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外文翻译风力发电中的自我激励与谐波.pdf

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外文翻译风力发电中的自我激励与谐波.pdf

RUGGED,EGENERATIONCURRGUIDELINES2POWERSYSTEMNETWORKDESCRIPTIONBINECANENTERSELFEXCITATIONOPERATIONTHEVOLTAGEANDFREQUENCYDURINGOFFGRIDOPERATIONAREDETERMINEDBYTHEBALANCEBETWEENTHESYSTEM’SREACTIVEANDREALPOWERDOWNLOADED28MAR2008TO2118210020REDISTRIBUTIONSUBJECTTOASMELICENSEORCOPYRIGHT;SEEHTTP//WWWASMEORG/TERMS/TERMS_USECFMWEINVESTIGATEAVERYSIMPLEPOWERSYSTEMNETWORKCONSISTINGOFONE15MW,FIXEDSPEEDWINDTURBINEWITHANINDUCTIONGENERATORCONNECTEDTOALINEFEEDERVIAATRANSFORMERH208492MVA,3PHASE,60HZ,690V/12KVH20850THELOWSPEEDSHAFTOPERATESAT225RPM,ANDTHEGENERATORROTORSPEEDIS1200RPMATITSSYNCHRONOUSSPEEDADIAGRAMREPRESENTINGTHISSYSTEMISSHOWNINFIG1THEPOWERSYSTEMCOMPONENTSANALYZEDINCLUDETHEFOLLOWINGANINFINITEBUSANDALONGLINECONNECTINGTHEWINDTURBINETOTHESUBSTATIONATRANSFORMERATTHEPADMOUNTONEPOTENTIALPROBLEMARISINGFROMSELFEXCITATIONISTHESAFETYASPECTBECAUSETHEGENERATORISSTILLGENERATINGVOLTAGE,ITMAYCOMPROMISETHESAFETYOFTHEPERSONNELINSPECTINGORREPAIRINGTHELINEORGENERATORANOTHERPOTENTIALPROBLEMISTHATTHEGENERATOR’SOPERATINGVOLTAGEANDFREQUENCYMAYVARYTHUS,IFSENSITIVEEQUIPMENTISCONNECTEDTOTHEGENERATORDURINGSELFEXCITATION,THATEQUIPMENTMAYBEDAMAGEDBYOVER/UNDERVOLTAGEANDOVER/UNDERFREQUENCYOPERATIONINSPITEOFTHEDISADVANTAGESOFOPERATINGTHEINDUCTIONGENERATORINSELFEXCITATION,SOMEPEOPLEUSETHISMODEFORDYNAMICBRAKINGTOHELPCONTROLTHEROTORSPEEDDURINGANEMERGENCYSUCHASAGRIDLOSSCONDITIONWITHTHEPROPERCHOICEOFCAPACITANCEANDRESISTORLOADH20849TODUMPTHEENERGYFROMTHEWINDTURBINEH20850,SELFEXCITATIONCANBEUSEDTOMAINTAINTHEWINDTURBINEATASAFEOPERATINGSPEEDDURINGGRIDLOSSANDMECHANICALBRAKEMALFUNCTIONSTHEEQUATIONSGOVERNINGTHESYSTEMCANBESIMPLIFIEDBYLOOKINGATTHEIMPEDANCEORADMITTANCEOFTHEINDUCTIONMACHINETOCONTRIBUTEDBYTHESOLARENERGYDIVISIONOFTHEAMERICANSOCIETYOFMECHANICALENGINEERSFORPUBLICATIONINTHEASMEJOURNALOFSOLARENERGYENGINEERINGMANUSCRIPTRECEIVEDFEBRUARY28,2005;REVISEDRECEIVEDJULY22,2005ASSOCIATEEDITORDALEBERGJOURNALOFSOLARENERGYENGINEERINGNOVEMBER2005,VOL127/581COPYRIGHT2005BYASMEEMULJADICPBUTTERFIELDNATIONALRENEWABLEENERGYLABORATORY,GOLDEN,COLORADO80401HROMANOWITZOAKCREEKENERGYSYSTEMSINC,MOJAVE,CALIFORNIA93501RYINGERSOUTHERNCALIFORNIAEDISON,ROSEMEAD,CALIFORNIA91770SELFEXCITATIONWINDPOWERTRADITIONALWINDTURBINESTHEYAREINEXPENSIVE,TIONGENERATORSREQUIRISOFTENUSEDBECAUSETHECAPACITORCOMPENSATIONAMONGTHEWINDTURBINE,TANTASPECTSOFWINDCONTENTINTHEOUTPUTENAANDGIVESSOMEH20851DOI101115/120475901INTRODUCTIONMANYOFTODAY’SOPERATINGWINDTURBINESHAVEFIXEDSPEEDINDUCTIONGENERATORSTHATAREVERYRELIABLE,RUGGED,ANDLOWCOSTDURINGNORMALOPERATION,ANINDUCTIONMACHINEREQUIRESREACTIVEPOWERFROMTHEGRIDATALLTIMESTHUS,THEGENERALPRACTICEISTOCOMPENSATEREACTIVEPOWERLOCALLYATTHEWINDTURBINEANDATTHEPOINTOFCOMMONCOUPLINGWHERETHEWINDFARMINTERFACESWITHTHEOUTSIDEWORLDTHEMOSTCOMMONLYUSEDREACTIVEPOWERCOMPENSATIONISCAPACITORCOMPENSATIONITISSTATIC,LOWCOST,ANDREADILYAVAILABLEINDIFFERENTSIZESDIFFERENTSIZESOFCAPACITORSAREGENERALLYNEEDEDFORDIFFERENTLEVELSOFGENERATIONABANKOFPARALLELCAPACITORSISSWITCHEDINANDOUTTOADJUSTTHELEVELOFCOMPENSATIONWITHPROPERCOMPENSATION,THEPOWERFACTOROFTHEWINDTURBINECANBEIMPROVEDSIGNIFICANTLY,THUSIMPROVINGOVERALLEFFICIENCYANDVOLTAGEREGULATIONONTHEOTHERHAND,INSUFFICIENTREACTIVEPOWERCOMPENSATIONCANLEADTOVOLTAGECOLLAPSEANDINSTABILITYOFTHEPOWERSYSTEM,ESPECIALLYINAWEAKGRIDENVIRONMENTALTHOUGHREACTIVEPOWERCOMPENSATIONCANBEBENEFICIALTOTHEOVERALLOPERATIONOFWINDTURBINES,WESHOULDBESURETHECOMPENSATIONISTHEPROPERSIZEANDPROVIDESPROPERCONTROLTWOIMPORTANTASPECTSOFCAPACITORCOMPENSATION,SELFEXCITATIONH208511,2H20852ANDHARMONICSH208513,4H20852,ARETHESUBJECTSOFTHISPAPERINSEC2,WEDESCRIBETHEPOWERSYSTEMNETWORK;INSEC3,WEDISCUSSTHESELFEXCITATIONINAFIXEDSPEEDWINDTURBINE;ANDINSEC4,WEDISCUSSHARMONICSFINALLY,OURCONCLUSIONSAREPRESENTEDINSEC5ANDHARMONICSINGENERATIONARECOMMONLYEQUIPPEDWITHINDUCTIONGENERATORSBECAUSEANDREQUIREVERYLITTLEMAINTENANCEUNFORTUNATELY,INDUCREACTIVEPOWERFROMTHEGRIDTOOPERATE;CAPACITORCOMPENSATIONTHELEVELOFREQUIREDREACTIVEPOWERVARIESWITHTHEOUTPUTPOWER,MUSTBEADJUSTEDASTHEOUTPUTPOWERVARIESTHEINTERACTIONSTHEPOWERNETWORK,ANDTHECAPACITORCOMPENSATIONAREIMPORTHATMAYRESULTINSELFEXCITATIONANDHIGHERHARMONICENTTHISPAPEREXAMINESTHEFACTORSTHATCONTROLTHESEPHENOMONHOWTHEYCANBECONTROLLEDORELIMINATEDH20852CAPACITORSCONNECTEDINTHELOWVOLTAGESIDEOFTHETRANSFORMERANINDUCTIONGENERATORFORTHESELFEXCITATION,WEFOCUSONTHETURBINEANDTHECAPACITORCOMPENSATIONONLYH20849THERIGHTHALFOFFIG1H20850FORHARMONICANALYSIS,WECONSIDERTHEENTIRENETWORKSHOWNINFIG13SELFEXCITATION31THENATUREOFSELFEXCITATIONINANINDUCTIONGENERATORSELFEXCITATIONISARESULTOFTHEINTERACTIONSAMONGTHEINDUCTIONGENERATOR,CAPACITORCOMPENSATION,ELECTRICALLOAD,ANDMAGNETICSATURATIONTHISSECTIONINVESTIGATESTHESELFEXCITATIONPROCESSINANOFFGRIDINDUCTIONGENERATOR;KNOWINGTHELIMITSANDTHEBOUNDARIESOFSELFEXCITATIONOPERATIONWILLHELPUSTOEITHERUTILIZEORTOAVOIDSELFEXCITATIONFIXEDCAPACITORSARETHEMOSTCOMMONLYUSEDMETHODOFREACTIVEPOWERCOMPENSATIONINAFIXEDSPEEDWINDTURBINEANINDUCTIONGENERATORALONECANNOTGENERATEITSOWNREACTIVEPOWER;ITREQUIRESREACTIVEPOWERFROMTHEGRIDTOOPERATENORMALLY,ANDTHEGRIDDICTATESTHEVOLTAGEANDFREQUENCYOFTHEINDUCTIONGENERATORALTHOUGHSELFEXCITATIONDOESNOTOCCURDURINGNORMALGRIDCONNECTEDOPERATION,ITCANOCCURDURINGOFFGRIDOPERATIONFOREXAMPLE,IFAWINDTURBINEOPERATINGINNORMALMODEBECOMESDISCONNECTEDFROMTHEPOWERLINEDUETOASUDDENFAULTORDISTURBANCEINTHELINEFEEDER,THECAPACITORSCONNECTEDTOTHEINDUCTIONGENERATORWILLPROVIDEREACTIVEPOWERCOMPENSATION,ANDTHETURDOWNLOADED28MAR2008TO2118210020REDISTRIBUTIONSUBJECTTOASMELICENSEORCOPYRIGHT;SEEHTTP//WWWASMEORG/TERMS/TERMS_USECFMOPERATEINANISOLATEDFASHION,THETOTALADMITTANCEOFTHEINDUCTIONMACHINEANDTHERESTOFTHECONNECTEDLOADMUSTBEZEROTHEVOLTAGEOFTHESYSTEMISDETERMINEDBYTHEFLUXANDFREQUENCYOFTHESYSTEMTHUS,ITISEASIERTOSTARTTHEANALYSISFROMANODEATONEENDOFTHEMAGNETIZINGBRANCHNOTETHATTHETERM“IMPEDANCE”INTHISPAPERISTHECONVENTIONALIMPEDANCEDIVIDEDBYTHEFREQUENCYTHETERM“ADMITTANCE”INTHISPAPERCORRESPONDSTOTHEACTUALADMITTANCEMULTIPLIEDBYTHEFREQUENCY32STEADYSTATEREPRESENTATIONTHESTEADYSTATEANALYSISISIMPORTANTTOUNDERSTANDTHECONDITIONSREQUIREDTOSUSTAINORTODIMINISHSELFEXCITATIONASEXPLAINEDABOVE,SELFEXCITATIONCANBEAGOODTHINGORABADTHING,DEPENDINGONHOWWEENCOUNTERTHESITUATIONFIGURE2SHOWSANEQUIVALENTCIRCUITOFACAPACITORCOMPENSATEDINDUCTIONGENERATORASMENTIONEDABOVE,SELFEXCITATIONOPERATIONREQUIRESTHATTHEBALANCEOFBOTHREALANDREACTIVEPOWERMUSTBEMAINTAINEDEQUATIONH208491H20850GIVESTHETOTALADMITTANCEOFTHESYSTEMSHOWNINFIG2YSYMH11032YRH110320,H208491H20850WHEREYSH11005EFFECTIVEADMITTANCEREPRESENTINGTHESTATORWINDING,THECAPACITOR,ANDTHELOADSEENBYNODEMYMH11032H11005EFFECTIVEADMITTANCEREPRESENTINGTHEMAGNETIZINGBRANCHASSEENBYNODEM,REFERREDTOTHESTATORSIDEYRH11032H11005EFFECTIVEADMITTANCEREPRESENTINGTHEROTORWINDINGASSEENBYNODEM,REFERREDTOTHESTATORSIDEH20849NOTETHESUPERSCRIPT“H11032”INDICATESTHATTHEVALUESAREREFERREDTOTHESTATORSIDEH20850EQUATIONH208491H20850CANBEEXPANDEDINTOTHEEQUATIONSFORIMAGINARYANDREALPARTSASSHOWNINEQSH208492H20850ANDH208493H20850R1L/H9275H20849R1L/H9275H208502L1L2RRH11032/SH9275H20849RRH11032/SH9275H208502LLRH1103220H208492H20850WHEREFIG1THEPHYSICALDIAGRAMOFTHESYSTEMUNDERINVESTIGATIONFIG2PERPHASEEQUIVALENTCIRCUITOFANINDUCTIONGENERATORUNDERSELFEXCITATIONMODE582/VOL127,NOVEMBER20051LMH11032L1LH20849R1L/H9275H208502L1L2LLRH11032H20849RRH11032/SH9275H208502LLRH1103220H208493H20850R1LRSRLH20849H9275CRLH2085021L1LLLS−CRLH20849H9275CRLH2085021RSH11005STATORWINDINGRESISTANCELLSH11005STATORWINDINGLEAKAGEINDUCTANCERRH11032H11005ROTORWINDINGRESISTANCELLRH11032H11005ROTORWINDINGLEAKAGEINDUCTANCELMH11032H11005STATORWINDINGRESISTANCESH11005OPERATINGSLIPH9275H11005OPERATINGFREQUENCYRLH11005