGMATICPOINTOFVIEW.THEARGUMENTGOESSOMETHINGLIKETHIS.DESIGNISAHUMANACTIVITYTHATELUDESFORMALDESCRIPTION.WEWISHTOUSECOMPUTERSTOASSISTINTHEDESIGNPROCESS.COMPUTERSOPERATEONLYWITHFORMAL,REPEATABLE,ANDRIGOROUSLYDEFINEDPROCESSES.IFWEREQUIREACOMPUTERSYSTEMTOSIMULATESOMEKINDOFDESI2NBEHAVIORTHENWEMUSTFORMULATEMODELSIMPERFECTASTHEYMAYBEOFTHEDESIGNPROCESS.THEMODELSMAYHAVEVERYLITTLEVALUEASDESCRIPTIONSOFHUMANPROCESSES.THEYSERVEOURPURPOSE,HOWEVER,IFTHEYRESULTINUSEFULSYSTEMSTHATFITINTOADESIGNEROMODEOFOPERATION.WESHOULDNOTASSUMETHATTHEREISANEATDEFINITIONOFWHATCONSTITUTESTHEORIESOFQUANTUMPHYSICS,THEREISRATHERLESSAGREEMENTABOUTSCIENCEITSELFCHARMERS,1982.THESTUDYOFSCIENCEISNOT,INITSELF,ASCIENCE.FROMTHEFIELDOFDESIGNRESEARCHER,CROSS,HAUGHTON,ANDWALKERHAVESUGGESTEDTHAT,SINCETHEREISNOTYETANYUNIFORMUNDERSTANDINGOFSCIENCE,ITISNOTPRUDENTTOLOOKTOASCIENCEOFDESIGN.THEYBELIEVETHATDESERTBELONGSTOTHEREALMOFTECHNOLOGY,ORAPPLIEDSCIENCE.BUTWENEEDNOTACHIEVEASCIENCEOFDESIGNBEFOREOURMODELSAREUSEFULTOUS.VARIOUSVIEWSOFDESIGNANDTHEIRORIGINSWITHINTHEDISCIPLINESOFSCIENCE,PROBLEMSOLVING,LOGIC,ANDLANGUAGETHEORY.FOROURPURPOSESITISSUFFICIENTTOCALLUPONTHESEDISCIPLINESTOPROVIDEANALOGIES.INSOMECASESITISHELPFULTODISCUSSTHEDEVELOPMENTOFADESIGNINTHESAMEWAYTHATWETALKABOUTTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHEORIESINSCIENCE.INOTHERCASESITISUSEFULTOTREATDESIGNASAPHENOMENONEXPLAINABLEINTERMSOFLOGIC.INSTILLOTHERSADESIGNEDOBJECTMAYBETREATEDADASTATEMENTINSOMECOMPLICATED,MULTIDIMENSIONALLANGUAGESYSTEM.WHETHERORNOTDESIGNISANYOFTHESETHINGSISANINTERESTINGISSUE,BUTONETHATNEEDNOTBERESOLVEDBEFORETACKINGTHEPRAGMATICSOFCREATINGUSEFULCOMPUTERSYSTEMS.BEFOREWESUMMARIZEDIFFERENTMODELSOFDESIGN,ITISWORTHREFLECTINGONTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENSCIENCEANDDESIGN.WECANMAKEPREDICTIONSINSCIENCEBYTHEAPPLICATIONOFTHEORIES.THEPROCESSOFPREDICATIONISRELATIVELYSTRAIGHTFORWARD,

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