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外文翻译实体自由成型制造与快速原型制造.doc

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外文翻译实体自由成型制造与快速原型制造.doc

南通大学毕业设计附录(英文资料翻译)1SOUDFREEFORMFABRICATIONISFFANDRAPIDPROTOTYPING1.1SOUDFREEFORMFABRICATIONISFFMETHODSSEVERALMANUFACTURINGPROCESSESAREAVAILABLETOMAKETHEIMPORTANTTRANSITIONFROMCOMPUTERAIDEDDESIGNCADTOAPROTOTYPEPART.SEVERALNEWTECHNOLOGIESBEGANTOMAKETHEIRAPPEARANCEAFTER1987.INTHATYEAR,STEREOLITHOGRAPHYSLAWASFIRSTINTRODUCEDBV3DSYSTEMSINC.,ANDOVERTHENEXTFIVEYEARSSEVERALRIVALMETHODSALSOAPPEARED.TLLSCREATEDTHEFAMILYOFPROCESSESKNOWNASSOLIDFREEFORMFABRICATIONFSFFL.ASWITHMOSTNEWTECHNOLOGIESATTHEBEGINNINGOFTHE“MARKETADOPTIONS.SHAPEDCURVES”INCHAPTER2.THESFFDOMAINISACCOMPANIEDBYARELA.TIVEAMOUNTOFADVERTISING“HYPE.”SFFPROCESSESARESOMETIMESDESCRIBEDASPARTSONDEMANDFROMARTTOPARTDESKTOPMANUFACTURINGRAPIDPROTOTYPINGATTHETIMEOFTHISWRITING,STEREOLITHOGRAPHYSLA,SELECTIVELASERSINTERINGSLS,FUSEDDEPOSITIONMODELINGFDM,ANDLAYEREDOBJECTMODELINGLOMAREBEINGUSEDONADAYTODAYBASISBYCOMMERCIALPROTOTYPINGCOMPANIES.THETHREEDIMENSIONAL3一DPRINTINGPROCESSINCORNSTARCH,PLASTIC,ANDCERAMICSISALSOBEINGUSEDCOMMERCIALLY.THEMETHODSLOWERONTHELISTSHOWPROMISEBUTDONOTSEEMTOBEINGREATUSEBYTHIRDPARTYPROTOTYPINGHOUSESTOMAKETHEIRDAILYINCOME.CASTINGISASPECIALCASE.ITISSTILLUSEDTOMAKEONEOFAKINDPROTOTYPES.FURTHERMORE,FORBATCHRUNSINTHE10TO500CATEGORYITISAVERYCOSTEFFECTIVEMETHODTOUSEONCEANORIGINALMOLDHASBEENMADEBYAPROCESSSUCHASSTEREOLITHOGRAPHY.MACHININGISALSOUSEDTOMAKEONEOFAKINDORSEVERALPROTOTYPES.1.1.1SUMMARYOFSFFANDRAPIDPROTOTYPINGPROCESSESINDAILYCOMMERCIALUSESTEREOLITHOGRAPHYSLASELECTIVELASERSINTERINGSISLAMINATEDOBJECTMODELINGLOMFUSEDDEPOSITIONMODELINGFDM南通大学毕业设计附录(英文资料翻译)2MOREATTHERESEARCHANDDEVELOPMENTRDSTAGE3DPRINTINGINCORNSTARCH,PLASTIC,ORCERAMIC3DPRINTINGWITHPLASTICSFOLLOWEDBYPLANARIZATIONUSINGMACHININGSOLIDGROUNDCURINGSIMILARTOSLASHAPEDEPOSITIONMODELINGRACOMBINATIONOFADDITIONANDSUBTRACTIONNONSFFTRADITIONALMACHININGCASTINGCOMPARISONSDONEINTHEEARLY1990SBYTHECHRYSLERCORPORATIONREVEALEDTHATTHESLAPROCESSWASAHEADOFITSRIVALNONTRADITIONALPROTOTYPINGMETHODSINTERMSOFCOSTANDACCURACYTHESESTUDIESEXCLUDEDANEVALUATIONOFMACHININGANDCASTING.FOLLOWINGTHETECHNICALDESCRIPTIONSINTHISCHAPTER.ADDITIONALFIGURESANDTABLESARETHUSINCLUDEDTOCOMPARETHESECOSTSANDACCURACIES.OVERTHELASTDECADE,SLAHASFURTHEREMERGEDASTHEMOSTUSEDSFFPROCESS,ESPECIALLYFORTHEGENERATIONOFTHEMASTERPATTERNSFORCASTINGANDINJECTIONMOLDING.ATTHETIMEOFTHISWRITING,SLS,FDM.ANDLOMHAVETHEMOSTVISIBILITYAFTERSLA.1.1.2THEHISTORYOFSFFMETHODSDURINGTHELATE1970S,MEADANDCONWAY1980CREATEDTHEGROUNDWORKFORTHEFASTPROTOTYPINGOFVERYLARGESCALEINTEGRATEDVLSLLCIRCUITS.DESIGNERSWEREENCOUR.AGEDTOTHINKINTERMSOFFIVETWODIMENSIONAL2.DPATTERNS.THESEPATTERNSDEFINEDTHREESTACKEDINTERCONNECTIONLAYERSONAMETAL.OXIDE.SEMICONDUCTORFMOSLWAFERANDTHEIRMUTUALCONNECTIONSTHROUGHHOLES.THEPATTERNSDESCRYBEDTHEACTUALGEOMETRVOFTHECONNECTIONRUNSANDVIAHOLESTHATONEWOULDSEEWHENLOOKINGDOWNONTOTHECIRCUITCHIP,REGARDLESSOFTHEEXACTPROCESSANDNUMBEROFMASKINGSTEPSTHATWEREUSEDTOIMPLEMENTTHECHIPSEEMOSIS,2000.INSPIREDBYTHISSUCCESS,BEGINNINGINTHE1970S,SEVERALCOMPANIESTRIEDTOCREATELAYEREDMANUFACTURINGFORMECHANICALPARTS.AISOBYTHEMID.1980S,SEVERAUS.GOVERNMENTSTUDIESANALYZEDTHEPOSSIBILITIESOFA“MECHANICALMOSIS”MAN.UFACTURINGSTUDIESBOARD,1990;BOULDIN,1994;NSFWORKSHOPI,1994,ANDII,1995.THEPROSPECTSFORAMECHANICALMOSISWERETHUSFREQUENTLYLINKEDTOTHEFABRICATIONPROCESSESINTHELISTSMENTIONEDASHLEY,1991,1998;HELLER,1991;KRUTH,1991;WOO,1992,1993;AUANDWRIGHT,1993;KOCHAN,1993;KAI,1994;UCLA,1994;WLEISSANDPRINZ,南通大学毕业设计附录(英文资料翻译)31995;COHENETA1.,1995;DUTTA,1995;JACOBS,1992,1996;BEAMANETA1.,1997;KUMARETA1.,1998;SACHSETA1.,2000.THEINTRODUCTIONOFTHEFIRSTCOMMERCIALSFFTECHNOLOGYSTEREOLITHOGRAPHYWASACCOMPANIEDBYTHEADVENTOFTHESTEREOLITHOGRAPHY.STLREPRESENTATIONOFACADOBIECT.“.STU’ISAMODIFIEDCADFORMATTHATSUITSASUBSEQUENTSLICINGOPER.ACTIONANDTHE“DOWNSTREAM”LASER.SCANNINGPATHSONAPHYSICALSLA.FDM.ORSLSMACHINE.ISASOCCERBALLROUNDTHEANSWERDEPENDSONHOWCAREFULLYTHEBALIISMEAS.URED.NOMINALLY,ITISAPERFECTSPHERE.HOWEVER.ONCLOSERINSPECTION.THELEATHERISSEWNTOGETHERFROMABOUT20LITTLEHEXAGONALPATCHESANDAFEWPENTAGONALPATCHESTOCREATETHECURVATURE.INREALITYITISANAPPROXIMATIONTOASPHERE.LIKEWISE.THE“.STL’’FORMATAPPROXIMATESTHEBOUNDARYSURFACESOFACADMODELBYBREAKINGITDOWNINTOINTERCONNECTEDSMALLTRIANGLESAPROCESSCALLEDTES.SELLATION.EACHTRIANGLEISREPRESENTEDBYTHEX/Y/ZCOORDINATESOFEACHOFITSTHREEVER.TICES,ENUMERATEDBYTHERIGHT.HANDRULETHATIS.COUNTERCLOCKWISECCWORDERASVIEWEDFROMTHEOUTSIDEOFTHEBODVTHEVECTORNORMALTOTHESURFAEEOFEACHTRIANGLEISALSOSPECIFIED.1HISTESSELLATEDSURFACEISSTOREDASAN“.STLFILE.”THISFILE.PERHAPSCONTAININGUPTO200,000TRIANGLES,ISSENTOVERTHEINTERNETTOAPROTOTYPINGSHOP.ASSHOWNINFIGURE4.1.THISTESSELLATEDCADMODELISTHENSLICEDLIKEASTACKOFPLAYINGCARDS.FOR3DSYSTEMS’MACHINESTHISISKNOWNASTHESLIORSLICEDFILE.OTHERRAPIDPROTOTYPINGMACHINESUSETHESLICINGTECHNIQUEBUTHAVETHEIROWNFILECREATIONDETAILSANDNAMES.EACHSLICEFORTHEIMAGINARYSOCCERBALLWILLTHUSBEACIRCLE.HOWEVER.BECAUSEOFTHETESSELLATIONPROCEDUREITWILLNOTBEAPERFECTCIRCLE.THESLICINGACTIONCUTSTHROUGHTHETRIANGLESONTHEBOUNDARY.THUS,EACHCIRCULARSLICEORDISCWILLACTUALLYBEAMULTISIDEDPOLYGONRUNNINGINSIDETHE“BOUNDINGCIRCLE.”THENUMBEROFSIDESONTHISINNERPOLYGONISOFCOURSERELATEDTOHOWFINELYDIVIDEDTHEORIGINALTESSELLATIONWASMADE.INSIDETHESLAMACHINE.THELASERFIRSTCREATESTHEOUTERBOUNDARYOFEACHSLICEANDTHEN“WEAVES”ACROSSEACHSLICEINAHATCHINGPATTERNTOCREATETHELAYER.THENUMBEROFSLICESANDTHESTYLEOFTHEWEAVINGPATTERNARECHOSENBYEACHRAPIDPRO.TOTYPINGSHOP.ESPECIALLYFORSLAANDSLSACERTAINAMOUNTOFTRIALANDERROR.ORCRAFTSPERSONSHIP,BEGINSTOPLAYAROLEATTHISSTAGE.THISISREVIEWEDINMOREDETAILOVERTHENEXTFEWPAGES.“.STL,’ISNOWTHESTANDARDEXCHANGEFORMATFORSFFPROCESSES.HOWEVER.ITISINADEQUATE南通大学毕业设计附录(英文资料翻译)4FORMANYREASONS.FIRST,THEFILESARELARGEDUETOTHETESSELLATIONMETHOD.SECOND.THEREAREREDUNDANCIESINTHE“.STL’FORMAT.0NEEXAMPLEOFREDUNDANCYISASFOLLOWSTHETRIANGLESAREREPRESENTEDBYTHE“COUNTERCLOCKWISERULE”SOTHATITISCLEARINWHICHDIRECTIONTHEOUTERSURFACENORMALACTS.HOWEVER.ITHASALSOBECOMECUSTOMARYTOSPECIFYTHESURFACEVECTORASWELL.INCONSISTENCYCANBEINTRODUCEDASARESULTOFTHISREDUNDANCY,ANDNORULESEXISTFORRESOLVINGIT.MCMAINS1996DESCRIBESHOW“.STL’DOESNOTCAPTURETOPOLOGYORCONNECTIVITY,MAKINGITDIFFICULTTOFIXSOMEOFTHECOMMONERRORSFOUNDINFILESSUCHASCRACKS,PENETRATINGOREXTRANEOUSFACES,ANDINCONSISTENTSURFACENORMALSWITHOUTRESORTINGTOGUESSINGTHEDESIGNER’SORIGINALINTENT.MOREGENERALDIGITALINTERCHANGEFORMATSHAVEALSOBEENUSEDWITHSFLFTHESEINCLUDEACIS1993ANDIGESHELLER,1991.HOWEVER,ASDESCRIBEDINNSF1995,PROBLEMSARISEWITHTHESEFORMATS,TOOONEASPECTOFONGOINGRESEARCHISTHUSTOIMPROVETHISREPRESENTATIONLANGUAGEMCMAINSETA1.,1998.1.2CASTINGMETHODSFORRAPIDPROTOTYPING

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