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英文翻译-铅元素对AZ91镁合金形成过程的影响 原版.pdf

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英文翻译-铅元素对AZ91镁合金形成过程的影响 原版.pdf

MATERIALSSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGA452–453200787–92EFFECTOFPBADDITIONONAGEINGBEHAVIOROFAZ91MAGNESIUMALLOYASRINIVASANA,UTSPILLAIAMETALEXTRACTIONANDFORMINGDIVISION,NATIONALMETALLURBMETALSPROCESSINGDIVISION,REGIONALRESEARCHLABORFORMABSTRACTPRECIPITATIONPEAKREACHESYOFDISCONTINUOUS2006ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKDT1MOBILEIMPROORSTEELSALLOOFOFWELLSOLUTIONMINUMINMGIS127WTAT437CANDDECREASINGTOABOUT2WTATROOMTEMPERATUREHENCECASTINGSSANDANDPERMANENTMOULDCASTINGSOFTHISALLOYAREHEATTREATEDTOOBTAINBETTERMECHANICALPROPERTIESANDSTUDIESAREAVAILABLEINTHELITERATUREDURINGREDISSOLVSOLUTIONPRECIPITATESUOUSGROEQUILIBRIUM2,7,8RELATICIPITATIONAREISBLEARETINUOUSCREEPDISCONTINUOUSTHEOFPRESSINGTEMPERATUREEXPOSUREISINEVITABLETOIMPROVEITSHIGHTEMPERATUREPROPERTIESITISALSOREPORTEDTHATADDITIONOFSOMEOFTHETRACEELEMENTSLIKEGOLDANDRAREEARTHSUPPRESSESTHEDISCONTINUOUSPRECIPITATIONDURINGAGEING10,11BUTTHESEELEMENTSARE09215093/DOITOUNDERSTANDTHEAGEINGBEHAVIOROFTHISALLOY3–6SOLUTIONTREATMENTAT410◦C,THEMG17AL12H9252PHASEESINTOTHEMGMATRIXANDFORMSAHOMOGENIZEDSOLIDONSUBSEQUENTAGEINGATLOWERTEMPERATURE,ALUMINUMOUTINTWOFORMSIEDISCONTINUOUSANDCONTINPRECIPITATESDISCONTINUOUSPRECIPITATIONISTHECELLULARWTHOFALTERNATINGLAYERSOFH9252PHASEMG17AL12ANDNEARMAGNESIUMMATRIXATHIGHANGLEGRAINBOUNDARYGROWTHOFTHEDISCONTINUOUSPRECIPITATIONREGIONSCEASES∗CORRESPONDINGAUTHORTEL914712515251;FAX914712491712EMAILADDRESSUTSPILLAIREDIFFMAILCOMUTSPILLAICOSTLIERTHEPRELIMINARYSTUDYONTHEPBADDITIONTOMG–7ALHASREPORTEDTHATADDITIONOFPBHASTHETENDENCYTOSUPPRESSTHEDISCONTINUOUSPRECIPITATION12BESIDES,PBISCHEAPERMATERIALCOMPAREDTOGOLDANDRAREEARTHSO,INTHISSTUDYADETAILEDINVESTIGATIONONTHEEFFECTOFPBADDITIONONTHEAGEINGBEHAVIOROFGRAVITYPERMANENTMOLDCASTAZ91ALLOYHASBEENCARRIEDOUTEVENTHOUGH,THEPBVAPOURISHAZARDOUSTOHEALTH;ADDITIONOFSMALLAMOUNTWITHPROPERCAREWILLNOTBESERIOUSONETHEAGINGBEHAVIORHASBEENEXAMINEDUSINGBRINELLHARDNESSANDDIFFERENTIALTHERMALANALYSIS,COMBINEDWITHMICROSTRUCTUREOBSERVATIONDEVELOPEDDURINGHEATTREATMENTBYOPTICALMICROSCOPYANDSCANNINGELECTRONMICROSCOPY–SEEFRONTMATTER2006ELSEVIERBVALLRIGHTSRESERVED101016/JMSEA200610119RECEIVED12SEPTEMBER2005;RECEIVEDINREVISEDTHEAGEINGBEHAVIOROFAZ91ALLOYCONTAINING2WTLEADISINVESTIGATEDANDTHEREBYSLOWSDOWNTHEAGEINGKINETICSEVENTHOUGHTHEAFTER2400MINFORPBADDEDALLOYAGAINST900MINFORTHEBASEALLOALANDMGATOMS,WHICHISESSENTIALFORTHEFORMATION,ANDGROWTHOFEYWORDSAZ91MAGNESIUMALLOY;PBADDITION;AGEINGBEHAVIOR;MICROSTRUCTURE;INTRODUCTIONMAGNESIUMBASEDALLOYSAREINCREASINGLYUSEDINTHEAUTOINDUSTRIESTHEREASONSFORTHISLIEPRINCIPALLYINTHEIRVEDSPECIFICPROPERTIESCOMPAREDWITHALUMINUMALLOYSSTEELSANDLIGHTWEIGHT30LESSTHANAL,AND75LESSTHAN1AMONGTHEMOSTCOMMONCOMMERCIALMAGNESIUMYS,AZ91ISENDOWEDWITHONEOFTHEBESTCOMBINATIONSCASTABILITY,MECHANICALSTRENGTHANDDUCTILITY2PRESENCEALUMINUMPROVIDESMECHANICALANDCASTINGPROPERTIESASASCORROSIONRESISTANCE,WHEREASZINCCONTRIBUTESTOSOLIDSTRENGTHENINGTHEMAXIMUMSOLIDSOLUBILITYOFALU◦B,∗,BCPAIBGICALLABORATORY,JAMSHEDPUR831007,INDIAATORY,THIRUVANANTHAPURAM695019,INDIA16OCTOBER2006;ACCEPTED17OCTOBER2006THERESULTSSHOWTHATADDITIONOFPBSUPPRESSESTHEDISCONTINUOUSHARDNESSOBTAINEDFORBOTHALLOYSISALMOSTSAME,THEPEAKHARDNESSTHEPRESENCEOFPBINSOLIDSOLUTIONMIGHTHAVEINHIBITEDTHEDIFFUSIONPRECIPITATIONINTHISALLOYAVELYEARLYINTHEPRECIPITATIONPROCESSCONTINUOUSPREFORMSINTHEREMAININGREGIONSOFTHEMATRIXTHATNOTALREADYOCCUPIEDBYDISCONTINUOUSPRECIPITATES7ITDEMONSTRATEDTHATTHECONTINUOUSPRECIPITATESARERESPONSIFORAGEHARDENING,WHEREASTHEDISCONTINUOUSPRECIPITATESDETRIMENTALTOAGEHARDENING6MOREOVER,THEDISCONPRECIPITATESFORMEDDURINGHIGHTEMPERATUREEXPOSUREREDUCETHECREEPPROPERTIESCONSIDERABLY9DYNAMICPRECIPITATESOCCURATTHEGRAINBOUNDARIESFROMSUPERSATURATEDEUTECTICSOLIDSOLUTIONLEADTOTHESLIDINGGRAINBOUNDARIESANDWEAKENTHEMATERIAL9HENCESUPTHISDYNAMICDISCONTINUOUSPRECIPITATIONDURINGHIGH88ASRINIVASANETAL/MATERIALSSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGA452–453200787–922EXPERIMENTAL21CASTINGTHEAZ91MAGNESIUMALLOYUSEDFORTHISEXPERIMENTWASPREPAREDBYMELTINGTOGETHERTHEREQUIREDQUANTITIESOFCOMMERCIALLYAVAILABLEPUREMG,PUREAL,PUREZNANDAL–10MNMASTERRESISTANCEPERATURETHETHERIEDFLUX250SIONSDURING22HEIGHTPBINDURING80ABSOLVSIMPLEIMENSSUBSEQUENTLYON23TREATEDSETSYS16/18,ASATMOSPHEREHEATOF24FERENT025ANPICRICWEREWALLOMICROSCOPETROSCOPEUSINGRADIATIONFIG1MICROSTRUCTUREOFAZ91ALLOY3RESULTS31MICROSTRUCTURE311ASCASTMICROSTRUCTURECASTAL,ANDDIALSOMICROANALYSISCHEMICALWOBSERVTHESIONANALYSISINTENSITYFIG2MICROSTRUCTUREOF2PBADDEDAZ91ALLOYALLOYMELTINGWASCARRIEDOUTINASTEELCRUCIBLEINTHEFURNACEUNDERPROPERFLUXCOVERWHENTHEMELTTEMWAS700◦C,2WTPUREPBWASADDEDINTOTHEMELTMELTWASTHENREFINEDAT720◦CANDHELDFOR20MINFOROXIDEPARTICLESTOSETTLETHEREFININGOFTHEMELTWASCAROUTBYSTIRRINGTHEMOLTENMELTAFTERADDINGTHEREFININGINTOTHEMELTTHEMELTWASPOUREDINTOAPREHEATED◦CDIECOATEDRECTANGULARMETALLICMOLDHAVINGDIMEN240MM210MM40MMSULPHURDUSTINGWASDONEPOURINGTOAVOIDBURNINGHEATTREATMENTCYLINDRICALSAMPLESOFSIZE15MMDIAMETERAND15MMMACHINEDFORMTHECASTINGSOFTHEBASEAZ91ALLOYANDADDEDAZ91ALLOYWERESOLUTIONTREATEDAT410◦CFOR48HAMUFFLEFURNACETOAVOIDOXIDATIONOFMGALLOYSAMPLESSOLUTIONTREATMENT,AMIXTUREOF20COKEMIXEDWITHFOUNDRYSANDBEDWASKEPTINSIDETHEOVENSEPARATELYTOETHEOXYGENTHEEXPERIMENTALRESULTSSHOWEDTHATTHISMETHODEFFECTIVELYREDUCEDTHEOXIDATIONOFTHESPECTHESESAMPLESWERETHENQUENCHEDINCOLDWATERANDAGEDAT200◦CUPTO50HFORFURTHERINVESTIGATIONSTHEAGEINGKINETICSDIFFERENTIALTHERMALANALYSISDTAPIECESWEIGHING20MGWERECUTFROMTHEASCASTANDSOLUTIONSAMPLESANDDTAMEASUREMENTSWEREPERFORMEDUSINGSETARAMMACHINEPUREMGPIECEWASUSEDAREFERENCETHEDTAEXPERIMENTWASCARRIEDOUTUNDERARGONWITHAHEATINGRATEOF10◦C/MINTEMPERATUREVERSUSFLOWCURVEWASOBTAINEDTOUNDERSTANDTHEAGEINGBEHAVIORTHESEALLOYSMICROSTRUCTURALCHARACTERIZATIONTHEMACHINEDSAMPLESWEREINITIALLYGROUNDUSINGDIFGRADESOFPOLISHINGPAPER,ANDTHENPOLISHEDWITHH9262MDIAMONDPASTEPOLISHEDSAMPLESWEREETCHEDBYETCHANTSOLUTIONOF5MLACETICACID,10MLH2O,6GACIDAND100MLETHANOLOPTICALMICROSCOPICSTUDIESCARRIEDOUTUSINGLEICADMRXMICROSCOPEWITHQINIMAGEANALYSISSOFTWARETHEDISTRIBUTIONOFPBINTHEYWASEXAMINEDINAJEOL,JSE35CSCANNINGELECTRONSEMATTACHEDWITHANENERGYDISPERSIVESPECEDSXRAYDIFFRACTIONSTUDIESWERECARRIEDOUTPHILLIPSPW1710POWDERDIFFRACTOMETERWITHCUKH9251FIG1SHOWSTHETYPICALMICROSTRUCTUREOFPERMANENTMOULDAZ91ALLOYITCONSISTSOFH9251MGSOLIDSOLUTIONCONTAININGZN,ANDEUTECTICCONTAININGMASSIVEMG17AL12H9252PHASESUPERSATURATEDMGSOLIDSOLUTIONTHEEUTECTICISSEENASVORCEDINNATURELAMELLARKINDOFSECONDARYPRECIPITATESARESEENNEARTOTHEMASSIVEMG17AL12PHASETHERESULTSOFBYEDSSHOWEDTHATBOTHPARTICLESHADTHESAMECOMPOSITIONFIG2EXHIBITSTHEMICROSTRUCTURESOFAZ91CONTAININGPBITHADDITIONOF2PBTOTHEAZ91ALLOYNONEWPHASEISEDINTHEMICROSTRUCTUREHOWEVER,ADDITIONOFPBREDUCESDISCONTINUOUSPRECIPITATESATGRAINBOUNDARIESTHESUPPRESOFMG17AL12FORMATIONISEASILYUNDERSTANDABLEWITHXRDPERFORMEDONTHESAMPLESTABLE1GIVESTHERELATIVEVALUESOFMAJORREPRESENTATIVEBRAGGREFLECTIONOFTHEASRINIVASANETAL/MATERIALSSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGA452–453200787–9289TABLE1RELATIVEINTENSITYVALUESOFMAJORREPRESENTATIVEBRAGGREFLECTIONOFMG17AL12SAMPLEDETAILRELATIVEINTENSITYI/I0OFHKL411721332510AZ91ASCAST1106194327171AZ912PBASCAST806–185102AZ91AGED778142080111AZ912PBAGED545096040068MG17AL12PRECIPITATESINBOTHASCASTANDAGEDSPECIMENSWITHANDWITHOUTPBADDITIONFORMTHETABLEITCANBESEENTHATTHEDECREASEINRELATIVEINTENSITYVALUESINTHEPBADDEDALLOYCOMPAREDTOTHEBASEALLOYISTHECLEARINDICATIONOFSUPPRESSIONOFMG17AL12PHASE312HEATTREATEDMICROSTRUCTURESOLUTIONTREATMENTOFALLOYSAMPLESAT410◦CFOR48HENSURESTHATALLTHEMG17AL12CANBEREDISSOLVEDINTOMATRIXNOMASSIVEMG17AL12HASBEENSEENWITHTHESOLUTIONTREATEDSAMPLESEXCEPTFORSOMEAL–MNPARTICLESIDENTIFIEDBYEDXHOWEVER,GRAINBOUNDARYOFTHEBASEALLOYISCLEARLYSEENWITHSOLUTIONIZEDCONDITIONFIG3,WHEREASITISNOTREVEALEDINPBCONTAININGALLOYS200CALANDCANTAMOUNTBLACKOFAMOUNTSALLOPBTHEINCREASED,INCREASESFIG4OPTICALMICROSTRUCTUREOF120MINAGEDSAMPLESAAZ91ANDBAZ912PBTOTHEADJUSTEDGRAINSASEVIDENTFROMTHEMICROSTRUCTURESOF240MINAGEDSAMPLESSEEFIG5NEVERTHELESS,THEGROWTHRATEISALSOFOUNDTOBESLOWWITHPBADDEDSAMPLEFURTHERFROMTABLE1,ITCANBESEENTHATTHEAGEDPBADDEDALLOYSHOWSLESSRELATIVEINTENSITYVALUESFORMG17AL12PRECIPITATESTHANTHEAGEDBASEALLOY32AGEINGBEHAVIORTHEAGEHARDENINGBEHAVIOROFAZ91