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外文翻译面向无图形化:SNK公司的方法.doc

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外文翻译面向无图形化:SNK公司的方法.doc

附录A英文资料GoingDrawinglessSNKsApproachYukioKumagaiManager1.IntroductionMorethanoneyearintothe21stcentury,Japansmanufacturingindustryiscurrentlyatamajorturningpointtheendoftheglorydaysbetweenthe1980sandtheearly1990softhecountrythatthenwonsuchpraiseasJapanasNo.1.TileJapanesemanufacturingindustry,whichistheheartandsoulofJapanasoneofthemostindustrializedcountriesintheworld,isbeingfacedwiththeharshrealityofintensifyingglobalcompetitionwithnotonlyEuropeanandAmericanmanufacturerswhichhaveregainedtheirstrengthsincethemiddleofthe1990sbutalsotheAsiancountrieswhichhaveincreasinglygainedindustrialpowerinadditiontothehollowingoutofindustryandtechnologyathome.ManufacturersinJapanmustnowtakeupnewmanufacturingchallengesinordertosurviveinthewildlychangingmanufacturinglandscapeinthe21stcentury.Underthesecircumstances,ITinformationtechnologyhasbecomeakeywordforsurvivalofbusinesses.Itisgenerallysaidthatahigherlevelofinformationtechnology,shorterproductdevelopmentcyclesandthoroughcostreductionareessentialforsurvival.Inthemanufacturingindustry,itisnecessarytointegrateandoptimizethedesign,production,distribution,marketingandaftersalesservicesbybuildinganetworkbasedonathreedimensional3DCADsystemandadatabasesystemsothattheentireproductlifecyclecanbemanaged.Inorderformanufacturerstosurvive,collaborationamongagroupofbusinessesusingInternettechnologymadepossiblebyWebserversandhighspeedbroadbandcommunicationsisanotherimportantrequirement.TheroleofITisalsoimportantinpreventingthehollowingoutoftechnology.Efforttotakeskilledworkersexpertiseandknowledgenumericallyandaccumulateandhanddowntothenextgenerationsthetechnologythusdigitalizedisofcriticalimportanceformanufacturers.SNKscorporatemotto,FromSkillsToTechnology,isavitalrequirementforsurvivingcompetitioninthe21stcentury.Toachievethesegoals,SNKisworkingonacompanywidereformthroughdigitalizationoftechnology,describingthetasktobeaccomplishedasgoingdrawingless.Asearlyas1995,SNKbeganatransitionto3Ddesigningandstartedworkingtowardtheimplementationofanadvanceddesignandproductionsystem.ThisarticleintroducessomeofSNKsongoingeffortstobuildaWebcomputingbasedtechnicalinformationdatabasesystemandachievetheobjectiveofgoingdrawinglessbyimplementinga3DCADsystem.2.ConcurrentEngineeringBehindtheUSeconomyscontinuingprosperitysince1996duringtheperiodinwhichtheJapaneseeconomydeterioratedwerenewtypesofeffortsbasedoncomputernetworks.Theseeffortsincludedthedevelopmentandapplicationof6asixsigmaandotherqualitymanagementsystems,knowledgemanagementknowledgemanagementdatabasesystems,andenterpriseresourceplanningERPandsupplychainmanagementSCMsystems.Ofthesenewtechnologies,concurrentengineeringisatechniquethathasenabledthedramaticgrowthoftheUSmanufacturingindustry.Thetechniquewasdevelopedasamethodofproductdevelopmenttomeetrapidlychangingcustomerneeds.ConcurrentengineeringFigure1isasystematicapproachtotheintegrated,concurrentdesignofproductsandtheirrelatedprocesses,includingmanufacturingandsupport.Thisapproachisintendedtocausethedevelopers,fromtheoutset,toconsiderallelementsoftheproductlifecycle...IDAReportR338.Theultimategoalofaproductdesignandproductionsystemistoensurethatallinformationnecessaryforproductionisavailableatthecompletionofproductdesign.Thisisalsowhatconcurrentengineeringaimstoachieve.Inotherwords,theoutputfromdesignisNCprogramsinsteadofdrawings