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外文翻译长臂式采煤用的采煤机.doc

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外文翻译长臂式采煤用的采煤机.doc

大学学士学位论文1附录一(英文)I.SHEARERLOADERSFORLONGWALLMININGInEurope,longwallminingiscomprehensivelymechanizedbythealmostexclusiveuseofshearerloadersandploughs.IntheFederalRepublicofGermanyploughinghasbeenappliedtoagreaterextentthaninothercoutries.Inspiteofthis,theproportionofcoalextractedbyshearerloadersissteadilyincreasing.Itaccountedfor36percentofthetotalnationaloutputinOctober1977.Thereareanumberofconvincingreasonswhyshearerloadersaregainingground.Theiroperationisessentionlymoreindependentofthefloorandroofconditions,dirtbandsandchangingseamconditionsthanthatofploughs.Optimumadaptationofthecuttingheight,thefixedcuttingdepth,andbetterroofcontrolarefurtherargumentsinfavourofshearerloaders.InOctober1976theeffectiveworkingtimeonaploughfacewasintherangeof35percent,comparedwith48percentonashearerface.TheaverageoutputsreflecttheaboxefiguresFRGOctober19771130tfromaploughface,1678tfromashearerface.Itshouldbenoticed,however,thatshearerloadersaregenerallyoperatinginseamsofgreaterthickness.Shearerloadersarenowavailableforseamsrangingfrom0.75mto4.50minthickness.Thevariousmachineversionsfortherespectiveoperatingconditionsencounteredareassembledfromagreatnumberofmajorcomponentsinaccordancewiththeunitprincipleofconstruction.Eickhoffshearerloaders,forinstance,canbeequippedwith大学学士学位论文2longitudinalmotorshavingratingsof170,200,and300kw,and450kwatpresentand230kwunitswillbeavailablesoon.Theshearerstravelonoralongsidetheconveyor.Rangingarmsofdifferentlengthfrom740mmto2230mmareavailable.Theshearerscanbemanufacturedtooperateonvariousvoltagesandfrequenciesgenerallyused,withvarioushaulagemethodsandspeeds,anddifferentdrumspeedsanddrumdesignforvariousmachineheights.Contrarytoformeryearsthemanufacturersofsuchmachinesarethereforenolongerinapositiontoproduceidenticalmachinesinlargeseries,butarecompelledtoassembletheminingmachinesfromalargenumberofexistingcomponentsaccordingtoprincipleswhichrequirecontinuousrevisionandimprovement,andtointegratethemintocompletesystemstogetherwiththefaceconveyorandroofsupportsasrequiredbytheminingconditionsencountered.Althoughahighdegreeofdevelopmentandgreatoperationalsafetyforthesevereoperatingconditionsundergroundhavealreadybeenreached,effortshavetobemadetodeveloptheminingmachinesfurtherwithaviewtomeetthefollowingfuturerequirements1increasedoutputsandatthesametimeafurtherimprovementinoperationalsafety,2Extensionoftheworkingrangee.g.intosteeplyinclinedseams,3Improvementoftheergonomicalconditionse.g.reductionofdustmakeandnoise.IncreasedOutputsThecurrenttrendisformorecoaltobeextractedfromfewerfaces.大学学士学位论文3Theoutputfromsomefacesisalreadysohighthatevenshortstoppagesonafaceresultinanenormouslossofoutput.Therequiredincreaseofoutputsfromshearerloadersisthereforecloselyconnectedwiththerequirementforhigheroperationalsafety,abetterdegreeofutilisationandeasiermonitoringofallfunctionsofthemachine.Theimprovementinperformanceisthereforenotlimitedtothedevelopmentofmorepowerfulmotors,haulgeaboxes,gearheads,andrangingarms,butalsoincludestheelectricalmonitoringofthemachinesandeventuallyfullautomation.Thisalsoappliestothedevelopmentofcuttingtools,asthetoollifeandthetoolcostsaredecisivefortheperformanceofamachine.Outputscanalsobeincreasedbymultimachineoperationonaface.Theefficiencycanbeimprovedbytheeliminationofstableholesandbyavoidingstoppagescaused,forinstance,bylargelumpsbreakingoutofthefaceandwhichmustbecrushedmanually.Itisalsoobviousthatthelimitationoftheoperatingvoltageto1000vsetsalimittoperformanceandthatthefurtherincreaseofthenominalmotorratingswillrequiretheintroductionofhighervoltages.ExtensionoftheWorkingRangeComprehensiveexperiencehasbeengainedwithshearerloadersinlevelandslightlyinclinedseamsorworkingstotherise.Theminingofthinseamsisaffectedbyinherentlimitationssetbytheheightoftheconveyor,thenecessaryclearanceunderneaththemachine,andtheheightofthemachineitself.Thinseamscanthereforeonlybeextractedbyshearerloadersifthemachinetravelsalongsidetheconveyor.大学学士学位论文4Thisresultsinguidingproblemswhichcannotbesolvedbytheuseofaguidingarrangementprovidedinthetravelingtrackonly.Asolutioneventuallyfoundwastotrapthemachineagainsttheconveyor.Thisopenedpossibilitiesfortheshearerloaderinaseamthicknesswhichsofarwasreservedfortheplough.AgreatnumberofEDW170LNshearersarenowoperating,particularlyinGreatBritainwheretheyextractthinseamsofhighgradecokingcoal.Insteeplyinclinedseamstheuseofshearerloadershasbeenlimitedduetohaulagedifficulties,andfindingadequatesafetydevicestoretainthesheareronthegradient.Newdevelopmentswhichdispensewithadditionalsafetydevicesoutsideofthemachineandwhichprovideforthenecessaryhaulagearrangementshaveextendedtheworkingrangeofshearerloadersintosteeplyinclinedseams.Thecostofroadwaydrivageandmaintenanceincreaseconsiderablywiththedepthoftheworkings.Thedevelopmentofadvancedheadinghassofarimpededfaceadvance.Thechainlesshaulagesystemforshearerloadersnowallowsformultimachineoperation.Withinsuchasystemfaceandmachinescanbeusedwhicharedesignedforthepurposeandwhichthusnotonlyeliminatestableholes,butalsocuttheroadwaysection,sothathighoutputsareachievedwiththeresultingincreasedproductivity.ImprovementofErgonomicalConditionsUndergroundComparedwithotherindustrialactivities,workingundergroundisparticularlylaboriousanddangerous.Effortsarethereforebeingmadetoeasethetasksandtoincreasethesafetyoftheworkingsundergroundnotonlybecauseofthenecessitytoobtainpeoplewhoarewillingtooperatethe

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