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机械外文翻译--基本的螺旋锥齿轮.doc

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机械外文翻译--基本的螺旋锥齿轮.doc

THEBASICSOFSPIRALBEVELGEARS1GEARINGPRINCIPLESCYLINDRICALANDSTRAIGHTBEVELGEARSTHEPURPOSEOFGEARSISTOTRANSMITMOTIONANDTORQUEFROMONESHAFTTOANOTHER,THATTRANSMISSIONNORMALLYHASTOOCCURWITHACONSTANTRATIO,THELOWESTPOSSIBLEDISTURBANCESDERIVEDFROMASTRAIGHTRACKWITHSTRAIGHTTOOTHPROFILEAPARTICULARGEAR,ROLLINGINTHERACKWITHCONSTANTCENTERDISTANCETOTHERACK,REQUIRESINVOLUTEFLANKSURFACESASHAPINGTOOLWITHTHESHAPEOFRACKCANMACHINEAGEARWITHAPERFECTINVOLUTEFLANKFORMFIGURE1SHOWSACYLINDRICALGEARROLLINGINARACKINTHECASEOFASINGLEINDEXFACEMILLINGMETHOD,THETOOTHLEADFUNCTIONISCIRCULAR,ASTHEBLADEINTHECUTTERPERFORMSACIRCULARMOTION,WHILETHEGENERATINGGEARRESTSINAFIXEDANGULARPOSITIONTHETOOTHPROFILINGBETWEENTHECUTTERANDTHEGENERATINGGEARDOESNOTREQUIREANYROTATIONOFTHEGENERATINGGEARTHEVIRTUALGENERATINGGEARISFORMEDBYTHECUTTERHEADINANONGENERATINGPROCESSINFIGURE3,THEROTATINGBLADESINTHECUTTERHEADCANBEUNDERSTOODTOREPRESENTONETOOTHOFTHEGENERATINGGEARASEXPLAINEDEARLIER,THEGENERATINGGEARISTHEBEVELGEAREQUIVALENTOFTHESTRAIGHTRACKFORGENERATINGACYLINDRICALGEARTOOTHTHEPINIONSLOTPRODUCEDINTHATWAYHASTWODEFECTSFIRST,THEPROFILEWILLNOTALLOWROLLINGBETWEENPINIONANDGENERATINGGEARCOMPARETOTHERACKANDCYLINDRICALGEARTOOTHINFIGURE1SECOND,THEPINIONSLOTDOESNOTHAVETHEPROPERDEPTHALONGTHEFACEWIDTHASSOONASTHETEETHHAVEASPIRALANGLEANDTHESLOTINCLINESTOANANGLEONANAXIALPLANE,THETEETHWINDAROUNDTHEWORKGEARBODYINAFIXEDANGULARPOSITION,JUSTTHEHEELSECTION,FOREXAMPLE,ISCUTTOTHEPROPERDEPTHTHEROLLMOTIONROTATESTHEVIRTUALGENERATINGGEARANDTHEWORKGEARWITHTHEPROPERRATIOWHILETHEYAREENGAGEDSIMILARTOTHELINEARMOTIONOFTHERACK,FIGURE1,INCONJUNCTIONWITHTHEGEARROTATIONTHATPROCEDUREWASFORMACHININGONESLOTTOMACHINETHENEXTSLOT,THECUTTERWITHDRAWS,ANDTHEWORKINDEXESONEPITCHTHESPIRALANGLEISTHEINCLINATIONANGLEOFTHECURVEDTOOTHTANGENTTOTHERADIUSVECTORFROMTHEINTERSECTIONPOINTOFPINIONANDGEARAXISSEEFIGURE4BECAUSEOFTHECURVEDSHAPEOFTHETOOTHLENGTH,DIFFERENTPOINTSALONGTHELACEWIDTHHAVEDIFFERENTSPIRALANGLESTHENOMINALSPIRALANGLEOFTHESPIRALBEVELGEARORPINIONISTHEANGLEMEASUREDFROMTHECENTEROFTHETOOTHITISPOSSIBLETOUSEABEVELGENERATINGGEARTHATISIDENTICALTOTILERINGGEARFILEPINIONISINTHATCASEGENERATEDBYROLLINGWITHTHEBEVELGENERATINGGEAR,ANDTHEGEARISMANUFACTUREDSIMPLYBYPLUNGINGTHECUTTERTOFULLDEPTHWITHOUTROLLINGNONGENERATEDFORMCUTTINGASTRAIGHTTOOTHBEVELGEARSETHASCONTACTLINESTHATAREPARALLELTOTHEPITCHLINEFIGURE5,TOPTHEFIRSTCONTACTBETWEENAGENERATINGGEARTOOTHANDAPINIONTOOTHSTARTS,FOREXAMPLE,INTHEROOTANDMOVESDURINGTHEROTATIONOFTHETWOMATINGMEMBERSALONGTHEPATHOFCONTACTSTRAIGHTUPTOTHETOPTHECONTACTLINESREPRESENTTHEMOMENTARYCONTACTBETWEENTHETWOFLANKSINMESHWITHASPIRALBEVELGEARSETTHECONTACTLINESAREINCLINEDRELATIVETOTHEPITCHLINEORIENTATIONUNLIKETHECONTACTLINESOFTHESTRAIGHTBEVELGEARSET,THECONTACTLINESOFTHESPIRALBEVELGEARSETHAVEDIFFERENTLENGTHSTHEBOTTOMOFFIGURE5SHOWSTHEMOVEMENTOFTHECONTACTFROMHEELTOPTOTOEROOTTHEVERYSHORTCONTACTLENGTHINCREASESFROMTHEBEGINNINGOFTHEROLLTOWARDSTHECENTEROFTHEFACEWIDTHANDREDUCESASTHEROLLAPPROACHESTHEEXITATTHETOEENDTHECONTACTLINESBETWEENPINIONANDGENERATINGGEARAREIDENTICALTOTHECONTACTLINESBETWEENCUTTERBLADESANDPINIONFLANKS2SINGLEINDEXPROCESSFACEMILLINGINASINGLEINDEXPROCESS,JUSTONESLOTISCUTATATIMEFORTHENONGENERATEDMEMBERONLY,THECUTTERROTATESANDISFEDINTOTHEWORKGEARTOTHEFULLDEPTHAFTERREACHINGTHEFULLDEPTH,THECUTTERWITHDRAWSANDTHEWORKINDEXESONEPITCHTOTHENEXTDESIREDSLOTPOSITIONFIGURE6,RIGHTSIDETHEPROCESSREPEATSUNTILALLSLOTSHAVEBEENMACHINEDTHERESULTINGFLANKLEADFUNCTIONISACIRCULARARCMACHININGAGENERATEDMEMBERISDONEBYPLUNGINGATTHEHEELROLLPOSITIONFIRSTAFTERPLUNGING,THEROLLMOTIONBEGINS,ANDGENERATINGOFTHEFLANKSFROMHEELTOTOEOCCURSTHEFLANKLEADFUNCTIONFORAFACEMILLED,GENERATEDGEARISACIRCULARARCTHATISWOUNDAROUNDACONICALSURFACETHEMANUFACTURINGOFAFACEMILLEDBEVELGEARPAIRISPOSSIBLEINAFIVECUTPROCESSORINACOMPLETINGPROCESSTHEFIVECUTPROCESSCONSISTSOFTHEFOLLOWINGFIVEINDEPENDENTOPERATIONS1GEARROUGHINGALTERNATEROUGHINGBLADES,2GEARFINISHINGALTERNATEFINISHINGBLADES,3PINIONROUGHINGALTERNATEROUGHINGBLADES,4PINIONFINISHINGCONVEXINNERBLADESONLY,AND5PINIONFINISHINGCONCAVEOUTERBLADESONLYACOMPLETINGPROCESSUSESTWOCOMBINEDOPERATIONS1GEARROUGHINGANDFINISHINGALTERNATEROUGHINGFINISHINGBLADESAND2PINIONROUGHINGANDFINISHINGALTERNATEROUGHINGFINISHINGBLADES3CONTINUOUSINDEXINGPROCESSFACEHOBBINGACONTINUOUSCUTTINGPROCESSCONSISTSOFCONTINUOUSROTATIONSANDAFEEDMOTIONONLYWHILEANOUTERANDANINNERBLADEMOVETHROUGHASLOTOFTHEWORKGEAR,THEWORKGEARISROTATINGINTHEOPPOSITEDIRECTION,THERELATIONOFTHECUTTERRPMANDTHEWORKROTATIONISEQUIVALENTTOTHERATIOBETWEENTHENUMBEROFWORKGEARTEETHANDTHENUMBERCUTTERHEADBLADEGROUPSSTARTSTHERESULTINGFLANKLEADFUNCTIONISANEPICYCLOIDTHEEFFECTIVECUTTINGDIRECTIONOFTHEBLADESINTHECUTTERHEADISNOTPERPENDICULARTOTHECUTTERRADIUSVECTORLIKEINTHESINGLEINDEXINGPROCESSTHEBLADESAREMOVEDINTHECUTTERHEADTANGENTIALLYTOANOFFSETPOSITIONTOACCOMMODATETHECORRECTORIENTATIONWITHRESPECTTOTHECUTTINGMOTIONVECTORTHEPITCHPOINTSONTHECUTTINGEDGEOFINNERANDOUTERBLADEHAVEANIDENTICALRADIUSTHERIGHTSLOTWIDTHISACHIEVEDWITHTHEANGULARDISTANCEBETWEENTHEOUTERBLADEFIRSTANDTHEFOLLOWINGINNERBLADETHELEFTPORTIONOFFIGURE6SHOWSTHEKINEMATICRELATIONSHIPANDTHEORIENTATIONOFTHEBLADESRELATIVETOCUTTERANDCUTTINGMOTIONBALANCINGOFTHETOOTHTHICKNESSESBETWEENPINIONANDGEARCANONLYBEREALIZEDBYDIFFERENTRADIIOFINNERANDOUTERBLADEPITCHPOINTS,SINCETHESPACINGBETWEENTHEBLADESISGIVENBYTHECUTTERHEADDESIGNANDTHEREFOREREMAINSCONSTANTWHILEONEBLADEGROUPLIKESHOWNINFIGURE6ISMOVINGTHROUGHONESLOT,THEWORKROTATESINTHEOPPOSITEDIRECTION,SUCHTHATTHENEXTBLADEGROUPENTERSTHENEXTSLOTTHATWAY,ALLTHESLOTSAROUNDTHEWORKGEARARECUTATABOUTTHESAMETIMETHEFEEDMOTIONTOFEEDTHECRITTERTOTHEFULLDEPTHPOSITIONISTHEREFORESLOWERTHANINTHESINGLEINDEXPROCESSANONGENERATEDWORKGEARISFINISHEDWHENTHEFULLDEPTHPOSITIONISREACHEDTOGETTHEHIGHESTPOSSIBLESPACINGACCURACY,ADWELLTIMEISAPPLIEDTOTHENONGENERATEDMEMBERTHEAIMOFTHEDWELLMOTIONISTOALLOWEACHBLADETOMOVEONCEMORETOEACHSLOT,WHICHTAKESNSLOTSTOPASSBY,WHERENISTHENUMBEROFCUTTERSTARTSTIMESTHENUMBEROFGEARTEETHNISEQUIVALENTTOASMANYRINGGEARREVOLUTIONSASTHECUTTERHASSTARTSFORAGENERATEDPINION,AROLLMOTIONFOLLOWSTHEPLUNGINGCYCLEINTHECENTER,ROLLPOSITIONTHECUTTERDOESNOTCUTTHEFULLDEPTHYETTHEROLLMOTIONAFTERPLUNGINGMOVESTHECUTTINGACTIONTOTHEHEEL;BOTHPLUNGINGANDROLLINGTOHEELISPARTOFTHEROUGHINGCYCLEATTHEHEELROLLPOSITION,THECUTTERADVANCESTOTHEFULLDEPTHPOSITION,THECUTTERRPMINCREASESTOAFINISHINGSURFACESPEED,ANDASLOWROLLMOTIONFROMHEELTOTOEFOLLOWSWHENARRIVINGATTHETOEENDROLLPOSITION,ALLTEETHOFTHEGENERATEDWORKGEARORPINIONAREFINISHEDSEEFIGURE74HEATTREATMENTOFBEVELGEARSHEATTREATMENTFOLLOWSTHESOFTCUTTINGOPERATIONTHEGENERALLYUSEDLOWCARBONSTEELHASTOBECARBURIZEDONTHESURFACE,BYCASEHARDENINGFOREXAMPLETHEHEATTREATMENTISFINISHEDWITHTHEQUENCHINGOPERATIONTHATPROVIDESASURFACEHARDNESSINTHERANGEOF60TO63RCROCKWELLC.THEPINIONMAYBE3RCHARDERTHANTHERINGGEARTOEQUALIZETHEWEARANDREDUCETHERISKOFSCORING.THECOREMATERIALSTAYSSOFTERANDMOREDUCTILE,WITHAHARDNESSINTHERANGEOF30TO40RCTHEDISTORTIONSFROMHEATTREATMENTARECRITICALTOTHEFINALHARDFINISHINGOPERATION.THEKINDOFHEATTREATMENTFACILITYSALTBATH,FURNACEORCONTINUOUSFURNACE,ASWELLASTHEDIFFERENCESBETWEENTHECHARGESOFBLANKMATERIAL,HASASIGNIFICANTINFLUENCEONTHEGEARDISTORTION.THEGEAR,WHICHISMOSTLYSHAPEDLIKEARING,LOSESITSFLATNESSITGETSAFACERUNOUT.VIATHEHARDENINGPROCEDURE.THEPINION,INMOSTCASES,ISSHAPEDLIKEALONGSHAFTTHATLOSESITSSTRAIGHTNESSRADIALRUNOUT.INADDITIONTOTHEBLANKBODYDISTORTIONS,HEATTREATINGCAUSESADISTORTIONOFTHEINDIVIDUALTEETH.THESPIRALANGLECHANGES,THEFLANKLENGTHCURVATUREISREDUCEDANDTHEPRESSUREANGLECHANGES.TOACHIEVETHEBESTRESULTS,ATTENTIONHASTOBEPAIDTOPROCESSINGANDHANDLINGOFTHEPARTSTHROUGHTHEFURNACE.5HARDFINISHINGOFBEVELGEARSTHEFINALMACHININGOPERATIONAFTERHEATTREATMENTSHOULDPROVIDEAGOODSURFACEFINISHANDREMOVEFLANKDISTORTIONSTHEMOSTCOMMONPROCESSUSEDISLAPPINGPINIONANDGEARAREBROUGHTINTOMESHANDROLLEDUNDERLIGHTTORQUETOPROVIDEANABRASIVEACTION,AMIXTUREOFOILANDSILICONCARBIDEISPOUREDBETWEENTHETEETHFIGURE8ARELATIVEMOVEMENTOFPINIONANDGEARALONGTHEIRAXESANDAMOVEMENTINOFFSETDIRECTIONISCREATED,SUCHTHATTHECONTACTAREAMOVESFROMTOETOHEELANDBACKNUMEROUSTIMESTHELAPPINGPROCESSIMPROVESTHESURFACEFINISH,LEAVESADESIRABLEMICROSTRUCTUREONTHEFLANKSURFACESANDREMOVESHEATTREATDISTORTIONSTOSOMEEXTENTTHEMETALREMOVALISNOTUNIFORMINTHEDIFFERENTFLANKSECTIONSANDVARIESFROMSETTOSET,SINCETHEPINIONANDGEARAREUSEDASTOOLSTOHARDFINISHEACHOTHERTHISISTHEREASONWHYLAPPEDSETSHAVETOBEBUILTASAPAIR;LAPPEDPINIONSANDGEARSARENOTINTERCHANGEABLETHELAPPINGSURFACESTRUCTUREISNOTORIENTEDINTHEDIRECTIONOFTHECONTACTLINES,THUSPROVIDINGAGOODHYDRODYNAMICOILFILMBETWEENTHECONTACTAREASTHELAPPINGSTRUCTUREALSOTENDSTODELIVERSIDEBANDSINANOISEFREQUENCYANALYSIS,WHICHMAKESTHEGEARSETAPPEARTOROLLMOREQUIETLYDURINGTHELAPPINGPROCESS,APINIONANDAGEARAREALWAYSMACHINEDANDFINISHEDATTHESAMETIMETHETIMETOLAPAPAIRISEQUALTOORSHORTERTHANTHETIMETOMACHINEONEMEMBERUSINGANOTHERFINISHINGMETHODTHEREFORE,LAPPINGISOFTENCALLEDTHEMOSTECONOMICALBEVELGEARFINISHINGPROCESSANOTHERFINISHINGOPTIONISGRINDINGOFBEVELGEARS,WHICHISLIMITEDTOFACEMILLEDSINGLEINDEXBEVELGEARSTHEGRINDINGWHEELENVELOPSASINGLESIDEORANALTERNATECOMPLETINGCUTTERFIGURE9TODAYSTECHNOLOGYDOESNOTALLOWTHEUSEOFAGRINDINGTOOLINACONTINUOUSINDEXINGPROCESSTHEADVANTAGEOFGRINDINGISTHEMANUFACTURINGOFANACCURATEFLANKSURFACEWITHAPREDETERMINEDTOPOGRAPHYTHEPROCESSALLOWSTHECONSTANTLYREPEATEDPRODUCTIONOFEQUALPANSBUILDINGINPAIRSISNOTNECESSARYLAPPEDPAIRSUSEDINVEHICLESREQUIREANOILCHANGEAFTERTHEFIRST1,000MILESBECAUSEOFABRASIVEPARTICLESINTRODUCEDTOTHETOOTHSURFACESDURINGLAPPINGAFURTHERADVANTAGEOFGRINDINGOVERLAPPINGISTHATSUCHANOILCHANGEISUNNECESSARYWITHGROUNDSPIRALBEVELGEARSAPROCESSBETWEENLAPPINGANDGRINDINGWITHRESPECTTOSURFACESPEEDANDRELATIVEMOTIONISHONINGHONINGTRIALSONBEVELGEARSHAVEBEENDONE,BUTTHEYHAVENTBEENPROVENSUCCESSFULSKIVINGISAHARDCUTTINGPROCESSATOOLMATERIALSUCHASCARBIDEORBORONCARBONITRIDEISUSEDONTILECUTTINGEDGETHECUTTINGMACHINESETUPISIDENTICALTOTHATFORSOFTMACHININGTHEBLADEPOINTDIMENSIONISWIDERTHANTHEONEFORSOFTCUTTING,SUCHTHATA0005INCHUNIFORMSTOCKREMOVALPERFLANKTAKESPLACESKIVINGDELIVERSAHIGHQUALITYPARTACCURACYANDAFINESURFACEFINISHSKIVINGISAPPLIEDTOSMALLBATCHESOFMOSTLYLARGERGEARSETS,THEADVANTAGEOFSKIVINGISTHEUSEOFTHESAMECUTT

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