.ThismeansthatNCmachiningcanbestarteduponcompletionofdesign.Theultimategoalofaproductdesignandproductionsystemistoensurethatallinformationnecessaryforproductionisavailableatthecompletionofproductdesign.Thisisalsowhatconcurrentengineeringaimstoachieve.Inotherwords,theoutputfromdesignisNCprogramsinsteadofdrawings.ThismeansthatNCmachiningcanbestarteduponcompletionofdesign.Inconcurrentengineering,informationondownstreamprocessesofproductdesigne.g.,informationonproductiontechnologyisevaluatedandstudiedearlyinupstreamprocesses,andtheresultsarefedbacktodesign.Thisreducesdesignchangesatalaterstageproductionstagedramatically,preventscostandleadtimeincreases,shortenstheproductdevelopmentcycleconsiderably,improvesproductquality,andreducescostsFigure3.SomemaythinkthatatypicalconventionaldesignsysteminJapanisaconcurrentdesignsystemunderwhichdesignworkisperformedunderacompetentdesignleader,butthisisnottrue.Concurrentengineeringreferstocreatingcosteffectiveproductsbymakinguseofthecollectiveknowledgeofalldepartmentsandallpersonnelofabusinessorganization.Concurrentengineeringisasystematicapproachinwhichknowledgeisstoredinelectronicforminacomputerizeddatabasesystem,andproductsaredesignedthroughcommunicationviaacomputernetwork.Inthisrespect,concurrentengineeringdiffersfromtheconventionalJapanesedesignmethod,whichrequiresadesignleadertodependon.Creatingsomethingwithoutusingdrawingsmaybeconsideredsynonymouswithmakingthisconcurrentengineeringreality.3.3DCADSystemNeededtoGoDrawinglessOnetoolthathelpseliminatedrawingsisa3DCADsystem.Sincearound1990,efforthasbeenmadetodeveloppracticalfeatmebased3DCADsystems.Thankstothedramaticimprovementofcomputertechnologyandloweringpricesofcomputerscoupledwiththeprogressofsoftwaretechnology,computershavenowbecomepowerfulenoughforpractical3DCADsystems.Switchoverfrom2DCADsystemsto3DCADsystemshasbecomeatrendnotonlyinthefieldofmechanicalstructuredesignbutalsoinotherfields,asshowninFigure4.Withtheprogressofthetransitionto3Ddesign,theburdenofhavingtoprepare2Ddrawingsforthepurposeofproductionbecameaproblem,givingrisetocallsforproductionsystemsbasedonthedrawinglessengineeringconcept.However,3DCADsystemsand3Ddesignmodelingcapabilityarenottheonlyrequirementsformakingconcurrentengineeringordrawinglessengineeringareality.Drawinglessengineeringrequiresapersonorateamofpeoplewellversedinallaspectsofdesignandproductionprocesses,processanalysis,and,lastbutnotleastimportant,thewilltoeffectprocessinnovation.Itisnecessarytofullyunderstandthata3DCADsystemisonlyatool,notapurpose,andtoworksystematicallytowardthestandardizationofdataandtheimplementationofaprocessreformfromaviewpointthatisnotconstrainedbyconventionalmethodologies.ThefollowingsectionsintroduceSNKsapproachtogoingdrawingless.4.EstablishmentofInfrastructureatSNKAsmentionedearlier,SNKearlyonrecognizedtheimportanceof3DCADsystemsandin1995begantoworktowardaswitchovertoa3DCADsystem.ThatwasabolddecisionmadebySNKstopmanagementwhobelievedthatdrawingless,whichrepresentsthemethodofperformingdesignandproductionconcunentlybynetworking,wasthekeywordforsurvival.AnimportantinfrastructuralcomponentofSNKs3DCADsystemistheTechnicalInformationDatabase.Introductionof3DCADsoftwareisnotenoughtomakeefficientuseofthe3DCADsystem.Itisalsonecessarytoaccumulatedesignandproductioninformationindigitalformsothattheinformationthusaccumulatedcanbesharedbyallmembersofthecompany.Fortunately,SNKalreadyhadarelationaldatabasesystem

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