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外文翻译齿 轮.doc

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外文翻译齿 轮.doc

附录1GEARSPURANDHELICALGEARSAGEARHAVINGTOOTHELEMENTSTHATARESTRAIGHTANDPARALLELTOITSAXISISKNOWNASASPURGEARASPURPAIRCANBEUSEDTOCONNECTPARALLELSHAFTSONLYPARALLELSHAFTS,HOWEVER,CANALSOBECONNECTEDBYGEARSOFANOTHERTYPE,ANDASPURGEARCANBEMATEDWITHAGEAROFADIFFERENTTYPEFIG11TOPREVENTJAMMINGASARESULTOFTHERMALEXPANSION,TOAIDLUBRICATION,ANDTOCOMPENSATEFORAVOIDABLEINACCURACIESINMANUFACTURE,ALLPOWERTRANSMITTING,GEARSMUSTHAVEBACKLASHTHISMEANSTHATONTHEGEAR,ANDVICEVERSAONINSTRUMENTGEARS,BACKLASHCANELIMINATEDBYUSINGAGEARSPLITDOWNITSMIDDLE,ONEHALFBEINGROTATABLERELATIVETOTHEOTHERASPRINGFORCESTHESPLITGEARTEETHTOOCCUPYTHEFULLWIDTHOFTHEPINIONSPACEHELICALGEARSHAVECERTAINADVANTAGES;FOREXAMPLE,WHENCONNECTINGPARALLELSHAFTSTHEYHAVEAHIGHERLOADCARRYINGTHANSPURGEARSWITHTHESAMETOOTHNUMBERSANDCUTWITHTHESAMECUTTERBECAUSEOFTHEOVERLAPPINGACTIONOFTHETEETH,THEYARESMOOTHERINACTIONANDCANOPERATEATHIGHERPITCHLINETOTHEAXISOFROTATION,HELICALGEARSCREATEANAXIALTHRUSTIFUSEDSINGLY,THISTHRUSTMUSTBEABSORBEDINTHESAMEBLANKDEPENDINGONTHEMETHODOFMANUFACTURE,THEGEARMAYBEOFTHECONTINUOUSTOOTHHERRINGBONEVARIETYORADOUBLEHELICALGEARWITHASPACEBETWEENTHETWOHALVESTOPERMITTHECUTTINGTOOLTORUNOUTDOUBLEHELICALGEARSAREWELLSUITEDFORTHEEFFICIENTTRANSMISSIONOFPOWERATHIGHSPEEDSHELICALGEARSCANALSOBEUSEDTOCONNECTNONPARALLEL,NONINTERSECTINGSHAFTSATANYANGLETOONEANOTHERNINETYDEGREESISTHECOMMONESTANGLEATWHICHSUCHGEARSAREUSEDWORMANDBEVELGEARSINORDERTOACHIEVELINECONTACTANDIMPROVETHELOADCARRYINGCAPACITYOFTHECROSSEDAXISHELICALGEARS,THEGEARCANBEMADETOCURVEPARTIALLYAROUNDTHEPINION,INSOMEWHATTHESAMEWAYTHATANUTENVELOPSASCREWTHERESULTWOULDBEACYLINDRICALWORMANDGEARWORMGEARSPROVIDETHESIMPLESTMEANSOFOBTAININGLARGERATIONSINASINGLEPAIRTHEYAREUSUALLYLESSEFFICIENTTHANPARALLELSHAFTGEARS,HOWEVER,BECAUSEOFANADDITIONALSLIDINGMOVEMENTALONGTHETEETHBECAUSEOFTHEIRSIMILARITY,THEEFFICIENCYOFAWORMANDGEARDEPENDSONTHESAMEFACTORSASTHEEFFICIENCYOFASCREWSINGLETHREADWORMSOFLARGEDIAMETERHAVESMALLLEADANGLESANDLOWEFFICIENCIESMULTIPLETHREADWORMSHAVELARGERLEADANGLESANDHIGHEREFFICIENCIESFIG12FORTRANSMITTINGROTARYMOTIONANDTORQUEAROUNDCORNERS,BEVELGEARSARECOMMONLYUSEDTHECONNECTEDSHAFTS,WHOSEAXESWOULDINTERSECTIFEXTENDED,AREUSUALLYBUTNOTNECESSARILYATRIGHTANGLESTOONEANOTHERWHENADAPTEDFORSHAFTSTHATDONOTINTERSECT,SPIRALBEVELGEARSARECALLEDHYPOIDGEARSTHEPITCHSURFACESOFTHESEGEARSARENOTROLLINGCONES,ANDTHERATIOOFTHEIRMEANDIAMETERSISNOTEQUALTOTHESPEEDCONSEQUENTLY,THEPINIONMAYHAVEFEWTEETHANDBEMADEASLARGEASNECESSARYTOCARRYTHELOADTHEPROFILESOFTHETEETHONBEVELGEARSARENOTINVOLUTES;THEYAREOFSUCHASHAPETHATTHETOOLSFORTHETEETHAREEASIERTOMAKEANDMAINTAINTHANINVOLUTECUTTINGTOOLSSINCEBEVELGEARSCOMEIN,ASLONGASTHEYARECONJUGATETOONEANOTHERTHEYNEEDNOTBECONJUGATETOOTHERGEARSWITHDIFFERENTBOTHNUMBERS1EARLYHISTORYOFGEARINGTHEEARLIESTWRITTENDESCRIPTIONSOFGEARSARESAIDTOHAVEBEENMADEBYARISTOTLEINTHEFOURTHCENTURYBCITHASBEENPOINTEDOUTTHATTHEPASSAGEATTRIBUTEDTOARISTOTLEBYSOMEWASACTUALLYFROMTHEWRITINGSOFHISSCHOOL,IN“MECHANICALPROBLEMSOFARISTOTLE”CA280BCINTHEPASSAGEINQUESTION,THEREWASNOMENTIONOFGEARTEETHONTHEPARALLELWHEELS,ANDTHEYMAYJUSTASWELLHAVEBEENSMOOTHWHEELSINFRICTIONALCONTACTTHEREFORE,THEATTRIBUTIONOFGEARINGTOARISTOTLEIS,MOSTLIKELY,INCORRECTTHEREALBEGINNINGOFGEARINGWASPROBABLYWITHARCHIMEDESWHOABOUT250BCINVENTEDTHEENDLESSSCREWTURNINGATOOTHEDWHEEL,WHICHWASUSEDINENGINESOFWARARCHIMEDESALSOUSEDGEARSTOSIMUEARLYFORMSOFWAGONMILEAGEINDICATORSODOMETERANDSURVEYINGINSTRUMENTSTHESEDEVICESWEREPROBABLY“THOUGHT”EXPERIMENTSOFHERONOFALEXANDRIACAAD60,WHOWROTEONTHESUBJECTSOFTHEORETICALMECHANICSANDTHEBASICELEMENTSOFMECHANISMTHEOLDESTSURVIVINGRELICCONTAININGGEARSISTHEANTIKYTHERAMECHANISM,SONAMEDBECAUSEOFTHEGREEKISLANDOFTHATNAMENEARWHICHTHEMECHANISMWASDISCOVEREDINASUNKENSHIPIN1900PROFESSORPRICEOFYALEUNIVERSITYHASWRITTENANAUTHORITATIVEACCOUNTOFTHISMECHANISMTHEMECHANISMISNOTONLYTHEEARLIESTRELICOFGEARING,BUTITALSOISANEXTREMELYCOMPLEXARRANGEMENTOFEPICYCLICDIFFERENTIALGEARINGTHEMECHANISMISIDENTIFIEDASACALENDRICALCOMPUTINGMECHANISMFORTHESUNANDMOON,ANDHASBEENDATEDTOABOUT87BCTHEARTOFGEARINGWASCARRIEDTHROUGHTHEEUROPEANDARKAGESAFTERTHEFALLOFROME,APPEARINGINISLAMICINSTRUMENTSSUCHASTHEGEAREDASTROLABESWHICHWEREUSEDTOCALCULATETHEPOSITIONSOFTHECELESTIALBODIESPERHAPSTHEARTWASRELEARNEDBYTHECLOCKANDINSTRUMENTMAKINGARTISANSOFFOURTEENTHCENTURYEUROPE,ORPERHAPSSOMECRYSTALLIZINGIDEASANDMECHANISMSWEREIMPORTEDFROMTHEEASTAFTERTHECRUSADESOFTHEELEVENTHTHROUGHTHETHIRTEENTHCENTURIESITAPPEARSTHATTHEENGLISHABBOTOFSTALBAN’SMONASTERY,BORNRICHARDOFWALLINGFORD,INAD1330,REINVENTEDTHEEPICYCLICGEARINGCONCEPTHEAPPLIEDITTOANASTRONOMICALCLOCK,WHICHHEBEGANTOBUILDATTHATTIMEANDWHICHWASCOMPLETEDAFTERHISDEATHAMECHANICALCLOCKOFASLIGHTLYLATERPERIODWASCONCEIVEDBYGIOVANNIDEDONDI13481364DIAGRAMSOFTHISCLOCK,WHICHDIDNOTUSEDIFFERENTIALGEARING,APPEARINTHESKETCHBOOKSOFLEONARDODAVINCI,WHODESIGNEDGEAREDMECHANISMSHIMSELFIN1967TWOOFDAVINCI’SMANUSCRIPTS,LOSTINTHENATIONALLIBRARYINMADRIDSINCE1830,WEREREDISCOVEREDONEOFTHEMANUSCRIPTS,WRITTENBETWEEN1493AND1497ANDKNOWNAS“CODEXMADRIDI”,CONTAINS382PAGESWITHSOME1600SKETCHESINCLUDEDAMONGTHISDISPLAYOFLENARD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