LOADRESISTANCECONNECTEDTOTHETERMINALSCH11005CAPACITORCOMPENSATIONR1LANDL1LARETHEEFFECTIVERESISTANCEANDINDUCTANCE,RESPECTIVELY,REPRESENTINGTHESTATORWINDINGANDTHELOADASSEENBYNODEMONEIMPORTANTASPECTOFSELFEXCITATIONISTHEMAGNETIZINGCHARACTERISTICOFTHEINDUCTIONGENERATORFIGURE3SHOWSTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENTHEFLUXLINKAGEANDTHEMAGNETIZINGINDUCTANCEFORATYPICALGENERATOR;ANINCREASEINTHEFLUXLINKAGEBEYONDACERTAINLEVELREDUCESTHEEFFECTIVEMAGNETIZINGINDUCTANCELMH11032THISGRAPHCANBEDERIVEDFROMTHEEXPERIMENTALLYDETERMINEDNOLOADCHARACTERISTICOFTHEINDUCTIONGENERATORTOSOLVETHEABOVEEQUATIONS,WECANFIXTHECAPACITORH20849CH20850ANDTHERESISTIVELOADH20849RLH20850VALUESANDTHENFINDTHEOPERATINGPOINTSFORDIFFERENTFREQUENCIESFROMEQH208492H20850,WECANFINDTHEOPERATINGSLIPATAPARTICULARFREQUENCYTHEN,FROMEQH208493H20850,WECANFINDTHECORRESPONDINGMAGNETIZINGINDUCTANCELMH11032,AND,FROMFIG3,THEOPERATINGFLUXLINKAGEATTHISFREQUENCYTHEPROCESSISREPEATEDFORDIFFERENTFREQUENCIESASABASELINE,WECONSIDERACAPACITORWITHACAPACITANCEOF38MFH20849MILLIFARADH20850CONNECTEDTOTHEGENERATORTOPRODUCEAPPROXIMATELYRATEDVARH20849VOLTAMPEREREACTIVEH20850COMPENSATIONFORFULLLOADGENERATIONH20849HIGHWINDH20850ALOADRESISTANCEOFRL10H9024ISUSEDASTHEBASELINELOADTHESLIPVERSUSROTORSPEEDPRESENTEDINFIG4SHOWSTHATTHESLIPISROUGHLYCONSTANTTHROUGHOUTTHESPEEDRANGEFORACONSTANTLOADRESISTANCETHECAPACITANCEDOESNOTAFFECTTHEOPERATINGSLIPFORACONSTANTLOADRESISTANCE,BUTAHIGHERRESISTANCEH20849RLHIGHLOWERGENERATEDPOWERH20850CORRESPONDSTOALOWERSLIPTHEVOLTAGEATTHETERMINALSOFTHEINDUCTIONGENERATORH20849PRESENTEDINFIG5H20850SHOWSTHEIMPACTOFCHANGESINTHECAPACITANCEFIG3ATYPICALMAGNETIZATIONCHARACTERISTICTRANSACTIONSOFTHEASMEDOWNLOADED28MAR2008TO2118210020REDISTRIBUTIONSUBJECTTOASMELICENSEORCOPYRIGHT;SEEHTTP//WWWASMEORG/TERMS/TERMS_USECFMANDLOADRESISTANCEASSHOWNINFIG5,THELOADRESISTANCEDOESNOTAFFECTTHETERMINALVOLTAGE,ESPECIALLYATTHEHIGHERRPMH20849HIGHERFREQUENCYH20850,BUTTHECAPACITANCEHASASIGNIFICANTIMPACTONTHEVOLTAGEPROFILEATTHEGENERATORTERMINALSALARGERCAPACITANCEYIELDSLESSVOLTAGEVARIATIONWITHROTORSPEED,WHILEASMALLERCAPACITANCEYIELDSMOREVOLTAGEVARIATIONWITHROTORSPEEDASSHOWNINFIG6,FORAGIVENCAPACITANCE,CHANGINGTHEEFFECTIVEVALUEOFTHELOADRESISTANCECANMODULATETHETORQUESPEEDCHARACTERISTICTHESECONCEPTSOFSELFEXCITATIONCANBEEXPLOITEDTOPROVIDEDYNAMICBRAKINGFORAWINDTURBINEH20849ASMENTIONEDABOVEH20850TOPREVENTTHETURBINEFROMRUNNINGAWAYWHENITLOSESITSCONNECTIONTOTHEGRID;ONESIMPLYNEEDSTOCHOOSETHECORRECTVALUESFORCAPACITANCEH20849AHIGHVALUEH20850ANDLOADRE

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