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外文翻译自动化的介绍.doc

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外文翻译自动化的介绍.doc

附录A英文资料INTRODUCTIONTOAUTOMATIONAUTOMATIONISTHETECHNOLOGYBYWHICHAPROCESSORPROCEDUREISACCOMPLISHEDWITHOUTHUMANASSISTANCEITISIMPLEMENTEDUSINGAPROGRAMOFINSTRUCTIONSCOMBINEDWITHACONTROLSYSTEMTHATEXECUTESTHEINSTRUCTIONSTOAUTOMATEAPROCESS,POWERISREQUIRED,BOTHTODRIVETHEPROCESSITSELFANDTOOPERATETHEPROGRAMANDCONTROLSYSTEMALTHOUGHAUTOMATIONCANBEAPPLIEDINAWIDEVARIETYOFAREAS,ITISMOSTCLOSELYASSOCIATEDWITHTHEMANUFACTURINGINDUSTRIESITWASINTHECONTEXTOFMANUFACTURINGTHATTHETERMWASORIGINALLYCOINEDBYANENGINEERINGMANAGERATFORDMOTORCOMPANYIN1946TODESCRIBETHEVARIETYOFAUTOMATICTRANSFERDEVICESANDFEEDMECHANISMSTHATHADBEENINSTALLEDINFORD’SPRODUCTIONPLANTSITISIRONICTHATNEARLYALLMODERNAPPLICATIONSOFAUTOMATIONARECONTROLLEDBYCOMPUTERTECHNOLOGIESTHATWERENOTAVAILABLEIN1964WEEXAMINETECHNOLOGIESTHATHAVEBEENDEVELOPEDTOAUTOMATEMANUFACTURINGOPERATIONSTHEPOSITIONOFAUTOMATIONANDCONTROLTECHNOLOGIESINTHELARGERPRODUCTIONSYSTEMISSHOWNINFIGURE31INTHEPRESENTCHAPTER,WEPROVIDEANOVERVIEWOFAUTOMATIONWHATARETHEELEMENTSOFANAUTOMATEDSYSTEMWHATARESOMEOFTHEADVANCEDFEATUREBEYONDTHEBASICELEMENTSANDWHATARETHELEVELSINANENTERPRISEWHEREAUTOMATIONCANBEAPPLIEDINTHEFOLLOWINGTWOCHAPTERS,WEDISCUSSINDUSTRIALCONTROLSYSTEMSANDTHEHARDWARECOMPONENTSOFTHESESYSTEMSTHESETWOCHAPTERSSERVEASAFOUNDATIONFORTHEREMAININGCHAPTERSINOURCOVERAGEOFAUTOMATIONANDCONTROLTECHNOLOGIESTHESETECHNOLOGIESARE1NUMERICALCONTROL,2INDUSTRIALROBOTICS,AND3PROGRAMMABLELOGICCONTROLLERSBASICELEMENTSOFANAUTOMATEDSYSTEMANAUTOMATEDSYSTEMCONSISTSOFTHREEBASICELEMENTS1POWERTOACCOMPLISHTHEPROCESSANDOPERATETHESYSTEM,2APROGRAMOFINSTRUCTIONSTODIRECTTHEPROCESS,AND3ACONTROLSYSTEMTOACTUATETHEINSTRUCTIONSTHERELATIONSHIPAMONGSTTHESEELEMENTISILLUSTRATEDINFIGURE32ALLSYSTEMTHATQUALIFYASBEINGAUTOMATEDINCLUDETHESETHREEBASICELEMENTSINONEFORMORANOTHERPOWERTOACCOMPLISHTHEAUTOMATEDPROCESSANAUTOMATEDSYSTEMISUSEDTOOPERATESOMEPROCESS,ANDPOWERISREQUIREDTODRIVETHEPROCESSASWELLASTHECONTROLSTHEPRINCIPALSOURCEOFPOWERINAUTOMATEDSYSTEMSISELECTRICITYELECTRICPOWERHASMANYADVANTAGESINAUTOMATEDASWELLASNONAUTOMATEDPROCESSESELECTRICALPOWERISWIDELYAVAILABLEATMODERATECOSTITISANIMPORTANTPARTOFOURINDUSTRIALINFRASTRUCTUREELECTRICALPOWERCANBEREADILYCONVERTEDTOALTERNATIVEENERGYFORMSMECHANICAL,THERMAL,LIGHT,ACOUSTIC,HYDRAULIC,ANDPNEUMATICELECTRICALPOWERATLOWLEVELSCANBEUSEDTOACCOMPLISHFUNCTIONSSUCHASSIGNALTRANSMISSION,INFORMATIONPROCESSING,ANDDATASTORAGEANDCOMMUNICATIONELECTRICALENERGYCANBESTOREDINLONGLIFEBATTERIESFORUSEINLOCATIONSWHEREANEXTERNALSOURCEOFELECTRICALPOWERISNOTCONVENIENTLYAVAILABLEALTERNATIVEPOWERSOURCESINCLUDEFOSSILFUELS,SOLARENERGY,WATER,ANDWINDHOWEVER,THEIREXCLUSIVEUSEISRAREINAUTOMATEDSYSTEMSINMANYCASESWHENALTERNATIVEPOWERSOURCESAREUSEDTODRIVETHEPROCESSITSELF,ELECTRICALPOWERISUSEDFORTHECONTROLSTHATAUTOMATETOOPERATIONFOREXAMPLE,INCASTINGORHEATTREATMENT,THEFURNACEMAYBEHEARTEDBYFOSSILFUELS,BUTTHECONTROLSYSTEMTOREGULATETEMPERATUREANDTIMECYCLEISELECTRICALINOTHERCASES,THEENERGYFROMTHESEALTERNATIVESOURCESISCONVERTEDTOELECTRICPOWERTOOPERATEBOTHTHEPROCESSANDITSAUTOMATIONWHENSOLARENERGYISUSEDASAPOWERSOURCEFORANAUTOMATEDSYSTEM,ITISGENERALLYCONCERTEDINTHISWAYPOWERFORTHEPROCESSINPRODUCTION,THETERMPROCESSREFERSTOTHEMANUFACTURINGOPERATIONTHATISPERFORMEDONWORKUNITINADDITIONTODRIVINGTHEMANUFACTURINGPROCESSITSELF,POWERISALSOREQUIREDFORTHEFOLLOWINGMATERIALHANDLINGFUNCTIONSLOADINGANDUNLOADINGTHEWORKUNITTHESEPARTSMUSTBEMOVEDINTOTHEPROPERPOSITIONANDORIENTATIONFORTHEPROCESSTOBEPERFORMED,ANDPOWERISREQUIREDFORTHISTRANSPORTANDPLACEMENTFUNCTIONATTHECONCLUSIONOFTHEPROCESS,THEWORKUNITMUSTSIMILARLYBEREMOVEDIFTHEPROCESSISCOMPLETELYAUTOMATED,THENSOMEFORMOFMECHANIZEDPOWERMAYBEUSEDTOPOSITIONANDLOCATETHEWORKUNITMATERIALTRANSPORTBETWEENOPERATIONSINADDITIONTOLOADINGANDUNLOADINGATAGIVENOPERATION,THEWORKUNITSMUSTBEMOVEDBETWEENOPERATIONSWECONSIDERTHEMATERIALHANDLINGTECHNOLOGIESASSOCIATEDWITHTHISTRANSPORTFUNCTIONPOWERFORAUTOMATIONABOVEANDBEYONDTHEBASICPOWERREQUIREMENTSFORTHEMANUFACTURINGOPERATION,ADDITIONALPOWERISREQUIREDFORAUTOMATIONTHEADDITIONALPOWERISUSEDFORTHEFOLLOWINGFUNCTIONSCONTROLLERUNITMODERNINDUSTRIALCONTROLLERSAREBASEDONDIGITALCOMPUTERS,WHICHREQUIREELECTRICALPOWERTOREADTHEPROGRAMOFINSTRUCTIONS,MAKETHECONTROLCALCULATIONS,ANDEXECUTETHEINSTRUCTIONSBYTRANSMITTINGTHEPROPERCOMMANDSTOTHEACTUATIONDEVICESPOWERTOACTUATETHECONTROLSIGNALSTHECOMMANDSSENTBYTHECONTROLLERUNITARECARRIEDOUTBYMEANSOFELECTROMECHANICALDEVICES,SUCHASSWITCHESANDMOTORS,CALLEDACTUATORSTHECOMMANDSAREGENERALLYTRANSMITTEDBYMEANSOFLOWVOLTAGECONTROLSIGNALSTOACCOMPLISHTHECOMMANDS,THEACTUATORSREQUIREMOREPOWER,ANDSOTHECONTROLSIGNALSMUSTBEAMPLIFIEDTOPROVIDETHEPROPERPOWERLEVELFORACTUATINGDEVICEDATAACQUISITIONANDINFORMATIONPROCESSINGINMOSTCONTROLSYSTEMS,DATAMUSTBECOLLECTEDFROMTHEPROCESSANDUSEDASINPUTTOTHECONTROLALGORITHMSINADDITION,AREQUIREMENTOFTHEPROCESSMAYINCLUDEKEEPINGRECORDSOFPROCESSPERFORMANCEORPRODUCTQUALITYTHESEDATAACQUISITIONANDRECORDKEEPINGFUNCTIONSREQUIREPOWER,ALTHOUGHINMODESTAMOUNTSPROGRAMOFINSTRUCTIONSTHEACTIONSPERFORMEDBYANAUTOMATEDPROCESSAREDEFINEDBYAPROGRAMOFINSTRUCTIONSWHETHERTHEMANUFACTURINGOPERATIONINVOLVESLOW,MEDIUM,ORHIGHPRODUCTION,EACHPARTOFPRODUCTSTYLEMADEINTHEOPERATIONREQUIRESONEORMOREPROCESSINGSTEPSTHATAREUNIQUETOTHATSTYLETHESEPROCESSINGSTEPSAREPERFORMEDDURINGAWORKCYCLEANEWPARTISCOMPLETEDDURINGEACHWORKCYCLEINSOMEMANUFACTURINGOPERATIONS,MORETHANONEPARTISPRODUCEDMULTIPLEPARTSEACHCYCLEUSINGAMULTIPLECAVITYMOLDTHEPARTICULARPROCESSINGSTEPSFORTHEWORKCYCLEARESPECIFIEDINAWORKCYCLEPROGRAMWORKCYCLEPROGRAMSARECALLEDPARTPROGRAMSINNUMERICALCONTROLOTHERPROCESSCONTROLAPPLICATIONSUSEDIFFERENTNAMESOFTHISTYPEOFPROGRAMWORKCYCLEPROGRAMSINTHESIMPLESTAUTOMATEDPROCESSES,THEWORKCYCLECONSISTSOFESSENTIALLYONESTEP,WHICHISTOMAINTAINASINGLEPROCESSPARAMETERATADEFINEDLEVEL,FOREXAMPLE,MAINTAINTHETEMPERATUREOFFURNACEATADESIGNATEDVALUEFORTHEDURATIONOFAHEATTREATMENTCYCLEWEASSUMETHATLOADINGANDUNLOADINGOFTHEWORKUNITSINTOANDFROMTHEFURNACEISPERFORMEDMANUALLYANDISTHEREFORENOTPARTOFTHEAUTOMATICCYCLEINTHISCASE,PROGRAMMINGSIMPLYINVOLVESSETTINGTHETEMPERATUREDIALONTHEFURNACETOCHANGETHEPROGRAM,THEOPERATORSIMPLYCHANGESTHETEMPERATURESETTINGANEXTENSIONOFTHISSIMPLECASEISWHENTHESINGLESTEPPROCESSISDEFINEDBYMORETHENONEPROCESSPARAMETER,FOREXAMPLE,AFURNACEINWHICHBOTHTEMPERATUREANDATMOSPHEREARECONTROLLEDINMORECOMPLICATEDSYSTEMS,THEPROCESSINVOLVESAWORKCYCLECONSISTINGOFMULTIPLESTEPSTHATAREREPEATEDWITHNODEVIATIONFROMONECYCLETOTHENEXTMOSTDISCRETEPARTMANUFACTURINGOPERATIONSAREINTHISCATEGORYATYPICALSEQUENCEOFSTEPSSIMPLIFIEDIS1LOADTHEPARTINTOTHEPRODUCTIONMACHINE,2PERFORMTHEPROCESS,AND3UNLOADTHEPARTDURINGEACHSTEP,THEREAREONEORMOREACTIVITIESTHATINVOLVECHANGESINONEORMOREPROCESSPARAMETERSPROCESSPARAMETERSAREINPUTSTOTHEPROCESS,SUCHASTEMPERATURESETTINGOFAFURNACE,COORDINATEAXISVALUEINAPOSITIONINGSYSTEM,VALVEOPENEDORCLOSEDINAFLUIDFLOWSYSTEM,ANDMOTORONOROFFPROCESSPARAMETERSAREDISTINGUISHEDFROMPROCESSVARIABLES,WHICHAREOUTPUTSFROMTHEPROCESS;FOREXAMPLE,THEACTUALTEMPERATUREOFTHEFURNACE,THEACTUALPOSITIONOFTHEAXIS,THEACTUALFLOWRATEOFTHEFLUIDINTHEPIPE,ANDTHEROTATIONALSPEEDOFTHEMOTORASOURLISTOFEXAMPLESSUGGESTS,THECHANGESINPROCESSPARAMETERVALUESMAYBECONTINUOUS\GRADUALCHANGESDURINGTHEPROCESSINGSTEP;FOREXAMPLE,GRADUALLYINCREASINGTEMPERATUREDURINGAHEATTREATMENTCYCLEORDISCRETESTEPWISECHANGES;FOREXAMPLE,ON/OFFDIFFERENTPROCESSPARAMETERSMAYBEINVOLVEDINEACHSTEPANAUTOMATEDTURNINGOPERATIONCONSIDERANAUTOMATEDTURNINGOPERATIONINWHICHACONESHAPEDGEOMETRYISGENERATEDASSUMETHESYSTEMISAUTOMATEDANDTHATAROBOTISUSEDTOLOADANDUNLOADTHEWORKUNITTHEWORKCYCLECONSISTSOFTHEFOLLOWINGSTEPS(1)LOADSTARTINGWORKPIECE,(2)POSITIONCUTTINGTOOLPRIORTOTURNING,(3)TURN,(4)REPOSITIONTOOLTOASAFELOCATIONATENDOFTURNING,AND(5)UNLOADFINISHEDWORKPIECEIDENTIFYTHEACTIVITYANDPROCESSPARAMETERINEACHSTEPOFTHEOPERATIONSOLUTIONINSTEP(1),THEACTIVITIESCONSISTOFTHEROBOTMANIPULATORREACHINGFORTHERAWWORKPART,LIFTINGANDPOSITIONINGTHEPARTINTOTHECHUCKJAWSOFTHELATHE,THENPARAMETERSFORTHESEACTIVITIESARETHEAXISVALUESOFTHEROBOTMANIPULATOR,THEGRIPPERVALUE,ANDTHECHUCKJAWVALUEINSTEP(2),THEACTIVITYINVOLVESTHEMOVEMENTOFTHECUTTINGTOOLTOA“READY”POSITIONTHEPROCESSPARAMETERSASSOCIATEDWITHTHISACTIVITYARETHEXANDZAXISPOSITIONOFTHETOOLSTEP3ISTHETURNINGOPERATIONITREQUIRESTHESIMULTANEOUSCONTROLOFTHREEPROCESSPARAMETERSROTATIONALSPEEDOFTHEWORKPIECE,FEED,ANDRADIALDISTANCEOFTHECUTTINGTOOLFROMTHEAXISOFROTATIONTOCUTTHECONICALSHAPE,RADIALDISTANCEMUSTBECHANGEDCONTINUOUSLYATACONSTANTRATEOFEACHREVOLUTIONOFTHEWORKPIECEFORACONSISTENTFINISHONTHESURFACE,THEROTATIONALSPEEDMUSTBECONTINUOUSLYADJUSTEDTOMAINTAINACONSTANTSURFACESPEED,ANDFOREQUALFEEDMARKSONTHESURFACE,THEFEEDMUSTBESETACONSTANTVALUEDEPENDINGONTHEANGLEOFTHECONE,MULTIPLETURNINGPASSESMAYBEREQUIREDTOGRADUALLYGENERATETHEDESIREDCONTOUREACHPASSREPRESENTSANADDITIONALSTEPINTHESEQUENCESTEP4AND5INVOLVETHEREVERSEACTIVITIESASSTEPS2AND1,RESPECTIVELY,ANDTHEPROCESSPARAMETERSARETHESAMEMANYPRODUCTIONOPERATIONSCONSISTOFMULTIPLESTEPS,SOMETIMESMORECOMPLICATEDTHANOURTRUINGEXAMPLEEXAMPLESOFTHESEOPERATIONSINCLUDEAUTOMATICSCREWMACHINECYCLES,SHEET

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