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外文翻译--设计.doc

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外文翻译--设计.doc

附录1.1TheNatureofDesignWestartwithabasicassumptionaboutdesign.Designisapurposefulactivity.Wehaveinmindsomeideaofadesiredstate.Designinvolvesaconsciouseffort.Toarrive.atastateofaffairsinwhichcertaincharacteristicsareevident.Therealizationthatasharpenedpieceofwoodpickedupfromthegroundcanbeusedtopenetrateotherobjectsdoesnotconstituteanactofdesign.Therealizationthatifabluntpieceofwoodissharpeneditcanbeusedtopenetrateotherobjects,howeverconstitutesarudimentarydesignact.Thelatterprocessisessentiallypurposeful,whiletheformerisopportunistic.Designisalsotheprocessoforiginatingsystemsandpredictinghowthesesystemswillfulfillobjectives.Whenwedesignwehaveanendinmind,butthisenddoesnotconstitutethefinalartifact.Thedesignismerelyadescriptionoftheartifactfromwhichpredictionsofperformancecanbemade.Adesignisthereforeanabstraction,providingadescriptionofanartifactthecanbeinterpretedbysomeotheragentforpurposesofmanufactureorconstruction1.IntroductiontoKnowledgeBasedDesignAdesigncanthereforeconsistofasetofinstructionsorsomeotherabstractionsuitablef0,interpretationandrealizationasaphysicalartifact.Morespecifically,designhasbeenusefullydescribedasagoaldirectedactivitythatinvolvesthemakingofdecisionsArcher1969.Wecantranslatethisdefinitionintotheprocessofproducingasetofdescriptionsofanlatethisdefinitionintotheprocessofproducingasetofdescriptionsofanartifactthatsatisfyasetofgivenperformancerequirementsandconstraints.Designbeginswiththerealizationofneeddissatisfactionwithexistingconditionsandarealizationthatsomecourseofactionmustbetaken.Agoalisset,thepurposeofwhichistoattainastateofsatisfactioninresponsetotheneed,andtheabilitytosetgoalsandplanfortheirattainmentisapowerfulandessentialhumancapability.Wecanevenstriveforgoalsthatcannotberealized,suchasthepotofgoldattherainbowsend.Evengrantingthisassumptionabouttheprimacyofgoalsindesign,weareatonlytheedgeofunderstandingwhatdesignis.Forastart,weoftenfinditspecifythenatureofthedesiredstate.Goalsthemselvesaretheproductsofprocessesthatarelittleunderstood.Astrongdeterminantofthegoalswesetisoursystemofvaluestheframeworksforourmodelsofreality,ourappreciationofwhatisworthstrivingfor.Thesevaryfromculturetocultureandbetweenindividuals.Andindividualsarenotaversetochangingtheirvaluesystemstosuitchangesinsituation.Evenwithinaparticularcultureandgivenaparticulargoalwithwhichmostwouldagreesuchasthepublicgooditisunlikelythateveryonewouldinterpretthatgoalinquitethesameway.Differentdesignerswouldsetdifferentobjectives.Givenanagreementonobjectives,fewerwouldagreeonthewaytoreachtheseobjectives.Furthermore,goalsappeartobeaproductofwhatispossible.Goalsrarelybehaveasautonomousentities,eachofwhichcanberealizedindependently.Goalsinteract.Weoftencannotknowwhatispossibleuntilwehaveundertakensomekindofexploration.Designsometimesappearsasanactivityofexploration,inwhichpartialresponsesleadtotheredefinitionofgoalsBill1987.Designalsoappearstobeillstructuredinthesensethatthereisnostraightforwardprocesstobefollowed.Adesignermaystartwithgoalsandworktowardthedesignofobjectsthatwillsatisfythesegoals。ormaybeginwiththeobjectsandcheckwhetherthepropertiesoftheseobjectsmatchthoseoftherequirements。Thismayinvolveatopdownapproach,abottomupapproach,ofacombinationofapproaches.Tosolveaproblemofanysizeandcomplexity,manyapproacheswillbeattempted,perhapsinparallel.Therealsoappearstobenofixedstartingpoint.Adesignermayfollowacertainlineormayattacktheproblematdifferentpoints.ofcourse,goalsarenottheonlymeansofdecidingontheformofanartifact.Designsoftenappeartobearesponsetosomeinvisiblesystemofconventionsasmuchastostatedobjectives.Someconventions,oftenreferredtoasstyle,Maybepeculiartoindividualdesigners,savingthemfromagreatdealofreinvention.Butdesignstyleisinevidenceasmuchinthewaycomponentsarefittedtogetherintheoutsideformofthebodyofthecar.Wemustunderstandhowtoaccountfor.thisphenomenonincomputeraideddesign.1.2ModelsofDesignHowweaddressthenatureofdesignincomputeraideddesigndependsonthemodelsweemploytodescribedesign.Inthissectionweconsidertheroleofmodels,alsoreviewingsomeinfluentialmodelsthatassistinbringingdesignandcomputersystemstogether.Problemsariseinattemptingtoformalizedesign.Comparedwithmanyotherdisciplines