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外文翻译-- 车床及其切削加工.doc

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外文翻译-- 车床及其切削加工.doc

毕业设计论文外文资料翻译系别机电信息系专业机械设计制造及其自动化班级姓名学号外文出处PneumaticTipsNo.87/1994附件1.原文2.译文2013年3月11.原文LathesAndItsCuttingProcessLathesaremachinetoolsdesignedprimarilytodoturning,facing,andboring.Verylittleturningisdoneonothertypesofmachinetools,andnonecandoitwithequalfacility.Becauselathesalsocandodrillingandreaming,theirversatilitypermitsseveraloperationstobedonewithasinglesetupoftheworkpiece.Consequently,morelathesofvarioustypesareusedinmanufacturingthananyothermachinetool.Theessentialcomponentsofalathearethebed,headstockassembly,tailstockassembly,carriageassembly,andtheleadscrewandfeedrod.Thebedisthebackboneofalathe.Itusuallyismadeofwellnormalizedoragedgrayornodularcastironandprovidesaheavy,rigidframeonwhichalltheotherbasiccomponentsaremounted.Twosetsofparallel,longitudinalways,innerandouter,arecontainedonthebed,usuallyontheupperside.SomemakersuseaninvertedVshapeforallfourways,whereasothersutilizeoneinvertedVandonefiatwayinoneorbothsets.Theyareprecisionmachinedtoassureaccuracyofalignment.Onmostmodemlathesthewaysaresurfacehardenedtoresistwearandabrasion,butprecautionshouldbetakeninoperatingalathetoassurethatthewaysarenotdamaged.Anyinaccuracyinthemusuallymeansthattheaccuracyoftheentirelatheisdestroyed.Theheadstockismountedinafixedpositionontheinnerways,usuallyattheleftendofthebed.Itprovidesapoweredmeansofrotatingtheworkatvariousspeeds.Essentially,itconsistsofahollowspindle,mountedinaccuratebearings,andasetoftransmissiongearssimilartoatrucktransmissionthroughwhichthespindlecanberotatedatanumberofspeeds.Mostlathesprovidefrom8to18speeds,usuallyinageometricratio,andonmodemlathesallthespeedscanbeobtainedmerelybymovingfromtwotofourlevers.Anincreasingtrendistoprovideacontinuouslyvariablespeedrangethroughelectricalormechanicaldrives.Becausetheaccuracyofalatheisgreatlydependentonthespindle,itisofheavyconstructionandmountedinheavybeatings,usuallypreloadedtaperedrollerorballtypes.Thespindlehasaholeextendingthroughitslength,throughwhichlongbarstockcanbefed.Thesizedthisholeisanimportantdimensionofalathebecauseitdetemtinesthemaximumsizeofbarstockthatcanbemachinedwhenthematerialmustbefedthroughspindle.Thetailstockassemblyconsists,essentially,ofthreeparts.Alowercastingfitson2theinnerwaysofthebedandcanslidelongitudinallythereon,withameansforclampingtheentireassemblyinanydesiredlocation.Anuppercastingfitsontheloweroneandcanbemovedtransverselyuponit,onsometypeofkeyedways,topermitaligningthetailstockandheadstockspindles.Thethirdmajorcomponentoftheassemblyisthetailstockquill.Thisisahollowsteelcylinder,usuallyabout51to76mm2to3inchesindiameter,thatcanbemovedseveralincheslongitudinallyinandoutoftheuppercastingbymeansofahandwheelandscrew.Thesizeofalatheisdesignatedbytwodimensions.Thefirstisknownastheswing.Thisisthemaximumdiameterofworkthatcanberotatedonalathe.Itisapproximatelytwicethedistancebetweenthelineconnectingthelathecentersandthenearestpointontheways.Thesecondsizedimensionisthemaximumdistancebetweencenters.Theswingthusindicatesthemaximumworkpiecediameterthatcanbeturnedinthelathe,whilethedistancebetweencentersindicatesthemaximumlengthofworkpieeethatcanbemountedbetweencenters.Enginelathesarethetypemostfrequentlyusedinmanufacturing.llleyareheavydutymachinetoolswithallthecomponentsdescribedpreviouslyandhavepowerdriveforalltoolmovementsexceptonthecompoundrest.Theycommonlyrangeinsizefrom305to610mtn12to24inchesswingandfrom610to1219mm24to48inchescenterdistances,butswingsupto1270mm50inchesandcenterdistancesupto3658mm12feetarenottmcommon.Mosthavechippansandabuiltincoolantcirculatingsystem.Smallerenginelatheswithswingsusuallynotover330mm13inchesalsoareavailableinbenchtype,designedforthebedtobemountedonabenchorcabinet.Althoughenginelathesareversatileandveryuseful,becauseofthetimerequiredforchangingandsettingtoolsandformakingmeasurementsontheworkpiece,theyalenotsuitableforquantityproduction.Oftentheactualchipproductiontimeislessthan30ofthetotalcycletime.Inaddition,askilledmachinistisrequiredforalltheoperations,andsuchpersonsarecostlyandofteninshortsupply.However,muchoftheoperatorstimeisconsumedbysimple,repetitiousadjustmentsandinwatchingchipsbeingmade.Consequently,toreduceoreliminatetheamountofskilledlaborthatisrequired,turretlathes,screwmachines,andothertypesofsemiautomaticandautomaticlatheshavebeenhighlydevelopedandarewidelyusedinmanufacturing.Theenginelathe,oneoftheoldestmetalremovalmachines,hasanumberof3usefulandhighlydesirableattributes.Todaytheselathesareusedprimarilyinsmallshopswheresmallerquantitiesratherthanlargeproductionrunsareencountered.Theenginelathehasbeenreplacedintodaysproductionshopsbyawidevarietyofautomaticlathessuchasautomatictracerlathes,turretlathes,andautomaticscrewmachines.Alltheadvantagesofsinglepointtoolingformaximummetalremoval,andtheuseofformtoolsforfinishandaccuracy,arenowatthedesignersfingertipswithproductionspeedsonaparwiththefastestprocessingequipmentonthescenetoday.Tolerancesfortheenginelathedependprimarilyontheskilloftheoperator.Thedesignengineermustbecarefulinusingtolerancesofanexperimentalpartthathasbeenproducedontheenginelathebyaskilledoperator.Inredesigninganexperimentalpartforproduction,economicaltolerancesshouldbeused.Productionmachiningequipmentmustbeevaluatednow,morethaneverbefore,intermsofabilitytorepeataccuratelyandrapidly.Applyingthiscriterionforestablishingtheproductionqualificationofaspecificmethod,theturretlathemeritsahighrating.Indesigningforlowquantitiessuchas100or200parts,itismosteconomicaltousetheturretlathe.Inachievingtheoptimumtolerancespossibleontheturretlathe,thedesignershouldstriveforaminimumofoperations.Generally,automaticscrewmachinesfallintoseveralcategoriessinglespindleautomatics,multiplespindleautomaticsandautomaticchuckingmachines.Originallydesignedforrapid,automaticproductionofscrewsandsimilarthreadedpans,theautomaticscrewmachinehaslongsinceexceededtheconfinesofthisnarrowfield,andtodayplaysavitalroleinthemassproductionofavarietyofprecisionparts.Quantitiesplayanimportantpmtintheeconomyofthepartsmachinedontheautomaticscrewmachine.Quantitieslessthan1000partsmaybemoreeconomicaltosetupontheturretlathethanontheautomaticscrewmachine.Thecostofthepansmachinedcanbereducediftheminimumeconomicallotsizeiscalculatedandthepropermachineisselectedforthesequantities.Sincesurfaceroughnessdependsgreatlyuponmaterialtumed,tooling,andfeedsandspeedsemployed,minimumtolerancesthatcanbeheldonautomatictracerlathesarenotnecessarilythemosteconomicaltolerances.Insomecases,tolerancesof±0.05mmareheldincontinuousproductionusingbutonecut.Groovewidthcanbeheldto±0.125mmonsomeparts.Boresandsinglepointfinishescanbeheldto±0.0125mm.Onhighproductionrunswhere

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