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机械外文翻译--虚拟制造在齿轮生产中的应用.doc

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机械外文翻译--虚拟制造在齿轮生产中的应用.doc

APPLICATIONOFVIRTUALMANUFACTURINGINGENERATIONOFGEARSRECEIVED29NOVEMBER2004/ACCEPTED5MAY2005/PUBLISHEDONLINE24NOVEMBER2005SPFINGERVERLAGLONDONLIMITED2005ABSTRACTTHEMANUFACTURINGPROCESSOFGEARSISFAIRLYCOMPLICATEDDUETOTHEPRESENCEOFVARIOUSSIMULTANEOUSMOTIONSOFTHECUTTERANDTHEJOBINTHISPAPER,ANATTEMPTISMADETOGENERATEMEANINGFULDESIGNDATAFORSPURANDHELICALGEARSANDTHECORRESPONDINGRACKFORMCUTTERNECESSARYFORTHEMANUFACTURINGUSINGTHISINFORMATION,SOLIDMODELSFORTHECUTTERANDBLANKAREDEVELOPEDANDFINALLYGEARMANUFACTURINGPROCESSESARESIMULATEDINAVIRTUALMANUFACTURINGENVIRONMENTTHEUSERHASTHEOPTIONTOCHOOSEBETWEENDESIGNSANDMANUFACTUREMODEATWILLTHEINTEGRATEDPROCESSMAYALSOHELPTODEVELOPANOPTIMIZEDPRODUCTFORBETTERUNDERSTANDINGOFTHEOPERATIONALPRINCIPLE,ANANIMATIONFACILITYINTHEFORMOFAMOVIEISINCLUDEDINTHEPACKAGEKEYWORDSVIRTUALMANUFACTURING;ANIMATION;GEARGENERATION1INTRODUCTIONAGEARISAVERYCOMMONMACHINEELEMENTINMECHANICALENGINEERINGAPPLICATIONSHOWEVER,MANUFACTURINGOFTHEGEARSEEMSTOBEFAIRLYCOMPLICATEDEVENTOTHEPERSONHAVINGTHOROUGHTECHNICALKNOWLEDGEINTHERELATEDFIELDTHECONVENTIONALGEARGENERATIONPROCESSESLIKEFORMING,SHAPING,HOBBING,ETCAREUSUALLYREPRESENTEDINTWODIMENSIONALSKETCHTHEREMAYBESOMECOMPONENTSTHATARENOTADEQUATELYDESCRIBEDBYTHETWODIMENSIONALAPPROACHINTHECASEOFGEARGENERATION,ITMAYBEDIFFICULTTOUNDERSTANDTHECOMPLEXGEOMETRIESANDTHEMANUFACTURINGARRANGEMENTWITHTHEHELPOF2DMODELSTHESELIMITATIONSCANBEPARTIALLYOVERCOMEANDUNDERSTANDINGWILLBEMOREMEANINGFULIFONEUSES3DSOLIDMODELSINSTEADHOWEVER,THEDEVELOPMENTOFTHEMODELSUSING3DSOLIDSMAYNOTALWAYSENSURETHECLARITYOFTHECOMPLEXGEARGENERATIONPROCESSUNLESSONEUSESANIMATIONTOREPRESENTTILEMOTIONOFTHEGEARBLANKANDTHEGEARCUTTERTHISCANBEACHIEVEDVERYEFFICIENTLYWITHTHEHELPOFTHEVIRTUALMANUFACTURINGTECHNIQUEITISATECHNOLOGYTOCREATEAVIRTUALENVIRONMENTONTHECOMPUTERSCREENTOSIMULATETHEPHYSICALWORLDTHEKNOWLEDGEBASEANDEXPERTISEGAINEDFROMTHEWORKINTHEVIRTUALENVIRONMENTENABLESTHEUSERTOAPPLYTHEMMOREMEANINGFULLYINREALLIFESITUATIONSAHOSTOFLITERATUREISAVAILABLEONVIRTUALMANUFACTURINGINDIFFERENTAREASAMONGWHICHSOMEOFTHERECENTANDIMPORTANTWORKSAREREFERREDBELOWTESICANDBANELJEE1HAVEWORKEDINTHEAREAOFRAPIDPROTOTYPING,WHICHISANEWTECHNOLOGYFORDESIGN,VISUALIZATIONANDVERIFICATIONGRAPHICALUSERINTERFACES,VIRTUALREALITYTECHNOLOGIES,DISTILLATION,SEGREGATIONANDAUTOINTERPRETATIONARESOMEOFTHEIMPORTANTFEATURESOFTHEIRWORKBALYLISSETAL2DEALTWITHTHEDEVELOPMENTOFMODELSINAVIRTUALENVIRONMENTUSINGTHEVIRTUALREALITYTECHNOLOGIESPROVIDINGANOUTSTANDING3DVISUALIZATIONOFTHEOBJECTIN1994,GMBALYLISSETAL3PRESENTEDTHEORETICSOLIDMODELINGTECHNIQUESUSINGTHEVMTOOLS,LIKEVP,MI,VIRTUALREALITYMANUFACTURINGLANGUAGEAND3DSLUDIOMAXTHEYHAVEDEVELOPEDDIFFERENTPARTSOFANAUTOMOBILEANDTHROUGHTHESPECIALEFFECTOFANIMATIONIMPARTEDALLPOSSIBLEMOTIONTOTHEMODELTHETECHNOLOGYISFURTHERENHANCEDBYKIULERA4,WHOTREATEDPRODUCTANDPROCESSMODELINGASAKERNELFORTHEVIRTUALMANUFACTURINGENVIRONMENTINHISWORK,KIMURAHASINCORPORATEDSIGNIFICANTMODELINGISSUESLIKEREPRESENTATION,REPRESENTATIONLANGUAGE,ABSTRACTION,STANDARDIZATION,CONFIGURATIONCONTROL,ETCARANGARASAUANDGADH5CONTRIBUTEDTOWARDSTHEVIRTUALPROTOTYPINGTHATARECONSTRUCTEDUSINGSIMULATIONOFTHEPLANNEDPRODUCTIONPROCESSUSINGVIRTUALMANUFACTURINGONAPLATFORMOFMAYA,3DSTUDIOMAXANDVRML,ETCATJADAVPURUNIVERSITY,RESEARCHWORK6,7ISBEINGCARRIEDOUTTOSIMULATETHEGEARMANUFACTURINGPROCESSESUSINGAIILLCADAND31STUDIOMAXASPLATFORMSSOFTWAREHASBEENDEVELOPEDTHATHELPSTHEDESIGNENGINEERSTOUNDERSTANDTHEPROBLEMSRELATEDTOSPURGEAROPERATIONANDITSMANUFACTURINGPROCESSASTUDYOFTHESTATEOFTILEARTANDLITERATUREREVIEWREVEALTHATTHESCOPEOFVIRTUALMANUFACTURINGISWIDEOPENFORSIMULATINGSPURGEARGENERATIONPROCESSESCOMPUTERSIMULATIONCANBEVERYEFFECTIVELYUSEDFORVIEWINGALONGWITHAIDINGSUBSEQUENTANALYSISOFDIFFERENTCOMPLICATEDMANUFACTURINGPROCESSESUSINGTHECONCEPTOFDESIGNCENTEREDVIRTUALMANUFACTURINGWITHTHISOBJECTIVEINMIND,ANATTEMPTISMADETOVIRTUALLYMANUFACTURESPURANDHELICALGEARSFROMTHEBLANKUSINGARACKCUTTERTHESCOPEOFTHEWORKINCLUDESTHEGENERATIONOFDESIGNDATAFORTHESPURANDHELICALGEARSANDTHERACKFORMCUTTER,THEGENERATIONOFSOLIDMODELSFORTHECUTTERANDBLANK,ANDFINALLYTOSIMULATEGEARMANUFACTURINGPROCESSTHROUGHANIMATIONTHEMAINMOTIVATIONOFTHEWORKISTOSIMPLIFYTHETASKOFDESIGNING,ANDTOSTUDYTHEGEARGENERATIONPROCESSTHATCANBEUNDERSTOODBYALAYMANANDTOPRESENTAREALISTICVIEWOFITALLTHEPROCESSESAREDEVELOPEDONTHEPLATFORMOFTHE3DSTUDIOMAX,WHICHISONEOFTHEMOSTIMPORTANTVIRTUALTOOLSTHESOFTWAREISDEVELOPEDUSINGMAXSCRIPT,ANOBJECTCONTAINEDPROGRAMMINGLANGUAGETHATCANBERUNIN3DSTUDIOMAXENVIRONMENT2DESCRIPTIONOFTHESOFTWARETHEMAXSCRIPTLANGUAGEISBASICALLYANIMAGEPROCESSORTHATCREATESTHEVISUALEFFECTSIN3DSTUDIOMAXINADDITION,ITCANBEUSEDFORDESIGNCALCULATIONANDSUBSEQUENTCHECKINGANATTEMPTISMADETODEVELOPTHEENTIREPACKAGEINMODULARFORMSOTHATANYFURTHERIMPROVEMENTCANBEIMPLEMENTEDEASILYWITHOUTAFFECTINGTHEOTHERSTHEENTIREWORKISCARRIEDOUTINA3DENVIRONMENTTHEMODULARSTRUCTUREOFTHEENTIREPACKAGEISPRESENTEDINFIGLTHEMAJORMODULESAREINPUTMODULE,GEARDESIGNMODULE,VIRTUALMANUFACTURINGMODULEANDSPECIALMODULEABRIEFDESCRIPTIONOFTHESEMODULESISMENTIONEDBELOW21INPUTMODULETHISMODULEISDEVELOPEDTOPROVIDEINPUTPARAMETERSTHATAREESSENTIALFORTIEDESIGNANDDEVELOPMENTOFTHESPURANDHELICALGEARSANDTHECORRESPONDINGCUTTERSINORDERTOMAKETHESOFTWAREUSERFRIENDLY,THEPROCESSOFINPUTTINGTHEDATAISSPECIFICALLYDONETHROUGHANINPUTDIALOGUEBOXCREATEDBYTHEMAXSCRIPTLANGUAGEASAMPLEDIALOGUEBOXISSHOWNINFIG2SOMEFIELDSHAVESOMERESTRICTIONSLIKEPREDEFINEDLOWERORUPPERLIMITSORPREDEFINEDSTEPSFORINCREMENTORDECREMENTTHISISDONEPURPOSIVELYTOMAKETHEENVIRONMENTMOREUSERFRIENDLYANDTORESTRICTTHEUSERFROMENTERINGINVALIDDATA,FOREXAMPLE,AUSERCANNOTMAKETHENUMBEROFGEARTEETHLESSTHAN1822GEARDESIGNMODULEBEFOREGOINGFORTHEGENERATIONOFTHEGEARS,ONESHOULDEVALUATETHEVARIOUSDESIGNPARAMETERSOFTHEGEARSTOBEMANUFACTUREDBASEDONTHEINPUTPARAMETERSINORDERTODESIGNAGEARPAIR,THEFOLLOWINGDATAAREESSENTIALIRPMATWHICHTHEGEARISRUNNING2THEPOWERBEINGTRANSMITTED3THETRANSMISSIONRATIOOFTHEASSEMBLYINADDITION,USERSMAYSPECIFYTHEFOLLOWINGOPERATIONALCONDITIONS/PARAMETERS1PRECISIONOFTHEGEARASSEMBLY2PRESSUREANGLEOFTHEGEAR3MATERIALOFTHEPINION4TYPEOFSHOCKLOADREQUIREDFORTHEPINIONTOTAKEUP5HELIXANGLEINCASEOFHELICALGEARIFTHEUSERISNOTSATISFIEDWITHTHEOUTPUT,HECANMODIFYTHEINPUTTOOBTAINDESIREDOUTPUTINTHISMODULE,THEENTIREDESIGNPROCEDUREFORTHEGEARSHASBEENTREATEDTHEDIFFERENTASPECTSOFDESIGNCALCULATIONS,FOREXAMPLE,DYNAMICLOAD,STATICLOADFATIGUELOADANDTHEWEARLOADHAVEBEENCALCULATEDINSEPARATEPROGRAMS,ANDAREDISPLAYEDTHROUGHTHEOUTPUTDIALOGBOXWHILEDESIGNINGTHEGEAR,ITHASBEENKEPTINMINDTHATTHEGEARHASTOFORMMESHWITHTHATOFTHERACK,SOCAREHASBEENTAKENTOAVOIDTHEINTERFERENCEOFTHEMATINGPAIR221METHODOLOGYVARIETIESOFGEARCUTTINGPROCESSESAREAVAILABLEANDAREGENERALLYBEINGFOLLOWEDINTHEINDUSTRIESDURINGTHEIRMANUFACTURINGINTHISPAPER,FOCUSISGIVENONGEARMANUFACTURINGTHROUGHGENERATIONTHEUNDERLYINGPRINCIPLEOFGEARDESIGNISBASEDONTHEFACTTHATTHEPROFILESOFAPAIROFGEARTEETHBEARADEFINITERELATIONSHIPTOEACHOTHERSUCHTHATTHEPAIROFTEETHHAVEAPREDETERMINEDRELATIVEMOTIONANDCONTACTATEVERYINSTANTTHEREFORE,IFTHERELATIVEMOTIONOFTHEPROFILESANDTHEFORMOFONEOFTHEMISKNOWN,THEDETERMINATIONOFTHEFORMOFTHEOTHERMAYBEREGARDEDASTILEPROBLEMCAPABLEOFSOLUTIONBYEITHERGRAPHICALORANALYTICALMEANSTHEACTUALPRODUCTIONOFGEARTOOTHREPRESENTSASOLUTIONTOTHEABOVEPROBLEMBYMECHANICALMEANSKNOWNASGENERATIONTHEGENERATIONISAMETHODTHATFOLLOWSTHEFOLLOWINGPRINCIPLES1ACUTTINGEDGEBASICALLYAGEARWITHCUTTINGEDGESISGIVENAMOTIONASARESULT,ITISCAUSEDTOSWEEPOUTTHESURFACECORRESPONDINGTOTHEACTUALTEETHSURFACESOFTHEKNOWNMEMBEROFAPAIROFCONJUGATEGEARS2ABLANKISMOUNTEDATANAPPROPRIATERELATIONSHIPTOTHECUTTERITISGIVENAMOTIONTHATTHEFINISHEDGEARMUSTHAVERELATIVETOTHATOFTHECUTTERASARESULTOFTHESIMULTANEOUSMOVEMENTANDTHECUTTINGACTIONOFTHECUTTER,TEETHAREFORMEDONTHEBLANKCONJUGATETOTHATREPRESENTEDBYTHECUTTERINFACTDUETOTHEADDITIONOFTHERELATIVEMOTION,THEPROFILEGIVENTOTHEWORKPIECEISDIFFERENTFROMTHATOFTHECUTTERTHISDIFFERENTIATESTHEGENERATINGFROMTHEFORMINGOPERATION222SPURGEARGENERATIONOFSPURGEARBYMEANSOFCUTTERCORRESPONDINGINFORMTOTHEMATINGGEARISWELLKNOWNCUTTERMAYBEINTHEFORMOFARACKFORANINVOLUTESYSTEMOFTOOTHPROFILES,THECUTTERCORRESPONDINGTOTHERACKWILLHAVESTRAIGHTSIDESTHEARRANGEMENTOFSUCHACUTTERRELATIVETOTHEBLANKISSHOWNINFIG3THECUTTERISADJUSTEDRADIALLYWITHRESPECTTOTHEAXISOFTHEWORKITISRECIPROCATEDSOTHATITSEDGESMAYSWEEPOUTTHESURFACEOFTHETEETHOFTHEIMAGINARYRACKFORMINGTHEBASISOFTHEDESIGNOFTHETOOTHPROFILEOFTHEBLANKINADDITIONTOTHISRECIPROCATION,THECUTTERISADVANCEDINTHEDIRECTIONOFTHEPITCHLINEANDATTHESAMETIMETHEWORKISROTATEDABOUTITSAXISATASPEEDSUCHTHATITISPITCHPOINTHASTHESAMELINEARVELOCITYASTHATOFTHERACKINOTHERWORDS,THEPITCHCIRCLEOFTHEBLANKANDTHEPITCHLINEOFTHERACKROLLTOGETHERINCONSEQUENCETHESTRAIGHTCUTTINGSEDGESGENERATETHEINVOLUTEPROFILEINTHEBLANKFORSUCHAPROCESSTOBECONTINUOUS,THELENGTHOFTHECUTTERSHOULDBESOMEWHATLONGERTHANTHEPITCHCIRCUMFERENCEOFTHEWORK;SINCETHISISUSUALLYIMPRACTICABLE.THECUTTERISWITHDRAWNFROMTHEWORKAFTERITHASADVANCEDADISTANCEEQUALTOALLINTEGRALNUMBEROFPITCHESANDRETURNTOITSSTARTINGPOINT,THEBLANKINTHEMEANTIMEREMAINSSTATIONARY.THISISREPEATEDUNTILALLTHETEETHARECUT.223HELICALGEARITISWELLKNOWNTHATAHELICALINVOLUTEGEARISCONJUGATETOASTRAIGHTRACKHAVINGINCLINEDTEETH.THEREFORE,THESAMEMETHODDESCRIBEDABOVECANBEEMPLOYEDTOMANUFACTUREAHELICALGEAR.HOWEVER,THEDIRECTIONOFRECIPROCATIONOFTHERACKCUTTERMUSTBEINCLINEDTOTHEAXISOFTHEBLANKATALLANGLEEQUALTOTHEHELIXANGLEOFTHEGEAR.THECUTTERMUSTROLLOVERTHEBLANKINADIRECTIONSIMILARTOTHATDESCRIBEDEARLIER.THESIMULTANEOUSMOTIONINVOLVEDANDTHEORIENTATIONOF

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