,ourunderstandingofdesignisatafledgingstage.InthisbookTheSciencesoftheArtificial,Simon1969arguedthatsuchathingasthescienceofdesignispossible,ifnotyetrealized.Ifweacceptthatsomedaywewillbeabletotalkintermsofwellestablishedtheoriesandpractices,thenwemustalsoconcedethatthestudyofdesigniscurrentlyatapresciencephase.ThisistheterminologyofKuhn1970,whoarguesthatasciencemustpassthroughseveralphasesbeforeitconstitutesaformaldiscipline.Maturescienceisthatstateofadisciplineinwhichthereisacoherenttraditionofscientificresearchandpractice,embodyinglaw,theory,application,andinstrumentation.Ifweseekthiskindofmaturity,wecantakeconsolationfromthepatternsetbyotherdisciplinesthathaveblossomedintofullfledgedsciences.Therearetwomajorapproachestoincreasingunderstandinginaparticulardisciplinecasestudiesandmodels.Thecasestudyapproachwasprevalentinsuchfoundlingsubjectsasearlypsychology,priortotheestablishmentofanyappropriateexperimentalmethodCasestudiesareparticularlyprevalentindiscussionsofarchitecturalandengineeringdesign.Somedesignphenomenon,suchasthedesignofaparticularbuilding,isobservedandanalyzed,perhapsinanattempttoextractgeneralprinciples.Intheabsenceofacleartheoryofwhatisgoingon,thereisaheavyrelianceoninterpretation.Thisapproachisalsoprevalentincomputeraideddesignresearch,whereitiscommonfirsttodeviseacomputerapplicationonthebasisofuncertainprinciples,andthenassessthevalueoftheoperationinretrospect.Thesecondapproachisarelianceonmodels.Hereweconsidermodelsaslimitedabstractionsofparticularphenomena,lessambitiousthantheories.Whereastheoriesattempttoexplainobservedphenomenaandpredictbehaviorsthataresomehowconnecting,modelsarecontentwithexplanationandpredictionwithinasubsetofconnected.Inphysicsthereexistawavemodelandaparticlemodelforthebehavioroflight.Onitsown,neithermodelgivesawhollysatisfactoryexplanationofthebehavioroflight.Indesign,therefore,wemustbecontentwithmodelthataccountfordesignbehavior.Theyenableustoexplainandpredictcertainphenomena,butwemayhavetopositmorethanonemodelandthesemodelsmayappearcontradictory.,Inthisbookbothapproachestheuseofcasestudiesandtheexplorationofdesignmodelsareinevidence,thoughwefavorthelatter.Oneoftheproblemswiththecurrentstateofdesignunderstanding,ofcourse,isthatwearenotevensureifweareontheroadtoamaturescience.Wecannotknowforcertainuntilwegetthere.Somesaythatwecannotinheritthecredibilityofsciencebyclaimingthatourstudyisaprescience.Inthiscasewecanargueformodelsofdesignonlyfromapragmaticpointofview.Theargumentgoessomethinglikethis.Designisahumanactivitythateludesformaldescription.Wewishtousecomputerstoassistinthedesignprocess.Computersoperateonlywithformal,repeatable,andrigorouslydefinedprocesses.Ifwerequireacomputersystemtosimulatesomekindofdesi2nbehaviorthenwemustformulatemodelsimperfectastheymaybeofthedesignprocess.Themodelsmayhaveverylittlevalueasdescriptionsofhumanprocesses.Theyserveourpurpose,however,iftheyresultinusefulsystemsthatfitintoadesigneromodeofoperation.Weshouldnotassumethatthereisaneatdefinitionofwhatconstitutestheoriesofquantumphysics,thereisratherlessagreementaboutscienceitselfCharmers,1982.Thestudyofscienceisnot,initself,ascience.Fromthefieldofdesignresearcher,Cross,Haughton,andWalkerhavesuggestedthat,sincethereisnotyetanyuniformunderstandingofscience,itisnotprudenttolooktoascienceofdesign.Theybelievethatdesertbelongstotherealmoftechnology,orappliedscience.Butweneednotachieveascienceofdesignbeforeourmodelsareusefultous.Variousviewsofdesignandtheiroriginswithinthedisciplinesofscience,problemsolving,logic,andlanguagetheory.Forourpurposesitissufficienttocalluponthesedisciplinestoprovideanalogies.Insomecasesitishelpfultodiscussthedevelopmentofadesigninthesamewaythatwetalkaboutthedevelopmentoftheoriesinscience.Inothercasesitisusefultotreatdesignasaphenomenonexplainableintermsoflogic.Instillothersadesignedobjectmaybetreatedadastatementinsomecomplicated,multidimensionallanguagesystem.Whetherornotdesignisanyofthesethingsisaninterestingissue,butonethatneednotberesolvedbeforetackingthepragmaticsofcreatingusefulcomputersystems.Beforewesummarizedifferentmodelsofdesign,itisworthreflectingontherelationshipbetweenscienceanddesign.Wecanmakepredictionsinsciencebytheapplicationoftheories.Theprocessofpredicationisrelativelystraightforward,

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