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外文翻译碳纤维增强塑料的铣削破坏和尺寸精度设计实验.doc

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外文翻译碳纤维增强塑料的铣削破坏和尺寸精度设计实验.doc

DamageanddimensionalprecisiononmillingcarbonfiberreinforcedplasticsusingdesignexperimentsJ.PauloDavim∗,PedroReisDepartmentofMechanicalEngineering,UniversityofAveiro,CampusSantiago,3810193Aveiro,PortugalReceived24June2002receivedinrevisedform10May2004accepted8June2004AbstractMillingcompositematerialsisarathercomplextaskowingtoitsheterogeneityandthenumberofproblems,suchassurfacedelamination,thatappearduringthemachiningprocess,associatedwiththecharacteristicsofthematerialandthecuttingparameters.Withthepurposeofunderstandingandreducingtheseproblems,thispaperpresentsastudythatevaluatesthecuttingparameterscuttingvelocityandfeedrateunderthesurfaceroughness,anddamageinmillinglaminateplatesofcarbonfiberreinforcedplasticsCFRPs.Aplanofexperiments,basedontheTaguchismethod,wasestablishedconsideringmillingwithprefixedcuttingparametersinanautoclaveCFRPcompositematerial.AnanalysisofvarianceANOVAwasperformedtoinvestigatethecuttingcharacteristicsofCFRPcompositematerialusingcementedcarbideK10endmills.TheobjectivewastoestablishamodelusingmultipleregressionanalysisbetweencuttingvelocityandfeedratewiththesurfaceroughnessanddamageinaCFRPcompositematerial.©2004ElsevierB.V.Allrightsreserved.KeywordsMillingCarbonfiberreinforcedplasticsCFRPsDimensionalprecisionTaguchismethodOrthogonalarraysAnalysisofvarianceANOVA1.Introduction1.1.MillingfiberreinforcedplasticsFRPsMillingisthemachiningoperationmostfrequentlyusedinmanufacturingpartsoffiberreinforcedplastics,becausecomponentsmadeofcompositematerialsarecommonlyproducedbynetshapethatoftenrequiretheremovalofexcessmaterialtocontroltolerances,andmillingisusedasacorrectiveoperationtoproduceawelldefinedandhighqualitysurfaces1.Themachinabilityoffiberreinforcedplasticsisstronglyinfluencedbythetypeoffiberembeddedinthecompositeandbyitsproperties.MechanicalandthermalpropertieshaveanextremelyimportanceonmachiningFRP.Thefiberusedinthecompositeshasagreaterinfluenceintheselectionofcuttingtoolscuttingedgematerialandgeometryandmachiningparameters.Itisfundamentaltoensurethatthetoolselectedissuitableforthematerial.Theknowledgeofcuttingmechanismsisindispensableinviewofcuttingmechanicsandmachinabilityassessmentinmilling1,2.CompositematerialssuchascarbonfiberreinforcedplasticsCFRPsmadebyusingcarbonfibersforreinforcingplasticresinmatrices,suchasepoxy,arecharacterisedbyhavingexcellentpropertiesaslightweight,highstrengthandhighstiffness.Thesepropertiesmakethemespeciallyattractiveforaerospaceapplications2.Surfaceroughnessisaparameterthathasagreaterinfluenceondimensionalprecision,performanceofmechanicalpiecesandonproductioncosts.Forthesereasons,researchdevelopmentshavebeencarriedoutwiththepurposeofoptimisingthecuttingconditionstoreachaspecificsurfaceroughness3,4.Forachievingthedesiredqualityofthemachinedsurface,itisnecessarytounderstandthemechanismsofmaterialremoval,thekineticsofmachiningprocessesaffectingtheperformanceofthecuttingtools5.Theworksofanumberofauthors6–12,whenreportingonmillingofFRP,haveshownthatthetypeandorientationofthefiber,cuttingparametersandtoolgeometryhaveanessentialpaperonthemachinability.EverstineandRogers6presentedthefirsttheoreticalworkonthemachiningofFRPsin1971,sincethentheresearchmadeinthisareahasbeenbasedonexperimentalinvestigations.Koplevetal.7,Kaneeda8andPuwandHocheng9concludedthattheprincipalcuttingmechanismscorrelatestronglytofiberarrangementandtoolgeometry.Santhanakrishmanetal.10andRamuluetal.11carriedoutastudyonmachiningofpolymericcompositesandconcludedthatanincreasingofthecuttingspeedleadstoabettersurfacefinish.Hochengetal.12studiedtheeffectofthefiberorientationonthecutquality,cuttingforcesandtoolwearonthemachinability.Insummary,itcanbenoticedthattheworkscarriedoutonthemachinabilityofFRP,arebasicallyrelatedonthewearofcuttingtoolsandthequalityonthesurfaces,asafunctionofthecuttingconditions,thedistributionofstaplefibersinthepolymericmatrixandtheangleofinclinationofstaplefibers.ThecurrentpaperinvestigatestheinfluenceofcuttingparameterscuttingvelocityandfeedrateonthesurfaceroughnessRa,delaminationfactorFd,andinternationaldimensionalprecisionIT,onCFRPcompositematerialusingcementedcarbideendmills,withthepurposetoestablishaempiricalrelationshipbetweencuttingparametersVandfandsurfaceroughnessRaanddelaminationfactorFd.1.2.AutoclaveprocessTheautoclaveprocessiswidelyusedtoproducehighperformancelaminatesusuallywithfibersreinforcedepoxysystems.Compositematerialsmanufacturedbyautoclaveareparticularlyimportantforaerospaceapplications.Thisprocessusesapressurisedvesseltoapplypressureandheattobothpartsthathavebeensealedinavacuumbag.Nextitcanbeseentheseveralstagesofthisprocess.Onthefirststage,theprepregcarbonfiber–epoxymaterialiscarefullylaidoutonatabletoensurethatfiberorientationmeetsthedesignrequirement,wheretheprepregmaterialconsistsofunidirectionallongcarbonfibersinapartiallycuredepoxymatrix.Onthesecondstage,piecesoftheprepregmaterialarecutoutandplacedontopofeachotheronashapedtooltoformalaminate.Thelayerscouldbeplacedindifferentdirectionstoproducethedesiredstrengthpatternsincethehigheststrengthofeachlayerisindirectionparalleltothefibers.Aftertherequirednumberoflayershasbeenproperlyplaced,thetoolingandtheattachedlaminatearevacuumbagged,forremovingtheentrappedairfromthelaminatedpart.Finally,thevacuumbagandthetoolingisputintoanautoclaveforthefinalcuringoftheepoxyresin.Afterremovedfromtheautoclave,thecompositematerialisreadyforfurtherfinishingoperations2,13.2.Experimentalprocedure2.1.MethodandmaterialsInordertoreachtheobjectiveofthisexperimentalwork,mainlytheestablishmentofthecorrelationsbetweencuttingparametersVandfandsurfaceroughnessRaanddelaminationfactorFd,machiningissueswereperformedunderdifferentcuttingconditionsontheCFRPcompositematerial.Thecompositematerialusedinthetestsepoxymatrixreinforcedwith55ofcarbonfiber,suppliedbyINEGI,wasproducedbyautoclavewithafiberorientationof0/90◦,ascanbeobservedinFig.1.Theexperimentshavebeencarriedoutinalaminateplate,madeupwith16alternatinglayersoffiberswith4mmofthickness,usingtwocementedcarbideK10endmills,presentedinFig.2,with6mmofdiameter.Bothcementedcarbideendmills,twofluteR216.3206030AC10P1020andsixfluteCCTGSRD0635,weremanufacturedaccordingtoISO.Thetwofluteendmillpresentsthefollowinggeometryahelixangleof30◦,arakeangleof10◦30_,aclearanceangleof9◦andaflutelengthof10mm.Thesixfluteendmillpresentsaneutralhelixand20mmofflutelength.ThedepthofthecutonCFRPcompositematerialwas2mm.AmillingmachineLC11/2VSFirstwith2.2kWspindlepowerandamaximumspindlespeedof2500rpmwasusedtoperformtheexperiments.ThefixationofthecompositematerialplatewasmadeasobservedinFig.3,tomakesurethatvibrationsanddisplacementdidnotexist.ThesurfaceroughnesswasevaluatedaccordingtoISO4287/1withaHommeltesterT1000profilometer,ascanbeobservedinFig.4.Foreachtestfivemeasurementsweremadeovermillingsurfaces,accordingtoFig.5.Consideringthenumberofmeasurementstobecarriedout,aprogrammabletechniquewasused,bypreviouslyselectingaroughnessprofile,thecutoff0.8mmandtheroughnessevaluatorparameterRaaccordingtoISO.Dataacquisitionsweremadethroughprofilometer,byinterfaceRS232toPCusingthesoftwareHommeltesterTurboDatawin.Thedamagecausedonthecompositematerialwasmeasuredwithashopmicroscope,MitutoyoTM500®,with30magnificationand1_mresolution.2.2.PlanofexperimentsTaguchismethodhasbeenwidelyusedinengineeringanalysisandconsistsofaplanofexperimentswiththeobjectiveofacquiringdatainacontrolledway,inordertoobtaininformationaboutthebehaviourofagivenprocess.TheTaguchismethodfortwofactorsatthreelevelswasusedfortheelaborationoftheplanofexperiments.Table1indicatesthefactorsstudiedandtheassignmentofthecorrespondinglevels.Bylevelsismeantthevaluestakenbythefactors.TheorthogonalarrayL924,wasselectedasshowninTable2,whichhasninerowscorrespondingtothenumberoftests8degreesoffreedomwithtwocolumnsatthreelevels.Thefactorsandtheinteractionsareassignedtothecolumns.Theplanofexperimentswasmadeofninetestsarrayrows,wherethefirstcolumnwasassignedtothecuttingvelocityVandthesecondcolumntothefeedratefandtheremainingwereassignedtotheinteractions.TheoutputsstudiedweresurfaceroughnessRaanddelaminationfactorFd,intheCFRPcompositematerial.

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