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外文翻译--阀控式铅酸蓄电池的失效模式在深放电电动自行车的应用 英文版.pdf

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外文翻译--阀控式铅酸蓄电池的失效模式在深放电电动自行车的应用 英文版.pdf

JOURNALOFPOWERSOURCES1912009127–133CONTENTSLISTSAVAILABLEATSCIENCEDIRECTJOURNALOFPOWERSOURCESJOURNALHOMEPAGEWWWELSEVIERCOM/LOCATE/JPOWSOURFAILUREMODESOFVALVEREGULATEDLEADACIDAPPLICATIONSINDEEPDISCHARGEYJUNACHINABARTICLEARTICLERRAAKCYELECTRICFSOFVALEDORLIGHTDBYCAUSERATHERATIONATIESTHE1INTHELASTTWODECADES,MUCHEFFORTHASBEENDEVOTEDTOTHESTUDYOFVALVEREGULATEDLEADACIDVRLABATTERIESINTHEAPPLICATIONSOFELECTRICVEHICLESEVANDHYBRIDEVS1–5INCHINA,THEREISAPOPULATIONOFMORETHAN13BILLIONMOSTPEOPLEGOTOWORKBYBICYYELECTRICAPACUSETHETILLVRLOFDEANDMAROFINCLUDINGSULFPLATECONTACT,ETC,THEYVARYWITHDIFFERENTDESIGNS,MANUFACTURINGANDOPERATINGCONDITIONS7–15INTHEDEEPCYCLEDUTY,THEINTERFACEOFTHEGRID/ACTIVEMASSEASILYACCUMULATESTHELEADSULFATECRYSTALSWITHVERYHIGHRESISTANCEANDFORMSABARRIERLAYERWHENPB–SBALLOYSINTHEPOSITIVEGRIDARESUBSTITUTEDBYPB–CD–SN–AL03DOICLEAND655MILLIONBICYCLESWEREPRODUCEDIN2007INRECENTEARS,HOWEVER,MOREANDMOREPEOPLEUSEELECTRICBICYCLESORLIGHTSCOOTERSTOSUBSTITUTEFORBICYCLESTHESENEWVEHICLESHAVE250OR350WELECTROMOTORDRIVENBYA36OR48VVRLABATTERYK,RESPECTIVELY5,6BASEDONTHEPOWEROFTHEELECTROMOTORD,THEBATTERYCAPACITYIS12V10,17OR20AHTHEHELDAMOUNTOFELECTRICBICYCLESANDLIGHTELECTRICSCOOTERSATLEASTREACHES60MTHEENDOFLASTYEARITCORRESPONDSTOABOUT200M12V/10AHABATTERIES,ORABOUTRBM26BILLIONTHEPRACTICALOPERATINGLIFEBATTERIESISNORMALLYINTHERANGEOF1–2YEARSWITHTHERAPIDVELOPMENTOFCHINESEORASIANECONOMY,MOREELECTRICBICYCLESTHEIRBATTERIESWILLBENEEDEDANDTHEYHAVEAHUGEPOTENTIALKETINTHECOMINGYEARS,WHICHALSOPROMOTESTHEDEVELOPMENTEVALTHOUGHTHEREAREMANYFAILUREMODESOFVRLABATTERIES,PREMATURECAPACITYLOSSPCL,GRIDCORROSION,SOFTENING,∗CORRESPONDINGAUTHORTEL8659187892893;FAX8659188073608EMAILADDRESSYGUOFZUEDUCNYGUOALLOYSITISCALLEDTHE“ANTIMONYFREEEFFECT”ANDTHEPCL1FAILUREMODE7,8ALTHOUGHTHEBARRIERLAYERCANBEOBVIOUSLYIMPROVEDWITHTHEAPPLICATIONOFSNCONTENTMORETHAN12WT,ITISSUSCEPTIBLETOTHEABUSECONDITIONSSUCHASDEEPDISCHARGESOMOSTMANUFACTURERSINCHINAUSEPB–SB–CDALLOYSASPOSITIVEGRIDHOWEVER,CDISPOISONOUSANDMUSTBEEXCLUDEDTHECORROSIONOFPOSITIVEGRIDSINTHECYCLEDUTYISNOTHEAVYASCOMPAREDWITHTHATINTHEFLOATAPPLICATIONSTHEHIGHCONTENTSOFCAANDALACCELERATETHECORROSIONRATEOFPOSITIVEGRIDSGREATLY,ALTHOUGHTHEYHAVEGOODMECHANICALPROPERTIESANDCASTABILITYTHEACTIVEMASSAMOFPOSITIVEPLATESUNDERGOESGREATVOLUMEEXPANSIONANDSHRINKAGEINTHEDEEPCYCLEDUTY,WHICHCANLEADTOPOORCONTACTBETWEENAMPARTICLES8,9THISISTHEPCL2FAILUREMODEOFTENTAKINGPLACEINTHEEVBATTERIESITCANBEGREATLYIMPROVEDBYCOMPRESSINGTHEPLATESTACK,OPTIMIZINGTHEMANUFACTURETECHNOLOGYOFPOSITIVEPLATESANDINCREASINGTHERATIOOFPOSITIVETONEGATIVEAMTHESERIOUSSULFATIONOFNEGATIVEPLATESOFTENOCCURSWHENTHEBATTERYOPERATESATTHEHIGHRATESINAPARTIALSTATEOFCHARGEHRPSOCORHASAHIGHCURRENTOFOXYGENRECOMBINATIONORWHENTHEADDITIVESATNEGATIVEPLATESAREDECOMPOSEDUNDERTHEHIGHTEMPERATURECONDITION1,10,11ITWILLBEOVERCOMEWITHTHEUSEOFHIGHCONTENTGRAPHITE787753/–SEEFRONTMATTER2008ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVED101016/JJPOWSOUR200808059ONGLANGGUOA,∗,SHENGQUNTANGA,GANGMENGB,SHICOLLEGEOFCHEMISTRYANDCHEMICALENGINEERING,FUZHOUUNIVERSITY,FUZHOU350108,PRHUBEICAMELSTORAGEBATTERYCOLTD,GUCHENG441705,PRCHINAINFOHISTORYECEIVED26JUNE2008ECEIVEDINREVISEDFORM20AUGUST2008CCEPTED21AUGUST2008VAILABLEONLINE29AUGUST2008EYWORDSCLELIFEBICYCLEAILUREMODESTENINGVEREGULATEDLEADACIDBATTERIESABSTRACTTHE36OR48VVALVEREGULATSOURCESOFELECTRICBICYCLESBATTERIESHAVEBEENSTUDIEITINDICATESTHATTHEMAINPOSITIVEACTIVEMASSPAMWHENTHEELECTROLYTESATURTHEDEPOLARIZATIONOFTHENEGOXYGENEVOLUTIONACCELERATINTRODUCTIONBATTERIESFORELECTRICBICYCLEYANGBLEADACIDVRLABATTERYPACKSHAVEBEENWIDELYAPPLIEDTOTHEPOWERELECTRICSCOOTERSINCHINATHEFAILUREMODESOFTHE12V/10AHVRLATHECYCLELIFETESTATC2DISCHARGERATEAND100DEPTHOFDISCHARGEDODOFTHEBATTERYFAILUREINTHISCYCLEDUTYISTHESOFTENINGANDSHEDDINGOFTHANINDIVIDUALWATERLOSS,RECOMBINATIONEFFICIENCYORSULFATION,ETCFALLSTOACERTAINEXTENT,THEHIGHOXYGENRECOMBINATIONCURRENTLEADSTOVEPLATEANDTHESHIFTOFTHEPOSITIVEPLATETOAHIGHERPOTENTIALTHEVIOLENTSOFTENINGOFPAMANDTHEENDOFCYCLELIFE2008ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDATION,DRYINGOUT,ADDITIVEDECOMPOSITIONANDPOORSEPARATOR128YGUOETAL/JOURNALOFPOWERSOURCES1912009127–133INNEGATIVEACTIVEMASSNAM12DRYINGOUTISMOSTLYCONNECTEDWITHAHIGHCHARGEVOLTAGEANDCURRENT,OFTENINCOMBINATIONWITHHIGHBATTERYTEMPERATUREINTHEEXTREMECASES,THERMALRUNAWAYMAYTAKEPLACEFORABATTERYWITHVERYLOWELECTROLYTESATURATIONWATERLOSSDEPENDSONTHEGRIDCOMPOSITIONS,IMPURITIES,BATTERYTEMPERATUREANDCHARGEVOLTAGE8THESUITABLECHARGEREGIMEINCLUDINGFASTCHARGEISVERYIMPORTANTFORPROLONGINGTHEBATTERYCYIES,ANDAR2ERSTRCURRBICYIMVRLCY2POSEGLASSWSN–00CONTAINEDENSITIESINGHDUCTDISCIN1AGAGTHEWHENTWITHTHEPOPTMICR33BATTTHEIR28THTHAT,60ABOUTING,TTFIG1EVOLUTIONOFDISCHARGECAPACITYOFTWOBATTERIESINTHECYCLESAT100DODCURRENTANDBATTERYVOLTAGEATTHECURRENTLIMITEDCONSTANTVOLTAGEINTHECYCLELIFETESTINTHEFIRSTCONSTANTCURRENTSTAGE25A,THECONSTANTCURRENTTIMEINFIG2ASHORTENSWITHTHECYCLESITISDUETOTHEGRADUALFALLINGOFTHEBATTERYCAPACITYTHERISINGOFTHECHARGEVOLTAGEINFIG2BINDICATESTHEINCREASEOFTHEBATTERYPOLARIZATIONRESISTANCEDUETOWATERLOSSANDBATTERYDEGENERATION,ETCINTHESECONDCONSTANTVOLTAGESTAGE144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

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