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外文翻译马铃薯播种机的性能评估英文.pdf

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外文翻译马铃薯播种机的性能评估英文.pdf

BIOSYSTEMSENGINEERING2006951,35–41DOI101016/JBIOSYSTEMSENG200606007PMPOWERANDMACHINERYSTRASSEOPENINGFORDROPPINGTHEPOTATOINTOAFURROWINTHESOILPLANTERSAREEQUIPPEDWITHTWOPARALLELROWSOFCUPSPERBELTINSTEADOFONEDOUBLINGTHECUPROWALLOWSARTICLEINPRESSPARAMETERSOFMACHINEPERFORMANCEHIGHACCURACYOFPLANTSPACINGRESULTSINHIGHYIELDANDAUNIFORMSORTINGANDTHUS,AHIGHERCAPACITYATTHESAMEACCURACYISEXPECTEDCAPACITYANDACCURACYOFPLANTSPACINGARETHEMAINDOUBLETHETRAVELSPEEDWITHOUTINCREASINGTHEBELTSPEED15375110/320035R2006IAGREALLRIGHTSRESERVEDTHEFUNCTIONINGOFMOSTPOTATOPLANTERSISBASEDONTRANSPORTANDPLACEMENTOFTHESEEDPOTATOESBYACUPBELTTHECAPACITYOFTHISPROCESSISRATHERLOWWHENPLANTINGACCURACYHASTOSTAYATACCEPTABLELEVELSTHEMAINLIMITATIONSARESETBYTHESPEEDOFTHECUPBELTANDTHENUMBERANDPOSITIONINGOFTHECUPSITWASHYPOTHESISEDTHATTHEINACCURACYINPLANTINGDISTANCE,THATISTHEDEVIATIONFROMUNIFORMPLANTINGDISTANCES,MAINLYISCREATEDBYTHECONSTRUCTIONOFTHECUPBELTPLANTERTODETERMINETHEORIGINOFTHEDEVIATIONSINUNIFORMITYOFPLACEMENTOFTHEPOTATOESATHEORETICALMODELWASBUILTTHEMODELCALCULATESTHETIMEINTERVALBETWEENEACHSUCCESSIVEPOTATOTOUCHINGTHEGROUNDREFERRINGTOTHERESULTSOFTHEMODEL,TWOHYPOTHESESWEREPOSED,ONEWITHRESPECTTOTHEEFFECTOFBELTSPEED,ANDONEWITHRESPECTTOTHEINFLUENCEOFPOTATOSHAPEAPLANTERUNITWASINSTALLEDINALABORATORYTOTESTTHESETWOHYPOTHESESAHIGHSPEEDCAMERAWASUSEDTOMEASURETHETIMEINTERVALBETWEENEACHSUCCESSIVEPOTATOJUSTBEFORETHEYREACHTHESOILSURFACEANDTOVISUALISETHEBEHAVIOUROFTHEPOTATOTHERESULTSSHOWEDTHATATHEHIGHERTHESPEEDOFTHECUPBELT,THEMOREUNIFORMISTHEDEPOSITIONOFTHEPOTATOES;ANDBAMOREREGULARPOTATOSHAPEDIDNOTRESULTINAHIGHERPLANTINGACCURACYMAJORIMPROVEMENTSCANBEACHIEVEDBYREDUCINGTHEOPENINGTIMEATTHEBOTTOMOFTHEDUCTANDBYIMPROVINGTHEDESIGNOFTHECUPSANDITSPOSITIONRELATIVETOTHEDUCTTHISWILLALLOWMOREROOMFORCHANGESINTHECUPBELTSPEEDSWHILEKEEPINGAHIGHPLANTINGACCURACYR2006IAGREALLRIGHTSRESERVEDPUBLISHEDBYELSEVIERLTD1INTRODUCTIONTHECUPBELTPLANTERFIG1ISTHEMOSTCOMMONLYUSEDMACHINETOPLANTPOTATOESTHESEEDPOTATOESARETRANSFERREDFROMAHOPPERTOTHECONVEYORBELTWITHCUPSSIZEDTOHOLDONETUBERTHISBELTMOVESUPWARDSTOLIFTTHEPOTATOESOUTOFTHEHOPPERANDTURNSOVERTHEUPPERSHEAVEATTHISPOINT,THEPOTATOESFALLONTHEBACKOFTHENEXTCUPANDARECONFINEDINASHEETMETALDUCTATTHEBOTTOM,THEBELTTURNSOVERTHEROLLER,CREATINGTHEOFTHETUBERSATHARVESTMCPHEEETAL,1996;PAVEKTHORNTON,2003FIELDMEASUREMENTSUNPUBLISHEDDATAOFPLANTINGDISTANCEINTHENETHERLANDSREVEALEDACOEFFICIENTOFVARIATIONCVOFAROUND20EARLIERSTUDIESINCANADAANDTHEUSASHOWEDEVENHIGHERCVSOFUPTO69MISENER,1982;ENTZLACROIX,1983;SIECZKAETAL,1986,INDICATINGTHATTHEACCURACYISLOWCOMPAREDTOPRECISIONPLANTERSFORBEETORMAIZETRAVELLINGSPEEDANDACCURACYOFPLANTINGSHOWANINVERSECORRELATIONTHEREFORE,THEPRESENTCUPBELTASSESSMENTOFTHEBEHAVIOUROFHBUITENWERF1,2;WBHOOGMOED1FARMTECHNOLOGYGROUP,WAGENINGENUNIVERSITY,POEMAILOFCORRESPONDINGAUTHOR2KRONEGMBH,HEINRICHKRONE3IBLERINK,LAANVANMOERKERKEN85,3271AJ4INSTITUTEOFAGRICULTURALENGINEERING,UNIVERSITYRECEIVED27MAY2005;ACCEPTEDINREVISEDFORMPOTATOESINACUPBELTPLANTER1;PLERINK3;JMULLER1,4BOX17,6700AAWAGENINGEN,THENETHERLANDS;WILLEMHOOGMOEDWURNL10,48480SPELLE,GERMANYMIJNSHEERENLAND,THENETHERLANDSOFHOHENHEIM,D70593STUTTGART,GERMANY20JUNE2006;PUBLISHEDONLINE2AUGUST2006PUBLISHEDBYELSEVIERLTDFORHANDLINGANDTRANSPORTINGMANYSHAPEFEATURES,USUALLYCOMBINEDWITHSIZEMEASUREMENTS,CANBEDISTINGUISHEDDUSUN,2004;TAOETAL,1995;ZODLER,1969INTHENETHERLANDSGRADINGOFPOTATOESISMOSTLYDONEBYUSINGTHESQUAREMESHSIZEKONINGDEETAL,1994,WHICHISDETERMINEDONLYBYTHEWIDTHANDHEIGHTLARGESTANDLEASTBREADTHOFTHEPOTATOFORTHETRANSPORTPROCESSESINSIDETHEPLANTER,THELENGTHOFTHEPOTATOISADECISIVEFACTORASWELLARTICLEINPRESSHBUITENWERFETAL36THEOBJECTIVEOFTHISSTUDYWASTOINVESTIGATETHEREASONSFORTHELOWACCURACYOFCUPBELTPLANTERSANDTOUSETHISKNOWLEDGETODERIVERECOMMENDATIONSFORDESIGNMODIFICATIONS,EGINBELTSPEEDSORSHAPEAND78910FIG1WORKINGCOMPONENTSOFTHECUPBELTPLANTER1POTATOESINHOPPER;2CUPBELT;3CUP;4UPPERSHEAVE;5DUCT;6POTATOONBACKOFCUP;7FURROWER;8ROLLER;9RELEASEOPENING;10GROUNDLEVEL564321NUMBEROFCUPSFORBETTERUNDERSTANDING,AMODELWASDEVELOPED,DESCRIBINGTHEPOTATOMOVEMENTFROMTHEMOMENTTHEPOTATOENTERSTHEDUCTUPTOTHEMOMENTITTOUCHESTHEGROUNDTHUS,THEBEHAVIOUROFTHEPOTATOATTHEBOTTOMOFTHESOILFURROWWASNOTTAKENINTOACCOUNTASPHYSICALPROPERTIESSTRONGLYINFLUENCETHEEFFICIENCYOFAGRICULTURALEQUIPMENTKUTZBACH,1989,THESHAPEOFTHEPOTATOESWASALSOCONSIDEREDINTHEMODELTWONULLHYPOTHESESWEREFORMULATED1THEPLANTINGACCURACYISNOTRELATEDTOTHESPEEDOFTHECUPBELT;AND2THEPLANTINGACCURACYISNOTRELATEDTOTHEDIMENSIONSEXPRESSEDBYASHAPEFACTOROFTHEPOTATOESTHEHYPOTHESESWERETESTEDBOTHTHEORETICALLYWITHTHEMODELANDEMPIRICALLYINTHELABORATORY2MATERIALSANDMETHODS21PLANTMATERIALSEEDPOTATOESOFTHECULTIVARSCVSANTE,ARINDAANDMARFONAHAVEBEENUSEDFORTESTINGTHECUPBELTPLANTER,BECAUSETHEYSHOWDIFFERENTSHAPECHARACTERISTICSTHESHAPEOFTHEPOTATOTUBERISANIMPORTANTCHARACTERISTICTHEFIELDSPEEDANDCUPBELTSPEEDCANBESETTOACHIEVETHEAIMEDPLANTSPACINGTHEFREQUENCYFOFPOTPOTATOESLEAVINGTHEDUCTATTHEBOTTOMISCALCULATEDASFPOTVCXC2WHEREVCISTHECUPBELTSPEEDINMSC01ANDXCISTHEDISTANCEINMBETWEENTHECUPSONTHEBELTTHEANGULARSPEEDOFTHEROLLERORINRADSC01WITHRADIUSRRINMISCALCULATEDASORVCRR3TABLE1SHAPECHARACTERISTICSOFPOTATOCULTIVARSANDGOLFBALLSUSEDINTHEEXPERIMENTSCULTIVARSQUAREMESHSIZE,MMSHAPEFACTORSANTE28–35146ARINDA35–45362MARFONA35–45168GOLFBALLS42C18100ASHAPEFACTORSBASEDONALLTHREEDIMENSIONSWASINTRODUCEDS100L2WH1WHERELISTHELENGTH,WTHEWIDTHANDHTHEHEIGHTOFTHEPOTATOINMM,WITHHOWOLASAREFERENCE,ALSOSPHERICALGOLFBALLSWITHABOUTTHESAMEDENSITYASPOTATOES,REPRESENTINGASHAPEFACTORSOF100WEREUSEDSHAPECHARACTERISTICSOFTHEPOTATOESUSEDINTHISSTUDYAREGIVENINTABLE122MATHEMATICALMODELOFTHEPROCESSAMATHEMATICALMODELWASBUILTTOPREDICTPLANTINGACCURACYANDPLANTINGCAPACITYOFTHECUPBELTPLANTERTHEMODELTOOKINTOCONSIDERATIONRADIUSANDSPEEDOFTHEROLLER,THEDIMENSIONSANDSPACINGOFTHECUPS,THEIRPOSITIONINGWITHRESPECTTOTHEDUCTWALLANDTHEHEIGHTOFTHEPLANTERABOVETHESOILSURFACEFIG2ITWASASSUMEDTHATTHEPOTATOESDIDNOTMOVERELATIVETOTHECUPORROTATEDURINGTHEIRDOWNWARDMOVEMENTTHETIMEOFFREEFALLTFALLINSISCALCULATEDWITHARTICLEINPRESSASSESSMENTOFTHEBEHAVIOUROFPOTATOES37THEGAPINTHEDUCTHASTOBELARGEENOUGHFORAPOTATOXCLEARRCAFII9825RELEASEAFII9853XRELEASELINEALINECFIG2PROCESSSIMULATEDBYMODEL,SIMULATIONSTARTINGWHENTHECUPCROSSESLINEA;RELEASETIMEREPRESENTSTIMENEEDEDTOCREATEANOPENINGSUFFICIENTLYLARGEFORAPOTATOTOPASS;MODELALSOCALCULATESTIMEBETWEENRELEASEOFTHEPOTATOANDTHEMOMENTITREACHESTHESOILSURFACEFREEFALL;RC,SUMOFTHERADIUSOFTHEROLLER,THICKNESSOFTHEBELTANDLENGTHOFTHECUP;XCLEAR,CLEARANCEBETWEENCUPANDDUCTWALL;XRELEASE,RELEASECLEARANCE;ARELEASE,RELEASEANGLE;O,ANGULARSPEEDOFROLLER;LINEC,GROUNDLEVEL,ENDOFSIMULATIONTOPASSANDBERELEASEDTHISGAPXRELEASEINMISREACHEDATACERTAINANGLEARELEASEINRADOFACUPPASSINGTHEROLLERTHISRELEASEANGLEARELEASEFIG2ISCALCULATEDASCOSARELEASERCXCLEARC0XRELEASERC4WHERERCISTHESUMINMOFTHERADIUSOFTHEROLLER,THETHICKNESSOFTHEBELTANDTHELENGTHOFTHECUP;ANDXCLEARISTHECLEARANCEINMBETWEENTHETIPOFTHECUPANDTHEWALLOFTHEDUCTWHENTHEPARAMETERSOFTHEPOTATOESAREKNOWN,THEANGLEREQUIREDFORRELEASINGAPOTATOCANBECALCULATEDAPARTFROMITSSHAPEANDSIZE,THEPOSITIONOFTHEPOTATOONTHEBACKOFTHECUPISDETERMINATIVETHEREFORE,THEMODELDISTINGUISHESTWOPOSITIONSAMINIMUMREQUIREDGAP,EQUALTOTHEHEIGHTOFAPOTATO;ANDBMAXIMUMREQUIREDGAPEQUALTOTHELENGTHOFAPOTATOTHETIMETRELEASEINSNEEDEDTOFORMARELEASEANGLEAOISCALCULATEDASTRELEASEARELEASEOR5CALCULATINGTRELEASEFORDIFFERENTPOTATOESANDPOSSIBLEPOSITIONSONTHECUPYIELDSTHEDEVIATIONFROMTHEAVERAGETIMEINTERVALBETWEENCONSECUTIVEPOTATOESCOMBINEDWITHTHEDURATIONOFTHEFREEFALLANDTHEFIELDSPEEDOFTHEPLANTER,THISGIVESTHEPLANTINGACCURACYYRELEASEVENDTFALL0C15GT2FALL8WHEREGISTHEGRAVITATIONALACCELERATION9C18MSC02ANDTHEFINALVELOCITYVENDISCALCULATEDASVENDV02GYRELEASE9WITHV0INMSC01BEINGTHEVERTICALDOWNWARDSPEEDOFTHEPOTATOATTHEMOMENTOFRELEASETHETIMEFORTHEPOTATOTOMOVEFROMLINEATOTHERELEASEPOINTTRELEASEHASTOBEADDEDTOTFALLTHEMODELCALCULATESTHETIMEINTERVALBETWEENTWOCONSECUTIVEPOTATOESTHATMAYBEPOSITIONEDINDIFFERENTWAYSONTHECUPSTHELARGESTDEVIATIONSININTERVALSWILLOCCURWHENAPOTATOPOSITIONEDLENGTHWISEISFOLLOWEDBYONEPOSITIONEDHEIGHTWISE,ANDVICEVERSA23THELABORATORYARRANGEMENTASTANDARDPLANTERUNITMIEDEMAHASSIASL46WASMODIFIEDBYREPLACINGPARTOFTHEBOTTOMENDOFTHESHEETMETALDUCTWITHSIMILARLYSHAPEDTRANSPARENTACRYLICMATERIALFIG3THECUPBELTWASDRIVENVIATHEROLLER8INFIG1,BYAVARIABLESPEEDELECTRICMOTORTHESPEEDWASMEASUREDWITHANINFRAREDREVOLUTIONMETERONLYONEROWOFCUPSWASOBSERVEDINTHISARRANGEMENTAHIGHSPEEDVIDEOCAMERASPEEDCAMPRO,WEINBERGERAG,DIETIKON,SWITZERLANDWASUSEDTOVISUALISETHEBEHAVIOUROFTHEPOTATOESINTHETRANSPARENTDUCTANDTOMEASURETHETIMEINTERVALBETWEENCONSECUTIVEPOTATOESASHEETWITHACOORDINATESYSTEMWASPLACEDBEHINDTHEOPENINGOFTHEDUCT,THEXAXISREPRESENTINGTHEGROUNDLEVELTIMEWASREGISTEREDWHENTHEMIDPOINTOFAPOTATOPASSEDTHEGROUNDLINESTANDARDDEVIATIONWHENTHEPOTATOISRELEASED,ITFALLSTOWARDSTHESOILSURFACEASEACHPOTATOISRELEASEDONAUNIQUEANGULARPOSITION,ITALSOHASAUNIQUEHEIGHTABOVETHESOILSURFACEATTHATMOMENTFIG2ASMALLPOTATOWILLBERELEASEDEARLIERANDTHUSATAHIGHERPOINTTHANALARGEONETHEMODELCALCULATESTHEVELOCITYOFTHEPOTATOJUSTBEFOREITHITSTHESOILSURFACEUENDINMSC01THEINITIALVERTICALVELOCITYOFTHEPOTATOU0INMSC01ISASSUMEDTOEQUALTHEVERTICALCOMPONENTOFTHETRACKSPEEDOFTHETIPOFTHECUPV0RCORCOSARELEASE6THERELEASEHEIGHTYRELEASEINMISCALCULATEDASYRELEASEYRC0RCSINARELEASE7WHEREYRINMISTHEDISTANCEBETWEENTHECENTREOFTHEROLLERLINEAINFIG2ANDTHESOILSURFACEARTICLEINPRESSHBUITENWERFETAL38OFTHETIMEINTERVALBETWEENCONSECUTIVEPOTATOESWASUSEDASMEASUREFORPLANTSPACINGACCURACYFORTHEMEASUREMENTSTHECAMERASYSTEMWASSETTOARECORDINGRATEOF1000FRAMESPERSECONDWITHANAVERAGEFREEFALLVELOCITYOF2C15MSC01,THEPOTATOMOVESAPPROX2C15MMBETWEENTWOFRAMES,SUFFICIENTLYSMALLTOALLOWANACCURATEPLACEMENTREGISTRATIONTHEFEEDINGRATESFORTHETESTOFTHEEFFECTOFTHESPEEDOFTHEBELTWERESETAT300,400AND500POTATOESMINC01FPOT5,6C17AND8C13SC01CORRESPONDINGTOBELTSPEEDSOF0C133,0C145AND0C156MSC01THESESPEEDSWOULDBETYPICALFORBELTSWITH3,2AND1ROWSOFCUPS,RESPECTIVELYAFIXEDFEEDINGRATEOF400POTATOESMINC01CUPBELTSPEEDOF0C145MSC01WASUSEDTOASSESSTHEEFFECTOFTHEPOTATOSHAPEFORTHEASSESSMENTOFANORMALDISTRIBUTIONOFTHETIMEINTERVALS,30POTATOESINFIVEREPETITIONSWEREUSEDINTHEOTHERTESTS,20POTATOESINTHREE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