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外文翻译--钢筋混凝土结构设计.doc

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外文翻译--钢筋混凝土结构设计.doc

武汉科技大学本科毕业设计外文翻译1DesignofReinforcedConcreteStructuresSecondEditionUSAWilliamsAlan2StructureinDesignofArchitectureAndStructuralMaterial,ChinaWaterPowerPress,Beijing,2002.P37~57钢筋混凝土结构设计第二版美艾伦威廉斯著第二章,在建筑学的设计构成和结构的材料,中国水利水电出版社,北京,2002.P37页~57页.武汉科技大学本科毕业设计外文翻译2StructureinDesignofArchitectureAndStructuralMaterialWehaveandthearchitectsmustdealwiththespatialaspectofactivity,physical,andsymbolicneedsinsuchawaythatoverallperformanceintegrityisassured.Hence,heorshewellwantstothinkofevolvingabuildingenvironmentasatotalsystemofinteractingandspaceformingsubsystems.Isrepresentsacomplexchallenge,andtomeetitthearchitectwillneedahierarchicdesignprocessthatprovidesatleastthreelevelsoffeedbackthinkingschematic,preliminary,andfinal.Suchahierarchyisnecessaryifheorsheistoavoidbeingconfused,atconceptualstagesofdesignthinking,bythemyriaddetailissuesthatcandistractattentionfrommorebasicconsiderations.Infact,wecansaythatanarchitectsabilitytodistinguishthemorebasicformthemoredetailedissuesisessentialtohissuccessasadesigner.Theobjectoftheschematicfeedbacklevelistogenerateandevaluateoverallsiteplan,activityinteraction,andbuildingconfigurationoptions.Todosothearchitectmustbeabletofocusontheinteractionofthebasicattributesofthesitecontext,thespatialorganization,andthesymbolismasdeterminantsofphysicalform.Thismeansthat,inschematicterms,thearchitectmayfirstconceiveandmodelabuildingdesignasanorganizationalabstractionofessentialperformancespaceinteractions.Thenheorshemayexploretheoverallspaceformimplicationsoftheabstraction.Asanactualbuildingconfigurationoptionbeginstoemerge,itwillbemodifiedtoincludeconsiderationforbasicsiteconditions.Attheschematicstage,itwouldalsobehelpfulifthedesignercouldvisualizehisorheroptionsforachievingoverallstructuralintegrityandconsidertheconstructivefeasibilityandeconomicofhisorherscheme.Butthiswillrequirethatthearchitectand/oraconsultantbeabletoconceptualizetotalsystemstructuraloptionsintermsofelementaldetail.Suchoverallthinkingcanbe武汉科技大学本科毕业设计外文翻译3easilyfedbacktoimprovethespaceformscheme.Atthepreliminarylevel,thearchitectsemphasiswillshifttotheelaborationofhisorhermorepromisingschematicdesignoptions.Herethearchitectsstructuralneedswillshifttoapproximatedesignofspecificsubsystemoptions.Atthisstagethetotalstructuralschemeisdevelopedtoamiddlelevelofspecificitybyfocusingonidentificationanddesignofmajorsubsystemstotheextentthattheirkeygeometric,component,andinteractivepropertiesareestablished.Basicsubsysteminteractionanddesignconflictscanthusbeidentifiedandresolvedinthecontextoftotalsystemobjectives.Consultantscanplayasignificantpartinthiseffortthesepreliminaryleveldecisionsmayalsoresultinfeedbackthatcallsforrefinementorevenmajorchangeinschematicconcepts.Whenthedesignerandtheclientaresatisfiedwiththefeasibilityofadesignproposalatthepreliminarylevel,itmeansthatthebasicproblemsofoveralldesignaresolvedanddetailsarenotlikelytoproducemajorchange.Thefocusshiftsagain,andthedesignprocessmovesintothefinallevel.Atthisstagetheemphasiswillbeonthedetaileddevelopmentofallsubsystemspecifics.Heretheroleofspecialistsfromvariousfields,includingstructuralengineering,ismuchlarger,sincealldetailofthepreliminarydesignmustbeworkedout.DecisionsmadeatthislevelmayproducefeedbackintoLevelIIthatwillresultinchanges.However,ifLevelsIandIIarehandledwithinsight,therelationshipbetweentheoveralldecisions,madeattheschematicandpreliminarylevels,andthespecificsofthefinallevelshouldbesuchthatgrossredesignisnotinquestion,Rather,theentireprocessshouldbeoneofmovinginanevolutionaryfashionfromcreationandrefinementormodificationofthemoregeneralpropertiesofatotalsystemdesignconcept,tothefleshingoutofrequisiteelementsanddetails.TosummarizeAtLevelI,thearchitectmustfirstestablish,inconceptualterms,theoverallspaceformfeasibilityofbasicschematicoptions.Atthis武汉科技大学本科毕业设计外文翻译4stage,collaborationwithspecialistscanbehelpful,butonlyifintheformofoverallthinking.AtLevelII,thearchitectmustbeabletoidentifythemajorsubsystemrequirementsimpliedbytheschemeandsubstantialtheirinteractivefeasibilitybyapproximatingkeycomponentproperties.Thatis,thepropertiesofmajorsubsystemsneedbeworkedoutonlyinsufficientdepthtoverytheinherentcompatibilityoftheirbasicformrelatedandbehavioralinteraction.ThiswillmeanasomewhatmorespecificformofcollaborationwithspecialiststhenthatinlevelI.AtlevelIII,thearchitectandthespecificformofcollaborationwithspecialiststhenthatprovidingforalloftheelementaldesignspecificsrequiredtoproducebiddableconstructiondocuments.OfcoursethissuccesscomesfromthedevelopmentoftheStructuralMaterial.Theprincipalconstructionmaterialsofearliertimeswerewoodandmasonrybrick,stone,ortile,andsimilarmaterials.Thecoursesorlayerswereboundtogetherwithmortarorbitumen,atarlikesubstance,orsomeotherbindingagent.TheGreeksandRomanssometimesusedironrodsorclapstostrengthentheirbuilding.ThecolumnsoftheParthenoninAthens,forexample,haveholesdrilledinthemforironbarsthathavenowrustedaway.TheRomansalsousedanaturalcementcalledpuzzling,madefromvolcanicash,thatbecameashardasstoneunderwater.Bothsteelandcement,thetwomostimportantconstructionmaterialsofmoderntimes,wereintroducedinthenineteenthcentury.Steel,basicallyanalloyofironandasmallamountofcarbonhadbeenmadeuptothattimebyalaboriousprocessthatrestrictedittosuchspecialusesasswordblades.AftertheinventionoftheBessemerprocessin1856,steelwasavailableinlargequantitiesatlowprices.Theenormousadvantageofsteelisitstensileforcewhich,aswehaveseen,tendstopullapartmanymaterials.Newalloyshavefurther,whichisatendencyforittoweakenasaresultofcontinualchangesinstress.Moderncement,calledPortlandcement,wasinventedin1824.Itisamixtureoflimestoneandclay,whichisheatedandthengroundintoapower.Itismixed

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