WITHANDWITHOUTPBADDITIONISSHOWNINFIG6ADDITIONOFPBDOESNOTCHANGETHEASCAST,SOLUTIONIZEDANDPEAKHARDNESSMUCHHOWEVER,THEPRESENCEOFPBISFELTWITHTHETIMETOREACHTHEPEAKHARDNESSTHEBASEALLOYREACHESTHEPEAKHARDNESSAFTER900MIN,WHEREASTHEPBADDEDALLOYTAKESMORETHAN2400MIN33DIFFERENTIALTHERMALANALYSISTHEMICROSTRUCTURALCHANGESDURINGTHEAGEINGTREATMENTAT◦CHAVEBEENOBSERVEDINALLALLOYSAMPLESUSINGOPTIMICROSCOPYFIG4SHOWSTHEMICROSTRUCTUREOFAZ91PBADDEDALLOYSAMPLESAGEDFOR120MINTHESIGNIFIMICROSTRUCTURALDIFFERENCEBETWEENTHESESAMPLESISTHEOFDISCONTINUOUSPRECIPITATESATTHEGRAINBOUNDARYTHEAPPEARANCEATTHEGRAINBOUNDARYINDICATESTHEINITIATIONDISCONTINUOUSPRECIPITATESPBADDEDSTRUCTURESHOWSFEWEROFDISCONTINUOUSPRECIPITATESCOMPAREDTOTHEAZ91YINFACT,DISCONTINUOUSPRECIPITATESARERARELYSEENWITHADDEDALLOY,WHICHINDICATESTHATPBEFFECTIVELYSUPPRESSESNUCLEATIONOFDISCONTINUOUSPRECIPITATIONASTHEAGEINGTIMETHENUMBEROFNUCLEATIONSITESFORDISCONTINUOUSPHASEANDTHEALREADYFORMEDDISCONTINUOUSPHASESGROWINFIG3OPTICALMICROSTRUCTUREOFSOLUTIONTREATEDAZ91DISSOLUTIONAZ91FIG7SHOWSTHEDTATHERMOGRAMSINTHERANGEOFEUTECTICDURINGHEATINGOFTHEASCASTAZ91ANDPBADDEDALLOYSTHEENTHALPYCHANGEANDONSETTEMPERATUREFOR90ASRINIVASANETAL/MATERIALSSCIENCEANDENGINEERINGA452–453200787–92FIGAZ91THETHEDISSOLUTIONPBCANFIG5OPTICALMICROSTRUCTUREOF240MINAGEDSAMPLESAAZ91ANDB2PBREACTIONAREMARKEDINTHEFIGUREITCANBEOBSERVEDFROMFIGURETHATTHEDIFFERENCEINENTHALPYCHANGEOFTHEEUTECTICINDICATESTHATTHEAMOUNTOFMG17AL12PRESENTINTHEADDEDALLOYISLESSFIG8PRESENTSTHEDTACURVESOFTHESOLUTIONTREATEDALLOYSITBESEENFROMTHEFIGURETHATBOTHCURVESEXHIBITSIMILARTRENDSFIG6AGEHARDENINGCURVEFORAZ91WITHANDWITHOUTADDITIONOFPBFIGTIONWITHMATIONPEAKTHISREPORTEDADDITIONFORMATIONINDICATEENCEADDITION,PHASE4EITHERSOLUBILITYGONEYSESCONFIRMAGREEMENTEUTECTIC7DTATHERMOGRAMSFORTHEASCASTAZ91WITHANDWITHOUTADDITIONOFPB8DTATHERMOGRAMSFORTHESOLUTIONTREATEDAZ91WITHANDWITHOUTADDIOFPBTWOPEAKSTHEFIRSTEXOTHERMICPEAKCORRESPONDSTOTHEFOROFMG17AL12PRECIPITATESANDTHESECONDENDOTHERMICCORRESPONDSTOTHEDISSOLUTIONOFMG17AL12PRECIPITATESISINLINEWITHTHERESULTS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